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Hon.  Secretary. 


Borcbester  : 







Index  to  Plates  and  Engravings  iv. 

Notice  v. 

List  of  Officers  and  Hon.  Members vi. 

List  of  Members  ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         viii. 

The  Proceedings  of  the  Dorset  Natural  History  and  Antiquarian 

Field  Club  during  1890,  by  M.  G.  Stuart,  M.A.,  F.G.S.  ...  xvi. 
Presentation  of  a  Testimonial  to  the  Secretary,  Morton  G. 

Stuart,  Esq.  xxxv. 

New  Members  elected  since  the  Publication  of  Vol.  XI xxxvi. 

Receipts  and  Payments  from  June,  1890,  to  June  1st,  1891  . . .  xxxvii. 
General  Statement,  May  25th,  1891 xxxviii. 

Anniversary  Address  of  the  President          ...         ...         ...         ...  1 

Notes  on  the  Stone  Implements,  &c.,  in  the  Dorset  County 

Museum,  by  H.  J.  Moule,  M.A.  16 

A  Brief  Historical  and  Descriptive  Sketch  of  the  Churches  in 

the  Rural  Deanery  of  Dorchester  (Dorchester  Portion),  by 

the  Rev.  W.  Miles  Barnes  36 

Notes  on  some  of  the  Rarer  Forms  of  Rubus  lately  found  in 

Dorset,  by  the  Rev.  R.  P.  Murray,  M.A.,  F.L.S 71 

On  New  and  Rare  Spiders  found  in  1889  and  1890,  by  the  Rev. 

0.  Pickard-Cambridge,  M.A.,  F.R.S.,  C.M.Z.S.,  &c.,  &c....  80 

New  and  Rare  Dorset  Land  Shells,  by  C.  O.  P.  Cambridge  ...  99 

The  External  Growth  of  Sherborne  School,  by  the  Rev.  Canon 

E.  M.  Young,  Head-Master  of  Sherborne  School  105 

Portland :  Historical  Notes,  Descent  of  Manor,  &c.,  by  J. 

Merrick  Head,  Esq.  ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  115 

Rooks  Planting  Acorns,  by  the  Rev.  O.  Pickard-Cambridge, 

M.A.,  F.R.S.,  C.M.Z.S.,  &c.,  &c 132 

Roman  Fortification,  with  special  Reference  to  the  Roman 

Defences  of  Dorchester,  by  the  Rev.  W.  Miles  Barnes  ...  135 
Yetminster  Church,  by  the  Rev.  C.  H.  Mayo,  M.A.,  R.D., 

Vicar  of  Long  Burton  with  Holnest  ...  146 

On  a  Remarkable  Deformity  in  a  Flowering  Head  of  Charlock, 

by  Nelson  M.  Richardson,  B. A.,  F.E.S 157 

Occurrence  at  Portland  of  Tinea  subtilella,  Fuchs,  by  Nelson 

M,  Richardson,  B. A.,  F.E.S 161 



A  Study  on  the  Work  of  Preservation  of  the  Church  of  St. 

Nicholas,  Studland,  Dorset,  by  William  Masters  Hardy     ...          164 
Our  Ancient  British  Urns,  by  Dr.  Wake  Smart     ...         ...         ...          180 

The  Portland  Stone  Quarries,  by  Mr.  A.  M.  Wallis         187 

Report  on  the  Returns  of  Rainfall  and  Observations  on  the 
Flowering  of  Plants  and  Appearances  of  Birds  and  Insects 
in  Dorset  during  1890,  by  M.  G.  Stuart,  Hon.  Sec 195 




1.  Arrow  Heads,  Knife,  Scraper,  &c 17 

2.  Foot  of  Couch  or  Stool,  Axe  or  Maul,  Fragment  of  Disc  ...     21 


1.  Stoup,   Fordington  St.   George  ;    Easter   Sepulchre,   Dor- 

chester St.  Peter         39 

2.  Font,  Toller  Fratrum       46 

3.  Frome  Vauchurch  ;  Stone  Pulpit  (15th  cent. ),  Frampton  ...  55 

4.  Saxon  Font,  Martinstown  ;  Charminster  Church     ...         ...  48 


New  and  Rare  Spiders  80 


Ground  Plan  of  the  Ruined  Church  or  Churches  of  St.  Andrew, 
Portland         125 


Tinea  subtilella,  Fuchs          ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  161 


Ground  Plan     ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  165 

1.  North- East  Corbel  on  Tower ;  North  Window  of  Chancel...  166 

2.  Font ;  North- West  Window  of  Nave 176 

3.  Norman  Arch,  &c. ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...         ...  175 


British  Urns  ..  180 


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subscription  (10s.)  entitles  them  to  the  immediate  receipt  of  the 
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payment  of  arrears  entitles  to  previous  volumes,  issued  in  those 
years  for  which  the  arrears  are  due. 

All  volumes  are  issued,  and  subscriptions  received,  by  the 
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Surplus  Copies  of  former  "Proceedings"  (Vols.  i. — xi.)  at  an 
average  rate  of  7s.  6d.  a  volume,  "  Spiders  of  Dorset"  (2  vols., 
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Any  Member  joining  the  Club  and  paying  his  subscription  in  a 
year  for  which  no  volume  may  be  issued  is  entitled  to  a  copy  of 
the  last  previously  issued. 

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Subscription,  due  to  the  Club  on  and  after  January  1st  each  year. 



INAUGURATED   MARCH   26th,    1875, 

preeifcent  : 
J.  C.   IMANSEL-PLEYDELL,  Esq.,  J.P.,  F.G.S.,  F.L.S. 


MORTOX  G.  STUART,  Esq.  (Hon.  Secretary) 
REV.  0.  P.  CAMBRIDGE,  M.A.,F.ll.S.,  C.M.Z.S.,  Ac.  (T 

W.  CARRUTHERS,  Esq.,  F.R.S.,  F.G.S.,  F.L.S.,  British  Museum,  S. 

K.  ETHERIDGE,  Esq.,  F.R.S.,  F.G.S.,  British  Museum,  S.  Kensington. 

E.  A.  FREEMAN,  Esq.,  D.C.L.,  Summerlease,  Wells. 

ALFRED  NEWTON,  Esq.,  M.A.,  F.R.S.,  Professor  of  Zoology  and  com- 
parative Anatomy,  Magdalen  College,  Cambridge. 

J.  PRESTWICH,  Esq.,  F.R.S.,  F.G.S.,  Shoreham,  Seven  Oaks,  Kent. 

J.  O.  WESTWOOD,  Esq.,  Hope  Professor  of  Zoology,  Oxford. 

G.  R.  WOLLASTON,  Esq.,  Cliiselhurst. 

Rev.  OSMOND  FISHER,  M.A.,  F.  Gr.S.,  &c.,  Harlton  Rectory,  Cambridge. 

Mr.  A.  M.  WALLIS,  Portland. 


I0mt  Jtetural  pstorg  mtb 
Jfidb  Club. 

The  Eight  Reverend  the  Lord 

Bishop  of  Salisbury 
The  Right  Honble.  the  Earl 

of  Portarlington 
The    Right    Hon.   the    Lord 

Eustace  Cecil 

The  Right  Hon.  Lord  Digby 
The    Right     Hon.    Viscount 

The  Lord  Stalbridge 

Acton,  Rev.  J. 
Adams,  A.  T.,  Esq. 
Aldridge,  Reginald,  Esq. 
Allen,  George,  Esq. 
Allman,  G.   J.,  Esq.,  LL.D., 

F.R.S.,  &c.,  &c. 
Andrews,  T.  C.  W.,  Esq. 
Askew,  Rev.  R.  H. 
Atkinson,  T.  R.,  Esq. 
Baker,  Dr.,  M.D. 
Baker,  Rev.  Sir  Talbot,  Bart. 
Bankes,  Albert,  Esq. 
Bankes,  Rev.  Eldon  S. 
Bankes,  Eustace  Ralph,  Esq. 
Bankes,  W.  Ralph,  Esq. 
Barnes,  Rev.  W.  M. 
Barnsdale,  Rev.  J.  G. 

The  Palace,  Salisbury 
Portman  Lodge,  Bournemouth 

Lytchett  Heath,  Poole 
Minterne,  Dorchester 

Bryanston,  Blandford 

Brook    Street,     London,     and     Knoyle 

House,  Salisbury 
Iwerne  Minster,  Blandford 
Bellair,  Charmouth 
Strangways,  Marnhull,  Blandford 

Ardmore,  Parkstone. 
1,  Buxton  Villas,  Rod  well,  Weymouth 
Winterborne  Zelstone,  Blandford 
Gainsborough  House,  Sherborne 
13,  Cornwall  Road,  Dorchester 
Ranston  House,  Blandford 
Wolfeton  House,  Dorchester 
Corfe  Castle  Rectory,  Wareham 
Corfe  Castle  Rectory,  Wareham 
Kingston  Lacey,  Wini  borne 
Monkton  Rectory,  Dorchester 
3,  York  Terrace,  Weymouth 


Barrett,  W.  Bowles,  Esq. 


Baskett,  C.  H.,  Esq. 
Baskett,  Rev.  C.  R. 
Batten,  John,  Esq. 
Batten,  Mount,  Colonel 
Batten,  Mount,  Miss 
Batten,  H.  B.,  Esq. 
Beckford,  F.  J.,  Esq. 
Bell,  E.  W.,  Esq. 
Bennett,  H.  R.,  Esq. 
Bennett,  Chas.  W.,  Esq. 
Bishop,  Rev.  H.  E. 
Blanchard,  E.  W.,  Esq. 
Bond,  N.,  Esq. 
Bond,  T.,  Esq. 
Bower,  H.  Syndercombe,  Esq. 

Brennand,  W.  E.,  Esq. 

Bridges,  Captain 

Bright,  Percy  M.,  Esq. 

Brown,  Rev.  W.  C. 

Browning,  Benjamin,  M.D., 

Budden,  Alfred,  Esq. 

Burdekin,  Norman,  Esq. 

Burt,  George,  Esq. 

Cambridge,  Rev.  O.  P.  (  Vice- 
President  and  Treasurer) 

Cambridge,  Colonel,  J.P. 

Carre,  Rev.  Arthur 

Carter,  William,  Esq. 

Cattle,  Rev.  William 

Cazenove,  Rev.  Canon 

Chaff  ey,  R.  C.,  Esq. 

Charlton,  Rev.  Underbill 

Childs,  Dr.  C. 

Chudleigh,  Rev.  Augustine 

Climenson,  Rev,  John 

Clinton,  E.  Fyres,  Esq. 

Colfox,  T.  A.,  Esq. 



14,  Bridge  Street,  Hull 

Aldon,  Yeovil 

Upcerne,  Dorchester 

Upcerne,  Dorchester 

Aldon,  Yeovil 

Witley,  Parkstone 


Markham  House,  Wyke  Regis 

33,  Gladstone  Road,  Bournemouth 

Hampreston  Rectory,  Wimborne 

Fernside,  Parkstone 

Creech  Grange,  Wareham 

Tyneham,  Wareham 

Fontmell  Parva,   Shillingstone, 

Fifehead  Magdalen 
Ditton  Marsh,  Westbury,  Wilts 



Castle  Rise,  Parkstone 


Bloxworth  Rectory 

Bloxworth  House,  Wareham 

14,  St.  John's  Terrace,  Weymouth 

The  Hermitage,  Parkstone 

Charlton,  Blandford 

Manor  House,  Cranborne 

Stoke-under-Hambden,  Somerset 

Came  Rectory,  Dorchester 


West  Parley  Rectory,  Wimborne 

Shiplake  Vicarage,  Henley-on-Thames 


Coneygar,  Bridport 

Colfox,  Miss  A.  L. 
Coif  ox,  Miss  Margaret 
Colfox,  W.,  Esq. 
Colfox,  Mrs.  Thos. 
Cother,  Rev.  P.  S. 
Cotton,  Lieut. -Colonel 
Crespi,  Dr. 
Crew,  Charles,  Esq. 
Cricknmy,  G.  R.,  Esq. 
Cross,  Rev.  J. 

Cull,  James,  Esq. 

Curnie,  Decimus,  Esq. 
Dale,  C.  W.,  Esq. 
Dalison,  Rev.  R.  W. 
Daniel,  Woodruffe,  Esq. 
Daslrwood,  Miss 
Digby,  J.  K.  D.  W.,  Esq. 
Dowland,  Rev.  E. 

Dugmore,  H.  Radcliffe,  Esq. 
Durden,  H.,  Esq. 
Durden,  H.,  Esq. 
Eaton,  H.  S.,  Esq. 
Ehves,  Captain 
Embleton,     D.     C.,     Esq., 
F.  R.  Met.  Soc. 

Evans,  W.  H.,  Esq. 
Everett,  Mrs. 
Falkner,  C.  G.,  Esq. 
Fane,  Frederick,  Esq. 
Farley,  Rev.  H. 
Farquharson,  H.  R, ,  Esq.  ,M. P. 
Fairer,  Rev.  W. 
Farrer,  Oliver,  Esq. 
Fetherston,   Rev.   Sir  George 

Ralph,  Bart. 

R,,  Esq. 

Westmead,  Bridport 

Westmead,  Bridport 

Westmead,  Bridport 

Rax  House,  Bridport 

Turmvorth  Rectory,  Blandford 

Filield,  Grosvenor  Road,  "Weymouth 


Lewcombe,  Melbur^Usmond 


Baillie  House,  Sturminster  Marshall, 

6,     Pembroke      Gardens,     Kensington, 

London,  W. 
Child  Okeford 

Glanvilles  Wootton,  Sher borne 
Swyre  Rectory,  Dorchester 

Hill  House,  Templecombe,  Bath 
Sherborne  Castle 
11,  Park  Road,  Wandsworth  Common, 


The  Lodge,  Park  stone,  Poole 

Shepton  Montague,  Castle  Gary 

St.     Wilfrid's,     St.     Michael's     Road, 

Forde  Abbey,  Chard 

The  College,  Weymouth 
Moyles  Court,  Fordingbridge 
Lytchett  Minster,  Poole 
Tarrant  Gunville,  Blandford 
Vicarage,  Bere  Regis 
Binnegar  Hall,  Wareham 

Pydeltrenthide,  Dorchester 
Moreton,  Dorchester 


Ffooks,  T.,  Esq. 
Ffytche,  Lewis,  Esq. 
Filliter,  Freeland,  Esq. 
Filliter,  George,  Esq. 
Fletcher,  W.  H.  B.,  Esq. 
Fletcher,  W.  J.,  Esq. 
Floyer,  G.,  Esq. 
Forbes,  Major  L. 
Foster,  J.  J.,  Esq. 

Freame,  R.,  Esq. 
Freeman,  Rev.  H.  P.Williams 
Furlonge,  Rev.  A.  M. 
Fyler,  J.  W.,  Esq. 
Gal  pin,  G.,  Esq. 
Garland,  Henry,  Esq. 
Glyn,  Sir  R.,  Bart. 
Glyn,  Carr  Stuart,  Esq. 
Goddard,  Rev.  Cecil  Vincent 
Goodden,  J.  R.  P.,  Esq. 
Goodridge,  Dr.,  M.D, 
Goodridge,  John,  Esq. 
Goninge,  Rev.  T.  R, 
Gravener,  Captain 
Green,  Rev.  R.,  B.A. 
Gregory,  G.  J.  G.,  Esq. 
Greves,  Hayla,  Esq.,  M.D. 
Griffin,  F.  C.  G.,  Esq.,  M.D. 
Grove,  Walter,  Esq. 
Groves,  T.  B.,  Esq. 
Guest,  M.  J.,  Esq. 
Hansford,  Charles,  Esq. 
Hardcastle,  J.  A.,  Esq. 
Hardy;  T.,  Esq. 
Harrison,  Rev.  F.  T. 
Harrison,  G.,  Esq. 
Hart,  Edward,  Esq.,  F.Z.S. 
Head,  J.  Merrick,  Esq. 
Henning,  Lieut. -General,  C.B. 
Hill,  Rev.  C.  R. 
Hine,  W.  C.,  Esq.,  M.D. 

Totnel,  Sherbofne 

Freshwater,  Isle  of  Wight 



Worthing,  Sussex 


Stafford,  Dorchester 

Shillingstone,  Blandford 

Offa  House,  St.  Michael's  Terrace,  Upper 


Affpuddle  Vicarage,  Dorchester 
St.  Andrew's  Villa,  Bridport 
Hethfelton,  Wareham 
Tarrant  Keynstone,  Blandford 
Worgret,  Wareham 
Gaunts  House,  Wimborne 
Woodlands,  Wimborne 
Chideock  Vicarage,  Bridport 
Compton  House,  Sherborne 
Childe  Okeford,  Blandford 
102,  Kent  Road,  Southampton 
Manston  Rectory,  Blandford 
South  Walks,  Dorchester 

Rodney  House,  Bournemouth 
Royal  Terrace,  WTeymouth 
Fern  House,  Salisbury 
St.  Mary  Street,  Weymouth 
Bere  Regis,  Wareham 
Max  Gate,  Dorchester 
Milton  Abbas  School,  Blandford 
20,  Lander  Terrace,  Wood  Green,  London 

Pennsylvania  Castle,  Portland 
Frome,  Dorchester 

West  Fordington   Vicarage,  Dorchester 


Hinxman,  Rev.  Charles 

Hodges,  J.  F.,  Esq. 

Hogg,  B.  A.,  Esq. 

Holford,  Mrs. 

Hooper,  Pelly,  Esq. 

House,  Edward,  Esq. 

House,  Harry  Hammond,  Esq. 

Howard,  Sir  R.  N. 

Huntley  H.  E.,  Esq. 

Kelly,  Alex.,  Esq. 

Laing,  Rev.  Malcolm  S. 

Lamb,  Captain  Stephen  E. 

Langford,  Rev.  J.  F. 

Lawton,  H.  A.,  Esq. 

Leach,  J.  Comyns,  Esq.,  M.D. 

Leonard,  Rev.  A. 
Linton,  Rev.  E.  F. 

Lister,  Arthur,  Esq. 
Lister,  Miss  Guilelma 
Lowe,  George  F.  E.,  Esq. 
Ludlow,  Rev.  Edward 
Luff,  J.  W.,  Esq., 
Luff,  Montague,  Esq. 
Macdonald,  P.  W.,  Esq.,  M.D. 
Malan,  E.  C.,  Esq. 
Manger,  A.  T.,  Esq. 
Mansel-Pleydell,  J.  C.,  Esq. 


Mansel-Pleydell,  Colonel 
Mansel-Pleydell,  Rev.  John 
Mansel,  Colonel 
Mansel,  Rev.  Owen  L. 
Marriott,  Sir  W.  Smith,  Bart. 
Mason,  Rev.  H.  J. 
Mason,  Philip  B.,  Esq. 
Mate,  William,  Esq. 
Maunsell,  Rev.  F.  W. 
Mayo,  George,  Esq. 
Mayo,  Rev.  C.  H. 

Harrdown,  Charmouth 



Castle  Hill,  Dorchester 


Tomson,  Blandford 

Malvern  College,  Malvern 


Charlton  Park,  Blandford 

Mayfield,  Parkstone 

Hinton  St.  Mary  Vicarage,  Blandford 

1st  Dorset  Regt.,  Dorchester 


High  Street,  Poole 

The    Lindens,    Sturminster    Newton, 


Vicarage,  Beaminster 
Crymlyn,    Branksome    Wood    Road, 

High  Cliffe,  Lyme  Regis 
High  Cliffe,  Lyme  Regis 
Gordon  Villa,  Dorchester 
Martinstown  Rectory,  Dorchester 
In  wood,  Henstridge,  Blandford 

Forston,  Dorchester 
Blackdown  House,  Crewkerne 
Stock  Hill,  Gillingham 

Wliatcombe,  Blandford 
Longthorns,  Blandford 
Bengeo  Rectoiy,  Hertfordshire 
Smedmore,  Wareham 
Church  Knowle,  Wareham 
Down  House,  Blandford 
Wigston  Magna  Vicarage,  Leicester 
Horningham  Street,  Burton-on-Trent 
62,  Commercial  Road,  Bournemouth 
Symondsbury  Rectory,  Bridport 
Rocklands,  Roclwell,  Weymouth 
Longburton  Rectory,  Sherborne 


Middleton,  H.  B.,  Esq. 
Micldleton,  H.  N.,  Esq. 
Milledge,  Zillwood,  Esq. 
Miller,  Rev.  J.  A.,  B.D. 
Milne,  Rev.  Percy 
Mitchell,  R,  Esq. 
Mondey,  Rev.  F. 
Montague,  J.  M.  P.,  Esq. 
Moorhead,  Dr.  J. 
Morford,  Rev.  A. 
Moule,  H.  J.,  Esq. 
Murray,  Rev.  R.  P. 
Okeden,  Colonel 
Paget,  Rev.  Cecil 
Patey,  Russell,  Esq. 
Patey,  Miss 
Payne,  Miss 

PearceEdgcumbe,  Robert,  Esq. 
Penney,  W.,  Esq.,  A.L.S. 
Penny,  Rev.  J. 
Phillips,  James  Henry,  Esq. 
Philpot,  J.  E.  D.,  Esq. 
Philpots,  W.  R.,  Esq.,  M.D. 
Phipps,  Rev.  J.  T. 
Piercy,  G.  J.,  Esq. 
Pike,  T.  M.,  Esq. 
Pinder,  Reginald,  Esq. 
Pinney,  G.  F.,  Esq. 
Pope,  A.,  Esq. 
Pope,  Rev.  E.  J. 
Portman,  Hon.  Miss 
Powell,  Rev.  F.  J.  Montagu 
Pye,  William,  Esq. 
Radclyffe,  Eustace,  Esq. 
Randall,  Colonel 
Kavenhill,  Rev.  Canon 
Reynolds,  R.,  Esq. 
Reynolds,  Mrs.  Arthur 
Richardson,  N.  M.,  Esq. 
Ridley,  Rev.  O.  M. 
Ridley,  Rev.  Stewart 

Bradford  Peverell,  Dorchester 

Bradford  Peverell,  Dorchester 


The  College,  Weymouth 

Evershot  Rectory,  Dorchester 


2,  Southfield  Villas,  Weymouth 

Downe  Hall,  Bridport 

1,  Royal  Terrace,  Weymouth 

The  County  Museum,  Dorchester 

Shapwick  Rectoiy,  Blandford 


Holt,  Wimborne 

Farrs,  Wimborne 

Farrs,  Wimborne 

2,  Westerhall  Villas,  Weymouth 


Tarrant  Rushton  Rectory,  Blandford 


Lyme  Regis 


H.M.  Convict  Prison,  Portland 

Sunny  Holt,  Bournemouth 

Haven  Hotel,  Parkstone 

Heronhurst,  Bournemouth 

Woodlands,  Wareham 


Bradford  Peverell,  Dorchester 

Littleton  House,  Blandford 

The  Parsonage,  Dalkeith,  N.B. 

Eaton  Cottage,  Rodwell,  Weymouth 

Hyde,  Wareham 

Melbury  Lodge,  Wimborne 

Buckland  Vicarage,  Dorchester 

Hazelbury,  Crewkeme 


Montevideo,  Chickerell 

East  Hill,  Charnrinster 



Elvers,  General  Pitt 
Robinson,  Sir  Charles,  F.S.A. 
Rodd,  Edward  Stanhope,  Esq. 
Ruegg,  L.  H.,  Esq. 
Russell,  Colonel 
Russell-Wright,  Rev.  T. 
Sanctuary,  Rev.  C.  Lloyd 
Saunders,  Miss  Augusta 
Schuster,  Rev.  W.  P. 
Scoror,  A.  P.,  Esq. 
Searle,  Allan,  Esq. 

Serrell,  D.  H.,  Esq. 

Sherren,  J.  A.,  Esq. 

Smart,  T.W. Wake, Esq., M.D. 

Smart,  Rev.  D.  C. 

Smith,  Edmund  Hanson,  Esq. 

Solly,  Rev.  H.  S. 

Solly,  Edward,  Esq. 

Sparks,  W.,  Esq. 

Stafford,  Rev.  T.  W.  R. 

Stephens,  Mrs.  J.  T. 

Stephens,    R.    Darell,     Esq., 

F.G.S.,  F.L.S.,  F.Z.S. 
Stephens,  Miss  Guilelma 
Stephens,  J.  Thompson,  Esq. 
S  til  well,  Mrs. 
Stilwell,  H.,  Esq. 
Stroud,  Rev.  J. 
Stuart,     Morton      G.,      Esq. 


Stuart,  Colonel 
Styring,  F.,  Esq. 
Suttill,  J.  T.,  Esq. 
Symes,  G.  P.  Esq. 
Sydenham,  David,  Esq. 
Templer,  Rev.  J.  L. 
Tennant,  Colonel 
Thomas,  Rev.  S.  Vesper 

Rushmore,  Salisbury 

Newton  Manor,  Swanage 

Chardstock  House,  Chard 



Purbeck  College,  Swanage 

Powerstock,  Dorchester 

Corscombe,  near  Cattistock 

Vicarage,  West  Lulworth,  Wareham 

Canford,  Wimborne 

Wilts  and    Dorset  Banking  Company, 

Haddon    Lodge,    Stourton    Caundle, 

Bland  ford 

Milborne  St.  Andrew,  Blandford 
Charlton,  Blandford 

Bell's  House,  Wimborne 

Whitchurch  Canonicorum,  Charmouth 
Wamlerwell  House,  Bridport 

Tre woman,  Wadebridge 
Girtups,  Bridport 
Wanderwell  House,  Bridport 
Leeson,  Wareham 
Leeson,  Wareham 
South  Perrott,  Crewkerne 

New  University  Club,  St.  James  Street, 


Manor  House,  St.  Mary's,  Blandford 
Yarrell's  House,  Poole 

Cornwall  House,  Dorchester 
Burton  Bradstock 
Stanton  Court,  Weymouth 
Wimborne  Minster 


Thomas,  W.  R.,  Esq.,  M.D. 
Thompson,  Roberts,  Esq., M.D. 
Thompson,  Rev.  G. 
Todd,  Colonel 
Turner,  W.,  Esq. 
Tweed,  Rev.  Canon  H.  E. 
Utlal,  J.  S.,  The  Hon. 

Ushenvood,  Rev.  Canon  T.  E. 
Vaudrey,  Rev.  J.  T. 
Vinon,  Rev.  F.  A.  H.,  F.S.A. 
Walker,  Rev.  S.  A. 
Wallace,  Alfred  Russel,  Esq., 

LL.D.,  F.L.S.,  &c. 
Ward,  Rev.  J.  H. 
Warne,  C.  H.,  Esq. 
Warre,  Rev.  F. 
Watkins,  Rev.  H.  G. 
Watkins,  Mrs. 
Watts,  Rev.  R.  R.,  R.D. 
Weld,  SirFredk.,  Bart. 
Weld-Blundell,  H.,  Esq. 
W^erninck,  Rev.  Wynn 
West,  Rev.  G.  H.,  D.D. 
White,  Dr.  Gregory 
Whitehead,  C.  S.,  Esq. 
Whitting,  Rev.  W. 
Williams,  Rev.  C. 
Williams,  Rev.  J.  L.,  R.D. 
Williams,  Robert,  Esq. 
Williams,  Mrs. 
Williams,  E.  W.,  Esq. 
Wilton,Dr.  John  Pleydell,M.D, 
Wix,  Rev.  J.  Augustus 
Wright,  H.  E.,  Esq. 
Wynne,  Rev.  G.  H. 
Yeatman,  M.  S.,  Esq. 
Young,  Rev.  Canon 

Little  Forest  House,  Bournemouth 

Monkchester,  Bournemouth 

Highbury,  Bournemouth 

Keynstone  Lodge,  Blandford 

High  Street,  Poole 

St.  John's  Villas,  Weymouth 

c/o  Lovell,  Son,  and  Pitneld,  3,  Gray's 

Inn  Square,  London. 
Rossmore,  Parkstone 
Osmington  Vicarage,  Weymouth 
Spetisbury  Rectory,  Blandford 

Corfe  View,  Parkstone 

Gussage  St.  Michael  Rectory,  Salisbury 

45,  Brunswick  Road,  Brighton 

Bemerton,  Wilts 



Stourpaine  Rectory,  Blandford 

Chideock  Manor,  Bridport 

Lulworth  Castle,  Wareham 

Walditch  Vicarage,  Bridport 

Ascham  House,  Bournemouth 

West  Knoll,  Bournemouth 


Stour  Provost,  Dorset 

Grove  Lodge,  Dorchester 

Canford  Vicarage,  Wimborne 

Bridehead,  Dorchester 

Bridehead,  Dorchester 

Herringston,  Dorchester 

Pulteney  Buildings,  Weymouth 

Ibberton  Rectoiy,  Blandford 


Whitchurch  Vicarage,  Blandford 

The  Manor  House,  Holwell,  Sherborne 

King's  School,  Sherborne 

The  above  list  contains  the  New  Members  elected  in  1891,  up  to  date 
of  publication. 

gomt  Datura!  §istorg  anb  Jlntiparian 
Jfielb  Club 

DURING  THE  SEASON   1890-91. 
By  M,  G.   STUART,  M.A.,  F.G.S. 

The  work  of  the  Season  1890-1891  has  comprised  the  Annual  Meeting 
at  the  County  Museum,  Dorchester,  on  Thursday,  June  5th,  1890 ; 
a  meeting  at  Portland  on  Wednesday,  July  16th ;  a  Two  Days'  Meeting 
at  Sherborne  on  Thursday  and  Friday,  August  28th  and  29th  ;  a  Meeting 
at  Kushmore  on  Tuesday,  September  23rd  ;  a  Meeting  in  the  County 
Museum,  Dorchester,  on  November  28th  ;  and  another  in  the  Museum  on 
February  24th,  1891.  During  this  Season  35  new  members  have  been 
elected  to  the  Club,  and  three  members  have  been  lost  by  death — viz., 
Colonel  Hambro,  M.P.,  of  Milton  Abbey;  the  Rev.  Edward  Dayman,  of 
Shillingstone ;  and  the  Rev.  J.  H.  House,  of  Winterborne  Anderson. 
The  total  number  of  members  on  the  List  of  the  Club  at  the  end  of  the 
Season  stood  at  268.  The  Eleventh  Volume  of  "  Proceedings,"  owing  to 
difficulties  in  completing  some  of  the  plates,  was  not  issued  until 
January,  1891. 

THE  ANNUAL  MEETING  AT  DORCHESTER,  June  5th,  1890,  was  well 
attended.  The  Treasurer,  the  Rev.  O.  P.  Cambridge,  read  the  Financial 
Report  for  the  year  1889-90.  He  said  that  their  position  was  a 
satisfactory  one,  inasmuch  as  they  commenced  the  year  with  a  balance  of 
£15  Os.  9d.  and  ended  it  with  one  of  £26  5s.  10d.,  whilst  the  heavy  bills 
for  printing  the  last  volume  of  the  "Proceedings"  (Vol.  x.)  had  been 
discharged.  He  wished  to  thank  the  Members  for  the  greater  regularity 
they  had  shown  in  paying  their  subscriptions.  During  the  year  the 
Club  had  lost  two  honorary  members  by  death,  two  ordinary  members  by 
death,  and  seven  by  resignation,  leaving  the  total  number  of  ordinary 
members  at  252.  During  the  year  a  sum  of  £22  7s.  had  been  received  by 
the  sale  of  surplus  copies  of  the  "  Proceedings"  of  the  Club,  which 
showed,  he  thought,  that  their  publications  were  appreciated. 


ELECTION  OF  OFFICERS.— The  President,  Treasurer,  and  Secretary, 
proposed  by  the  Rev.  Sir  Talbot  Baker  and  seconded  by  N.  M. 
Richardson,  Esq.,  were  re-elected  for  office  for  the  ensuing  year. 

ELECTION  OF  NEW  MEMBERS. — Seven  new  members  of  the  Club  were 

THE  PROGRAMME  FOR  THE  YEAR. — After  a  prolonged  discussion  the 
following  meetings  were  arranged  :— Portland  and  Pennsylvania  Castle 
for  July,  Sherborne  and  Cadbury  for  August,  Bokeiiy  Dyke  for 

made  his  report  on  the  additions  to  the  Museum  during  the  past  year. 
First,  the  non-Dorset  Department ;  in  the  Library  many  of  the  more 
valuable  books  had  been  bound,  the  Collection  had  been  enriched  by 
British  Museum  Catalogues  granted  by  the  Governors,  by  a  set  of  the 
Journal  of  the  Archaeological  Institute  presented  by  Mr.  T.  Bond,  by  the 
Novels  of  Mr.  T.  Hardy  given  by  the  Author.  In  the  Galleries  the 
additions  to  the  collection  had  been  chiefly  of  an  Oriental  nature.  To 
the  Collection  confined  to  Dorset  alone,  amongst  the  books  the  Curator 
drew  attention  to  the  loan  by  Mr.  J.  S.  Udal  of  his  valuable  collection  of 
books  relating  to  Dorsetshire,  241  volumes  in  all.  Amongst  gifts  to  the 
Library  were — Vol.  x.  of  the  Transactions  of  the  Dorset  Field  Club, 
Crowe's  Poems,  two  Maps  and  Accounts  of  Dorset  in  1610  and  1749 
respectively,  given  by  Mr.  L.  G.  Boswell  Stone  and  Mr.  H.  Symonds, 
and  the  "Description  of  the  Church  Plate  of  Dorset;"  lastly,  the 
acquisition  of  the  Ordnance  Map  of  the  County,  which  would  greatly 
enrich  the  Library.  With  regard  to  the  Dorset  Collections  in  the 
Museum  itself,  Mr.  Moule  stated  his  conviction  that  with  the  small 
funds  at  their  disposal  their  ambition  should  be  more  and  more  strictly 
limited  to  making  the  collections  illustrative  of  the  County  as  complete 
as  possible.  With  regard  to  the  progress  of  the  Collection  during  the 
year,  the  most  important  fact  to  record  was  that  of  the  purchase  of  the 
valuable  collection  of  local  Antiquities  formed  by  Mr.  Cunnington, which 
was  represented  by  the  three  cases  occupying  the  centre  of  the  room. 
There  was  another  loan  which  it  was  most  desirable  to  purchase — viz., 
the  collection  formed  by  Mr.  Hogg  of  Dorset  Antiquities,  most  of  which 
belonged  to  Dorchester  itself.  A  valuable  collection  of  coins  had  already 
been  purchased  by  the  Museum  from  Mr.  Hogg.  Many  valuable  gifts  had 
been  made  during  the  year.  Amongst  these  were  an  interesting  group 
of  coins  and  relics  from  a  Roman  well  at  Kingston  by  Mr.  Mansel- 
Pleydell,  several  worked  flints  and  two  polished  celts  by  the  Rev.  O.  P. 
Cambridge  ;  several  objects  found  near  Cranborne,  especially  a  very 


fine  leaf-shaped  arrow  head,  by  Dr.  Wake  Smart  ;  a  iine  Roman 
amphora  found  in  the  Weymouth  Backwater  presented  by  the  family 
of  the  late  Mr.  Damon  ;  a  bronze  socketted  celt  by  Mr.  Fetherstonhaugli 
Frampton  ;  a  fine  worked  flint  by  Mr.  Cunnington.  Of  mediaeval  relics, 
the  stones  of  the  Grey  hound -yard  Tudor  Archway  given  by  Mr.  Fossett 
Lock,  which  it  was  proposed  to  erect  in  the  place  of  one  of  the  plastered 
arches  of  the  Hall  of  the  Museum  ;  two  encaustic  tiles  from  Dorchester 
Friary  given  by  Mr.  Hogg.  Of  Legal  Documents  relating  to  Dorset,  a 
lease  of  Melbury  Bubb  by  Alande  Plunkett  in  17  Ed.  II.  from  Mr.  A.  M. 
Luck  ham,  and  several  grants  of  Stuart  times  relating  to  Buckland 
Newton  and  other  places  in  Dorset  given  by  Mr.  J.  Batten.  In  the  Natural 
History  Department  of  Dorset  a  great  acquisition  would  be  found  in  the 
collection  of  local  fossils  of  J;he  late  Mr.  Damon,  which  contained  some 
excellent  specimens,  amongst  others  a  fine  Ophiodcrma  Weyniouthiensis, 
a  species  discovered  by  a  brother  of  Mr.  Groves,  of  Weymouth.  The 
task  of  setting  up  and  labelling  the  Damon  fossils  necessitated  moving 
every  Dorset  specimen  in  the  cases.  Amongst  Liassic  fossils  two  good 
specimens  had  been  acquired  through  Mr.  Cunnington.  The  discovery  by 
the  President  of  a  new  Saurian  amongst  the  mass  of  bones  brought  to  the 
Museum  from  Gillingham  was  remarkable.  The  three  bones  which  led 
him  to  this  Cuvier-like  identification  were  now  under  lock  and  key.  Of 
recent  Natural  History  Specimens  they  had  received  not  a  few,  chiefly 
Skins  and  Birds,  procured  through  the  zeal  of  Mr.  Groves.  Of  these 
three  had  been  set  up,  one,  a  puffin  with  its  winter  bill,  was  specially 
interesting.  Mr.  Moule  closed  his  report  with  the  hope  that  a  larger 
portion  of  objects  of  Dorset  interest  might  find  their  way  to  enrich  the 
Collections  of  the  County  Museum. 

An  adjournment  at  2  p.m.  was  made  for  luncheon,  after  which  the 
President  delivered  his  Annual  Address,  which  will  be  found  at  p.  1  of 
this  volume. 

Subsequently  two  papers  were  read,  viz.  :— 

"  On  Castle  Hill,  Cranborne,"  by  Dr.  Wake  Smart. 
"  On  Holme  Priory,"  by  T.  Bond,  Esqre.,  of  Tyneham. 

These  two  papers  are  printed  in  Vol.  XI.  of  the   "  Proceedings." 

THE  PORTLAND  MEETING.— This  Meeting  was  held  on  Wednesday, 
July  16th.  The  weather  was  most  favourable,  a  party  numbering 
upwards  of  a  hundred  arrived  at  the  Portland  Railway  Station  at 
11  a.m.  Thence  the  route  led  to  the  Verne  Citadel,  where,  by  the 
kindness  of  Colonel  Russell,  R.E.,  was  exhibited  a  collection  of 
antiquities  discovered  during  the  construction  of  that  fortress.  These 

consisted  of  human  bones  and  crania  found  in  stone  coffins,  flint 
implements,  coins,  and  many  fossils.  Outside  the  building  several  stone 
coffins  were  exposed  to  view.  Dr.  McLean  exhibited  a  very  perfect 
specimen  of  the  left  jaw  of  a  Lepidopterus  found  in  the  railway  cutting 
near  the  Portland  Breakwater ;  also  a  block  of  crystallized  Manganese 
dredged  during  the  Challenger  Expedition  from  the  bottom  of  the  sea  at 
a  depth  of  from  three  to  four  miles.  From  the  Verne  a  short  walk 
brought  the  party  to  an  ancient  grave,  which  had  been  opened  by  Mr. 
A.  M.  Wallis,  containing  a  human  cranium,  bones,  and  fragments 
of  pottery.  Close  by  lay  two  fine  querns  and  some  rounded  stones, 
probably  used  for  slinging ;  or  for  crushing  corn,  as  some  antiquarians 
suppose.  The  President  here  delivered  a  short  address  on  the 
geological  character  of  the  Isle  of  Portland.  He  said  it  represented  one 
of  the  most  interesting  districts  of  the  Kingdom.  Portland,  long  before 
these  kinds  of  graves  had  been  made,  had  suffered  denudation,  and 
at  least  a  depth  of  500  feet  had  been  washed  away.  The  raised 
beach,  near  Portland  Bill,  was  of  great  interest,  since  it  bore 
evidence  to  the  oscillations  to  which  the  Island  must  have  been 
subjected.  The  highest  point  of  this  raised  beach  was  56  feet, 
and  the  lowest  36  feet  above  the  level  of  the  sea.  It  is  composed 
of  rolled  pebbles  and  stones,  some  of  which  came  from  the  East, 
some  from  the  West.  He  was  of  opinion  that  the  grave  before  them 
AMIS  a  more  recent  place  of  burial  than  that  found  by  Colonel  Russell 
last  year. 

A  walk  of  a  few  yards  brought  the  members  to  a  Dene  hole,  or 
prehistoric  underground  hut.  With  regard  to  it  the  President  said  that 
about  three  years  ago  Mr.  Wallis  wrote  to  him  stating  that  a  Dene  hole 
had  been  discovered,  but  owing  to  the  working  of  the  quarries  it  had 
been  destroyed.  He  then  wrote  to  Mr.  Wallis  to  ask  him  to  endeavour 
to  find  another,  and  the  Dene  hole  before  them  was  the  result  of  his 
search  ;  it  was  unfortunately  not  so  perfect  now  as  when  it  was  first 
discovered.  He  invited  a  discussion  on  the  part  of  the  members  as  to  the 
origin  of  these  Dene  holes.  Some  people  supposed  they  were  reservoirs 
or  granaries  for  corn  of  the  prehistoric  inhabitants.  Others  considered 
they  were  constructed  as  places  of  sepulture ;  or  even  as  memorials  to 
the  dead.  The  late  Mr.  Damon  figured  two  of  these  Dene  holes  in 
his  work  on  the  Geology  of  Weymouth  and  the  Isle  of  Portland  ;  they 
were  side  by  side,  and  there  was  a  communication  two  feet  broad,  and  one 
foot  high  between  them. 

Dr.  McLean  thought  they  were  used  as  granaries,  since  corn  in  a 
parched  condition  had  been  found  in  them,  which  pointed  to  this  purpose. 


Mr.  Wallis  exhibited  a  bottle  containing  some  of  the  corn  which  had  been 
so  discovered.  Dr.  Watts  said  at  Grays,  in  Essex,  was  a  wood  in  which 
were  hundreds  of  these  holes,  of  which  most  had  been  filled  up,  but  some 
had  been  kept  open.  These  holes  were  80  to  100  feet  deep,  sunk  through 
the  sand  into  the  chalk  beneath.  These  holes  grew  narrower  as  they 
descended,  and  at  the  bottom  were  four  curious  chambers  of  a  rose 
pattern.  They  had  been  most  carefully  examined,  and  the  earth  around 
sifted,  but  nothing  had  been  found  to  determine  their  use ;  the  surround- 
ings, however,  led  to  the  conclusion  that  the  spot  originally  formed  an 
ancient  village  and  that  these  holes  were  the  storehouses  of  families  for 
preserving  their  food  for  long  periods,  and  against  the  attacks  of  enemies. 
Some  of  the  famous  stone  quarries  close  by  were  then  inspected,  where 
several  specimens  of  trees  (conifers)  and  cycads  were  exhibited.  The 
President  here  read  a  paper,  which  had  been  prepared  by  Mr.  A.  M. 
Wallis,  on  the  subject  of  the  economic  value  of  the  various  beds  of 
Portland  stone,  the  mode  of  quarrying  in  vogue,  and  an  historical  account 
of  quarrymen's  rights  in  Portland.  This  paper  will  be  found  in  full  at 
p.  187  of  this  volume. 

After  a  cordial  vote  of  thanks  had  been  given  to  Mr.  Wallis  for  his 
valuable  paper,  a  start  was  made  for  Pennsylvania  Castle.  The  route 
lay  along  the  top  of  the  cliffs,  from  which  a  grand  view  was  obtained,  the 
cuttings  of  the  new  Church  Hope  Railway,  now  in  course  of  construction, 
were  passed,  and  soon  after,  the  party  was  met  by  Mr.  Merrick  Head  (the 
owner  of  Pennsylvania  Castle),  who  conducted  them  inside  the  grounds, 
and  gave  them  a  most  cordial  welcome.  Subsequently  Mr.  and  Mrs. 
Merrick  Head  entertained  the  whole  party  at  luncheon  in  a  marquee, 
which  had  been  erected  for  the  purpose  in  the  garden.  After  luncheon 
the  President  returned  thanks  to  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Merrick  Head,  on 
behalf  of  the  company,  for  the  hospitality  which  they  had  received. 
He  said  he  was  old  enough  to  recollect  when  Governor  Penn  used 
to  cross  the  ferry,  where  there  is  now  a  bridge,  in  a  carriage 
and  four.  In  Portland,  those  who  are  not  natives  are  called  "Kim- 
berlins,"  and  no  "  Kimberlin "  is  deemed  a  true  Portlander,  but  he 
felt  certain  from  the  enthusiastic  way  in  which  Mr.  Merrick  Head 
advocated  the  interests  of  the  people  of  Portland  at  the  County 
Council  and  elsewhere,  although  not  a  native,  he  is  not  considered  a 

After  luncheon,  the  members  proceeded  to  the  ruins  of  the  old  church  ; 
where  Mr.  Merrick  Head  read  a  very  excellent  paper  on  the  history  of 
the  Castle,  the  Churchj  the  Vicar's  House,  and  Tithes.  This  paper  will  be 
found  in  full  at  p.  115  of  the  present  volume. 

Twelve  new  members  of  the  Club  were  subsequently  elected,  and  Mr. 
A.  M.  Wallis  was  elected  an  honorary  member  on  the  proposal  of  the 

Considerable  time  was  afterwards  spent  in  examining  the  various 
objects  of  art  and  historical  interest  contained  within  the  Castle,  whilst- 
some  members  availed  themselves  of  the  fine  entomological  field  afforded 
by  the  rough  ground  of  the  undercliff,  and  specimens  of  a  spider  new  to 
Britain,  Neon  levis,  Sim.,  were  here  discovered  by  the  Treasurer  during 
the  afternoon.  Pennsylvania  Castle  was  built  during  the  reign  of  George 
III.  It  is  stated  that  its  erection  was  due  to  the  following  incident  :— 
The  king  was  one  day  riding  with  Governor  Penn  across  the  island  when 
His  Majesty  stopped  at  what  is  now  Pennsylvania,  and  exclaimed 
"What  a  delightful  spot  for  a  house."  Upon  which  Penn  replied 
"  Your  Majesty,  it  shall  be  built,"  and  soon  after  the  present  Castle  was 
commenced,  Wyatt  being  chosen  as  the  architect.  The  Castle  was 
opened  by  the  Princess  Elizabeth,  daughter  of  George  III.,  who  inscribed 
her  name  on  the  occasion  in  a  book  of  etchings.  This,  as  well  as 
several  paintings,  engravings,  and  relics  of  the  Penn  family  collected  by 
Mr.  Merrick  Head,  was  exhibited  to  the  members.  Amongst  the 
paintings  the  most  highly  prized  is  the  portrait  of  William  Penn, 
the  founder  of  the  Colony  of  Pennsylvania  in  the  United  States. 
Here  Penn  is  represented  in  armour,  the  picture  having  been  painted  just 
after  the  siege  of  Carrick-fergus.  Beneath  is  the  inscription,  "  Pax 
quaeritur  bello."  An  engraving  represents  an  engagement  fought  by 
Admiral  Sir  William  Penn,  the  father  of  William,  with  the  Dutch 
fleet.  Another  engraving  of  great  historical  interest  represents  William 
Penn's  treaty  with  the  Indians,  when  he  founded  Pennsylvania  in  1681, 
the  land  being  bartered  for  a  piece  of  cloth.  A  copy  is  preserved  here  of 
the  famous  treaty  made  under  the  great  elm  tree  at  Shackanaxon  in  1682. 
The  original  was  presented  by  John  Penn  to  the  Historical  Society  of 
Philadelphia,  and  is  known  as  "  the  Belt  of  Wampum"  (delivered  by  the 
Indians  to  William  Penn).  There  is  also  a  valuable  painting  of  the  Penn 
family,  supposed  to  have  been  touched  up  by  Sir  Joshua  Reynolds,  and 
engraved  by  Turner.  In  the  hall  are  some  portraits  of  the  family, 
one  of  the  most  interesting  being  that  of  John  Penn,  M.P.  for  Stoke, 
Bucks,  who  was  appointed  Governor  of  Portland,  in  1805.  This 
was  painted  by  Sir  William  Beechey,  who  at  the  time  was  President  of 
the  Royal  Academy.  In  a  glass  case  are  the  dress  swords  of  the  Governor. 
A  portrait  of  the  poet  Gray  hangs  in  one  of  the  rooms.  In  addition  to 
these  there  are  some  valuable  old  engravings  of  Portland  and  the  vicinity, 
and  some  fine  oak  carving.  The  large  party  left  the  Castle  about 


4.30  p.m.,  after  thanking  their  host  and  hostess  for  their  hospitality. 
They  returned  to  the  village,  where  tea  was  provided  at  the  Soldiers' 
Institute,  after  which  they  left  the  Island  by  the  5.30  train. 

THE  SHERBORNE  MEETING. — A  two  days  meeting  was  held  at 
Sherborne,  on  Thursday  and  Friday,  August  28th  and  29th,  and  tine 
weather  attended  the  proceedings,  which  was  a  rare  advantage  in  this 
wet  season.  The  programme  had  been  arranged  so  as  to  enable  the 
members  to  meet  the  Somersetshire  Archaeological  Society  on  the 
second  day  across  the  borders  of  the  County  at  Cadbury  Castle, 
and  as  this  Society  had  made  all  the  arrangements  and  undertaken 
to  provide  the  information  in  that  locality,  the  first  of  the  two 
days  (Thursday)  was  the  only  one  for  which  the  Dorsetshire  execu- 
tive was  responsible.  A  large  party  was  present  on  each  of  the 
days,  and  the  Digby  Hotel,  at  Sherborne,  formed  the  head-quarters 
during  the  visit.  At  twelve  o'clock  on  Thursday,  a  start  was  made 
for  the  Abbey.  The  monument  erected  to  the  memory  of  the  late 
G.  D.  Wingfield  Digby  Esq.,  who  restored  the  building,  was  noticed,  and 
then  the  party  assembled  in  the  Vestry,  where  Mr.  K.  D.  Carpenter,  a 
leading  ecclesiastical  architect  of  London,  narrated  the  history  of  the 
building,  elucidating  his  statement  with  the  help  of  coloured  diagrams 
and  ground  plans.  He  observed  that  a  portion  of  the  Roman  pavement 
found  on  the  site  of  the  Abbey  sometime  ago,  carried  the  history  of  the 
Church  back  to  a  period  anterior  to  the  Anglo-Saxon  time  of  the 
commencement  of  the  Eighth  Century,  but  it  was  not  until  then  that  the 
architectural  and  documentary  history  began.  In  A.D.  705,  Ina,  a  West 
Saxon  King,  appointed  St.  Aldhelm  to  the  bishopric  of  Sherborne,  then  it 
was  separated  from  the  Diocese  of  Winchester.  In  the  same  year  he 
founded  a  small  nunnery  at  the  mouth  of  the  Frome,  at  Wareham,  and 
probably  also  built  the  Church  of  St.  Martin  there.  He  most  likely  had 
his  Cathedral  at  Sherborne,  which  was  served  by  clergy  and  not  by 
monks.  St.  Aldhelm  was  bishop  for  four  years,  and  died  in  709.  It  is 
probable  the  monks  of  Glastonbury  rebuilt  the  wooden  church  of 
Doulting  as  a  memorial  to  him.  Sherborne  had  26  Bishops  in  all,  the  last 
being  Herman,  chaplain  to  Edward  the  Confessor.  On  his  decease  in 
1072  A.D.,  the  bishopric  was  removed  to  Old  Sarum.  In  A.D.  1125 
Pope  Honorius  II.  conferred  large  grants  of  land  and  endowments  on  the 
Abbey.  The  whole  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  Cathedral,  with  the  exception  of 
the  western  doorway  of  the  north  aisle  of  the  nave  and  some  adjoining 
walls,  were  pulled  down  by  Bishops  Rogers  and  Thurston.  This  doorway, 
which  is  in  the  early  Anglo-Saxon  style,  is  now  blocked  up.  The  Lady 


Chapel  was  built  in  the  13th  century,  about  the  same  time  as  Salisbury 
Cathedral,  and  probably,  from  the  resemblance  of  the  mouldings  in  the 
two,  by  the  same  person.  At  the  end  of  the  14th  century  the  Church  of 
All  Hallows  was  built  adjoining  the  \vest  end  of  the  Abbey.  The  Vicars 
of  this  Church  were  appointed  by  the  Abbots,  who  as  Rectors  held  the 
great  tithes.  A  dispute,  arising  between  the  Vicars  and  Abbot,  led  to  a 
riot,  during  which  a  burning  arrow  was  shot  into  the  thatched  roof  of  the 
choir,  which  was  ignited  and  consumed.  The  walls  of  the  choir  and 
tower  still  showed  the  marks  of  this  conflagration.  Abbot  Bradford  set 
to  work  to  rebuild  the  whole  church  on  the  style  of  his  new  choir,  leaving 
some  of  the  old  burnt  stones  as  witnesses  of  the  harm  which  had  been 
done,  and  on  some  of  the  bosses  were  carved  representations  of  the 
burning  arrow.  After  the  death  of  Abbot  Bradford,  the  old  Norman 
clerestory  was  pulletl  down.  In  1475  Abbot  Ramsam  actively  pushed 
forward  Bradford's  plans  for  the  nave.  Ramsam  died  in  1504,  and  in 
little  more  than  30  years  after,  the  last  Abbot,  John  Barnstaple, 
surrendered  the  Abbey  to  the  Crown  on  the  dissolution  of  the  Monasteries, 
and  it  was  then  granted  to  Sir  John  Horsey,  of  Clifton  May  bank.  All 
Hallows  Church  at  that  time  was  in  a  very  ruinous  condition  ;  the 
parishioners  sold  the  roof  and  the  aisles,  and  by  bargaining  with  Sir  John, 
bought  of  him  by  degrees  the  nearly  new  Abbey  Church  and  part  of  the 
contiguous  buildings  for  the  princely  sum  of  £230  ;  and  it  was  a  curious 
fact  that  the  lawyer's  bill  for  drawing  up  the  necessary  agreements  only 
amounted  to  14  pence.  The  windows  in  the  choir  in  the  time  of  Hutchins 
were  described  as  fitted  with  heraldic  glass ;  this  had  been  removed.  In 
1848  repairs  were  commenced  on  the  tower,  nave,  transepts,  the  south 
porch,  and  alterations  of  the  west  window.  A  sum  of  £4,000  was  spent 
on  the  fabric.  In  1856  Mr.  George  Wingfield  Digby,  of  Sherborne 
Castle,  restored  the  choir  at  his  os\n  expense  as  a  memorial  to  his  uncle, 
Earl  Digby.  On  leaving  the  west  door  of  the  Abbey  the  curious 
fragments  of  buttresses  were  noticed,  which  protruded  from  the  wall,  and 
which  originally  pertained  to  the  contiguous  All  Hallows  Church.  The 
mural  tablet  to  the  memory  of  Benjamin  Vowell,  his  wives  and  daughters, 
on  this  external  wall  also  attracted  attention.  The  Rev.  C.  H.  Mayo 
read  extracts  from  an  old  deed,  which  showed  that  an  ancestor  of  the 
Vowell  family  there  buried  was  embroiled  in  the  disturbance  in  which  the 
roof  and  the  choir  were  burnt.  The  conduit  was  next  visited,  which  was 
stated  by  the  Head-Master  of  Sherborne  School  to  belong  to  the  Governors 
of  the  School.  It  once  stood  in  the  Benedictine  quadrangle  of  the 
Monastery ;  there  it  was  supplied  with  water  by  the  Newell  stream.  At 
the  present  its  water  came  from  a  copious  fountain  at  Kennel  Barton. 


The  conduit  had  been  quite  recently  restored,  and  its  position  slightly 
altered.  For  many  years  the  conduit  was  used  as  a  savings  bank  for  the 
town.  The  present  mullions  were  not  as  they  were  originally.  In 
Hutchins'  History  of  Dorset  they  were  represented  as  being  carried  down 
to  the  pavement  and  glazed.  The  Rev.  E.  M.  Young  also  called 
attention  to  the  date,  1561,  carved  over  the  small  window  of  the  room 
which  formed  Dr.  Lyon's  study.  He  stated  that  the  curious  Elizabethan 
building  had  been  constructed  out  of  the  remains  of  the  Lady  Chapel  of 
the  Abbey,  by  the  help  of  Bishop  Jewel,  of  Salisbury.  The  handsome 
south  front  was  then  inspected,  after  which  the  members  entered  the 
precincts  of  the  School ;  the  various  buildings  of  interest  around  were 
pointed  out.  The  library  was  visited.  The  Head -Master  said  that  many 
of  the  documents  were  of  great  interest.  For  over  300  years  the  greater 
part  of  them  had  been  stowed  away  in  the  muniment  room  at  the 
Almhouses,  and  this  accounted  for  the  splendid  state  of  preservation  of 
their  charter.  The  library  was  well  supplied  with  curious  editions  of  the 
Bible  in  various  tongues,  including  Syriac,  Anglo-Saxon,  Gothic,  and 
Erse.  One  very  remarkable  testament  was  in  a  now  extinct  North 
.American  Indian  dialect,  and  bore  on  the  title  page  the  date  of  1662. 
Amongst  interesting  MSS.  was  that  of  the  prize  poem  of  1850,  by  Lewis 
Morris,  the  author  of  the  "  Epic  of  Hades,"  who  was  an  alumnus  of 
Sherborne  School.  "Thermopylae"  was  the  title  of  the  poem,  which 

commenced  thus, 

"  Thermopylae  is  silent 
The  stern  rocks  frown  no  more." 

The  party  next  were  conducted  over  the  Chapel,  which  was  much 
admired,  and  subsequently  proceeded  to  the  schoolroom.  They  after- 
wards broke  up  for  luncheon  preparatory  to  starting  on  the  excursion 
arranged  for  the  afternoon.  At  2. 30  carriages  were  in  readiness  to  convey 
the  party,  then  numbering  about  50,  to  Bradford  Abbas  ;  there  the  parish 
church  formed  the  chief  centre  of  interest.  The  building  was  at  the  time 
in  the  hands  of  the  builder  undergoing  a  process  of  restoration.  It  is 
built  in  the  Perpendicular  style,  dating  from  the  15th  century.  Its  most 
striking  feature  is  its  tower,  which  according  to  the  authority  of 
Hutchins,  "  is  esteemed  one  of  the  best  in  the  county. "  It  is  loftier  than 
the  generality  of  church  towers  in  Dorset,  and  is  flanked  at  the  corners 
with  octagonal  graduated  buttresses  crested  at  the  top  with  fine 
pinnacles.  In  the  west  front  are  eleven  canopied  niches,  two  of  which, 
the  furthest  from  the  ground,  contain  statues,  the  others  are  empty. 
Within  the  building  little  could  be  seen  with  advantage,  owing  to  the 
alterations  in  progress.  Some  time  ago  it  was  round  that  the  tine  oak 

ceiling  was  seriously  decayed,  and  it  was  decided,  while  the  whole 
building  was  put  in  thorough  repair,  to  replace  the  moulded  rafters  with 
new  ones  precisely  similar,  so  that  the  original  character  of  the  edifice 
might  not  be  debased.  The  fine  pulpit,  pews,  and  admirable  font,  the 
rare  stone  screen,  and  mural  tablets,  all  received  due  attention.  The 
repairs  are  being  executed  by  Mr.  Andrews,  of  Thornford,  under  the 
supervision  of  Mr.  Benson,  architect,  of  Yeovil. 

Leaving  Bradford  Abbas,  another  ride  brought  the  party  to  Clifton 
Maybank,  a  fragment  of  the  fine  dwelling-house  of  the  Horsey's,  a  family 
of  much  importance  in  Tudor  times,  but  whose  prosperity  suffered  severely 
in  those  of  the  Stuart  dynasty.  Authorities  consider  the  original  house 
was  at  least  three  times  the  size  of  the  existing  building,  which  was 
reported  to  have  extended  all  across  the  court  at  the  rear,  and  to  have 
been  situated  on  the  present  garden,  facing  the  old  pleasaunce.  The 
octangular  trussed  buttresses  and  frieze  pierced  cusp  work  in  the  south 
front  of  the  existing  structure  indicate  the  date  of  its  erection  to  have 
been  the  latter  part  of  the  fifteenth  or  the  beginning  of  the  sixteenth 
century.  The  most  beautiful  feature  of  the  west  fa9ade  is  the  oriel 
window,  near  the  apex  of  the  gable,  with  panels  at  the  base  bearing  the 
sculptured  allusive  badge  of  the  house — a  golden  horse's  head,  flanked  by 
the  double  rose  of  the  Tudors.  According  to  Hamilton  Ilogers,  the  style 
of  architecture  and  ornament  are  of  the  Early-Transition  period,  and  are 
not  sufficiently  leavened  with  the  Classic  to  date  its  construction  to  the 
clays  of  Elizabeth  or  her  immediate  predecessor.  This  archaeologist 
considers  the  house  was  erected  in  the  first  quarter  of  the  sixteenth 
century  by  'Squire  John  Horsey  and  his  wife.  The  Rev.  O.  P.  Cambridge 
read  an  extract  from  Hamilton  Rogers'  work — Memorials  of  the 
West.  It  ran  as  follows  : — "  After  the  death  of  the  unfortunate 
Sir  G.  Horsey,  in  1611,  the  noble  old  house  appears  to  have  been 
held  intermediately  by  Heale,  whose  heiress,  according  to  Hutchins, 
brought  it  to  Hungerford,  who  sold  it  to  the  Harveys,  of  Comb, 
in  Surrey,  and  they  were  its  possessors  in  1661.  Notwithstanding 
this  fifty  years'  vicissitude  of  ownership,  and  passing  from  hand 
to  hand,  it  had  probably  suffered  little  change  structurally  up  to 
the  date  of  its  purchase  by  the  Harveys  ;  we  now  get  an  ominous 
glimpse  of  its  preparatory  declension.  Writing  in  1773  Hutchins 
continues,  '  The  mansion  house  is  a  large  and  stately  pile  of  buildings, 
repaired,  sashed,  and  otherwise  modernised  by  the  Harveys.'  Then, 
doubtless,  all  the  rich  oak  Tudor  carved  work  and  stone-mullioned 
windows,  radiant  with  sparkling  armories,  were  ousted,  to  make  way  for 
the  bold  monotony  of  deal  panelled  parallelograms,  lit  by  the  dingy 


bottle-green  sashed  transparencies  of  good  Queen  Anne— a  style  so 
devoutly  worshipped  by  budding  architects  of  the  present  day.  In 
addition  to  the  mansion  there  had  also  been  erected  a  "  very  beautiful 
ancient  gateway  leading  into  the  court,  and  ascribed  to  Inigo  Jones." 
Purely  Classic  in  style,  it  was  doubtless  built  by  the  second  race  of  the 
Harveys.  This  was  also  remaining  in  1773."  The  Rev.  O.  P.  Cambridge 
added  that  the  person  who  had  humiliated  the  house  to  its  present  "  felon- 
like"  appearance  was  unknown  ;  but  that  from  extracts  from  the  MS., 
"  Anecdotes  of  My  Life,"  compiled  by  Edward  Ph clips,  an  ancestor  of 
Mr.  Phelips,  of  Montacute  House,  it  was  gathered  that  in  1786  the 
house  was  being  pulled  down,  and  that  various  materials  were  bought  by 
this  Edward  Phelips,  and  used  in  the  erection  of  Montacute  House. 
The  house  was  then  examined  by  the  party,  and  the  old  pleasaunce 
garden  and  bowling  alley,  at  the  corner  of  which  stood  the  customary 
music  room,  were  visited.  The  exterior  of  the  house  was  also  shewn  by 
the  courtesy  of  the  tenant,  Mr.  W.  Whittle,  where  the  broad  oak 
staircase  with  carved  ballustrades,  the  oak  panelling  of  one  of  the  rooms, 
and  the  fine  oriel  window,  all  excited  much  admiration.  Leaving  Clifton 
Maybank,  the  party  next  visited  Yetminster  church,  where  they  were 
welcomed  by  the  Vicar,  the  Rev.  R.  S.  MacDowall,  who  conducted  them 
over  the  church  and  pointed  out  the  many  objects  of  interest.  The 
building  is  dedicated  to  St.  Andrew  j  the  style  of  architecture  is 
Perpendicular,  it  has  recently  undergone  restoration  under  the  direction 
of  Mr.  G.  R.  Crickmay.  A  paper  on  the  subject  of  this  church,  which 
had  been  prepared  by  the  Rev.  C.  H.  Mayo,  to  be  read  here,  was  post- 
poned, through  pressure  of  time,  to  the  evening  meeting  at  Sherborne. 

Leaving  Yetminster  the  route  next  led  to  Thornford,  where  the  party 
were  received  and  hospitably  entertained  at  tea  on  the  Rectory  lawn  by 
the  Rev.  Wilfred  Roxby.  The  church  was  afterwards  visited.  In  the 
churchyard  the  Rector  pointed  out  a  hole  about  the  size  of  a  man's  fist 
in  the  top  of  one  of  the  tombstones,  which  formerly  contained  a  copper 
receptacle,  into  which  were  paid  on  St.  Thomas'  Day  the  modus  in  lieu 
of  prebendal  tithes.  The  church,  which  dates  from  the  14th  century, 
was  restored  about  25  years  ago.  An  interesting  feature  of  the  interior 
is  the  stone  screen,  which  used  to  support  a  solid  wall  of  masonry,  giving 
the  chancel  end  of  the  church  a  heavy  and  dark  appearance.  This  has 
now  been  removed. 

After  leaving  Thornford  the  members  returned  to  Sherborne.  Dinner 
was  provided  at  the  Digby  Arms  Hotel,  after  which  five  new  members  of 
the  Club  were  elected.  The  company  then  repaired  to  the  King's  School. 
Here  coffee  was  provided  in  the  large  dining  hall,  after  which  the  Head- 

XXV 11. 

Master  conducted  them  over  the  Laboratory  and  Museum.  Here  were 
exhibited  Ichthyosaurian  remains  and  the  jaw  of  Megalosaurus  Bucklandi, 
which  is  described  by  Sir  R.  Owen  in  the  Q.J.G.S.,  a  fair  collection 
of  oolitic  fossils,  and  plants  of  the  Carboniferous  epoch,  an  ex- 
cellent entomological  collection,  and  various  weapons  of  primitive 
tribes.  A  formal  meeting  was  then  held,  the  President,  J.  C.  Mansel- 
Pleydell,  Esq.,  being  in  the  chair.  The  Rev.  C.  H.  Mayo  read  the  first 
paper  on  "Yetminster  Church,"  which  will  be  found  in  full  at  p.  146 
of  this  volume.  The  Head-Master,  the  Rev.  E.  M.  Young,  then 
read  a  paper  on  "The  History  and  External  Growth  of  Sherborne 
School."  The  President  rose  to  return  thanks  to  the  writers  of  the  above 
papers,  and  to  the  Rev.  E.  M.  Young  for  his  kindness  and  hospitality  in 
entertaining  the  Society  at  Sherborne  School.  He  said  it  might  not  be 
known  that  Mr.  Young  was  taking  his  holiday  across  the  water,  and  had 
left  his  family  in  Brittany  and  crossed  the  Channel  in  order  to  give  the 
Club  the  benefit  of  his  company  and  experience  that  day.  A  vote  of 
thanks  to  the  Rev.  E.  M.  Young  was  most  cordially  responded  to,  after 
which  the  party  broke  up  at  about  eleven  o'clock. 

The  next  morning,  Friday,  at  about  half -past  nine,  a  party  of  members 
left  the  Digby  Hotel  and  drove  to  South  Cadbury,  a  distance  of  about 
eight  miles.  The  weather  was  very  fine  and  warm,  and  the  day  was 
much  enjoyed.  On  arriving  at  South  Cadbury  the  members  of  the 
Dorset  Club,  now  numbering  about  80,  joined  a  party  of  120  members  of 
the  Somersetshire  Archseological  and  Natural  History,  under  the  leader- 
ship of  their  President  for  the  year,  H.  Hobhouse,  Esq.,  M.P.,  and  of  their 
Secretary,  the  Rev.  J.  A.  Bennett.  The  first  place  visited  was  Cadbury 
Castle,  a  fine  earthwork  which  rises  very  abruptly  behind  the  little 
village  of  South  Cadbury.  It  is  a  Romano-British  hill  fortress,  or 
entrenched  camp  of  refuge,  whose  only  rival  in  this  part  of  the  country  is 
Maiden  Castle,  near  Dorchester.  The  latter  camp  covers  more  ground 
than  Cadbury,  is  more  regularly  shaped,  and  possesses  three  trenches, 
whilst  Cadbury  has  but  two  ;  but  whilst  the  embankment  or  outer  trench 
of  Maiden  Castle  slopes  gradually  upwards,  Cadbury  Camp  rises  abruptly 
from  almost  level  ground,  and  wrould  therefore  present  far  greater 
difficulties  to  an  enemy  attacking  it  than  Maiden  Castle.  Many  of  the 
Somerset  Archaeologists,  including  the  Secretary,  consider,  and  not 
without  foundation,  that  Cadbury  is  the  Camelot  of  King  Arthur. 
Certainly  to  the  archaeologist,  Cadbury  and  its  neighbourhood  is  very 
attractive.  The  Fosse-way  passes  not  many  miles  distant ;  almost  every 
hill,  spring,  and  wood  bear  names  derived  from  British  and  Saxon  roots, 
which  tell  of  conflicts  which  have  formerly  taken  place  in  the  vicinity, 


whilst  the  locality  derives  additional  interest  from  being  connected  with 
King  Alfred,  as  is  indicated  by  the  proximity  of  Athelney  and  Alfred 
Tower.  The  view  from  Cadbury  Castle  is  very  striking,  and  if  there 
were  any  among  the  party  assembled  there  on  this  occasion  who  were 
unable  to  appreciate  the  archaeological  interest  which  the  place  possesses, 
they  must  have  been  amply  repaid  by  the  fine  landscape  which  lay 
outstretched  before  them.  After  pointing  out  to  the  party  King  Arthur's 
Well  and  the  probable  position  of  the  Gates  of  Gold,  which,  according  to 
tradition,  led  into  the  hill,  the  Kev.  J.  A.  Bennett  led  them  to  the  other 
side  of  the  hill,  where  from  a  mound  he  pointed  out  the  various  features 
of  the  surrounding  country,  such  as  Glastonbury  Tor,  Whitcombe  Valley, 
Penselwood,  Sigwell  Camp,  Brentknoll,  Alfred's  Tower,  Cook's  Peak, 
the  Hills  of  Bratton  and  Creech,  Musbury  Camp,  Paget's  Tower,  and 
Wellington's  Pillar.  The  Secretary  further  narrated  various  interesting 
stories  and  folk  lore  connected  with  the  camp,  and  he  mentioned  that  he 
had  discovered  many  hut  dwellings  five  feet  in  diameter  and  four  feet 
deep,  floored  with  pebbles,  and  often  containing  bones  of  oxen  and 
fragments  of  Romano-British  pottery.  The  philology  of  Sigwell,  which 
was  situated  on  the  hill  opposite,  was  "  victory  well,"  and  he  thought 
it  was  the  place  where  the  Saxons  refreshed  themselves  after  having 
defeated  the  Britons,  and  from  which  they  shortly  after  advanced  and 
took  Camelot.  The  cottagers  maintained  that  King  Arthur's  burial 
place  was  in  a  field  at  the  foot  of  a  hill  not  far  distant,  where  many 
bones  have  been  exhumed.  Leland,  who  had  visited  Cadbury,  was 
firmly  of  opinion  that  it  was  the  Camelot  of  King  Arthur.  In  a 
corn  field  at  the  base  of  the  hill  on  the  other  side  many  Roman 
coins  had  been  turned  up  by  the  plough,  as  well  as  many  old  English 

In  answer  to  various  questions  addressed  to  him,  the  Rev.  J.  A.  Bennett 
said  the  bones  before  mentioned  were  considered  to  belong  to  Saxons  ; 
the  bodies  appeared  to  have  been  thrown  into  a  pit  in  a  careless  and 
contemptuous  manner.  The  derivation  of  the  word  "Camelot,"  he 
thought,  was  from  "  Camulus,"  the  god  of  war,  analogous  to  the  Roman 
god  Mars.  The  name  "  Cadbury,  "as  well,  signified  the  hill  of  war.  Sir 
Talbot  Baker  observed  that  the  slope  of  the  banks  was  steeper  here  than 
at  Maiden  Castle,  but  the  trenches  shallower.  Alluding  to  a  remark  of 
Mr.  Bennett's  that  the  stone  walls  under  the  turf  were  put,  in  his  opinion, 
for  the  accommodation  of  slingers,  he  mentioned  that  the  Rev.  Prebendary 
Scarth  had  held  the  opposite  view.  A  cordial  vote  of  thanks  was  then 
given  to  the  Rev.  J.  A.  Bennett  for  his  address,  after  which  the  party 
proceeded  to  South  Cadbury  Church,  which  was  also  described  by  the 


Rector,  Mr.  Bennett.  This  was  the  last  occasion  on  which  Mr.  Bennett 
was  thus  officially  engaged  ;  his  sudden  and  unexpected  death  occurring 
not  long  after.  The  Somerset  Society  have  lost,  in  Mr.  Bennett,  a  most 
efficient  secretary,  and  we  ourselves  have  to  regret  the  loss  of  one  who 
gave  us  so  hearty  a  reception,  and  expressed  himself  as  looking  forward 
to  other  re-unions  of  the  two  Societies  in  the  near  future. 

Luncheon  was  provided  in  a  tent  close  by,  after  which  the  entire  party, 
composed  of  members  of  the  two  Societies,  proceeded  in  a  long  line  of 
carriages  to  North  Cadbury  House,  the  front  of  which  is  a  good  example 
of  Elizabethan  architecture  ;  the  rear  was,  however,  taken  down  some 
years  ago  and  rebuilt  in  the  Italian  style  by  the  owner.  The  house  was 
once  the  residence  of  the  Earls  of  Huntingdon ;  their  arms  with  quarter- 
ings  may  still  be  seen  in  the  windows  of  the  hall.  It  now  belongs  to  Mr. 
F.  Wentworth  Bennett,  but  is  at  present  occupied  by  Lord  Hobhouse. 

Here  the  party  broke  up,  and  the  two-days'  pleasant  meeting  was 
brought  to  a  conclusion. 

MEETING  AT  FARNHAM  AND  BOKERLY  DYKE.— This  meeting  was  held 
on  Tuesday,  September  23rd,  the  rendezvous  being  the  Crown  Hotel, 
Blandford,  thence  the  party,  numbering  about  70,  started  in  carriages  for 
Farnham,  where  General  Pitt  Kivers,  F.R.S.,  met  them  and  conducted 
them  over  the  Museum,  in  which  the  owner  has  placed  some  very 
important  collections,  selected  and  arranged  by  himself.  In  the  first 
room  of  the  building  General  Pitt  Rivers  explained  that  in  1852  he 
commenced  forming  a  museum  on  the  principle  of  selecting  his  subjects 
and  then  exhibiting  objects  to  show  the  history  and  development  of  each. 
The  collection  arranged  on  the  fore-mentioned  system  he  exhibited  at 
South  Kensington  and  Bethnal  Green  for  some  years,  and  subsequently 
gave  it  to  the  University  of  Oxford,  where  £10,000  was  voted  for  its 
preservation.  As  he  had  noticed  people  at  museums  usually  took  little 
interest  in  what  they  saw  unless  they  knew  something  about  them,  the 
Museum  at  Farnham  was  a  collection  which  he  had  arranged  to  illustrate 
those  occupations  which  the  inhabitants  of  the  district  were  most  familiar 
with — namely,  agriculture  and  handicraft ;  whilst  the  objects  themselves 
were  so  well  labelled  that  every  one  could  soon  find  out  what  they  wanted. 
On  some  shelves  were  pottery  of  various  kinds,  in  one  case  jewellery  and 
ornaments  of  the  peasantry  of  different  nations,  whilst  the  various  kinds 
and  shapes  of  caps  worn  by  the  women  in  different  villages  in  Brittany 
formed  about  the  most  interesting  series  of  all.  Each  parish  in  Brittany 
had  its  own  distinctive  cap,  worn  by  the  women,  the  original  type  of 
which  is  maintained  thoughout.  In  an  adjoining  room  would  be 


found  some  remarkably  old  wood  carving,  originally  used  for  beds 
by  the  natives  of  Brittany.  The  ancient  and  modern  work  in 
this  handicraft  was  well  exhibited  by  these  specimens.  Another  case  was 
arranged  to  illustrate  the  implements  in  use  during  the  stone,  bronze,  and 
iron  ages.  General  Pitt  Rivers  then  proceeded  to  describe  the  various 
models  which  he  had  prepared  during  the  progress  of  the  excavations 
at  Rotherly  Woodcuts  and  Bokerley.  One  difficulty  which  these  ancient 
inhabitants  met  with  was  illustrated — viz.,  that  of  obtaining  suitable 
flints  for  purposes  of  digging,  and  this  they  overcame  by  sinking  deep 
shafts  or  mines  to  obtain  the  kind  of  flints  they  required.  At  Cissbury 
Camp  there  were  numerous  shafts,  which  went  down  40  feet  beneath 
the  surface.  The  model  of  the  village  found  on  Woodyates  Common  was 
viewed.  In  another  room  of  the  Museum  the  models  of  the  excavations 
at  Bokerly  Dyke  were  exhibited.  General  Pitt  Rivers  said  the  work  here 
was  more  interesting  than  elsewhere  as  it  gave  larger  evidence  of  the 
life  of  the  people  of  that  time,  and  because  the  Dyke  was  a  defensive 
work,  covering  a  large  tract  for  the  defence  of  the  West  of  England. 
Near  the  Dyke  was  to  be  seen  a  portion  of  the  Old  Roman  Road, 
which  ran  from  Sarum  to  Badbury  and  which  the  President  had 
traced  much  further  towards  the  Estuary  of  Poole.  At  a  curve 
of  the  Dyke  was  an  important  entrenchment  which  cut  across  the 
Roman  Road.  A  great  deal  had  been  written  about  this  Dyke  ; 
the  chief  point  was  to  discover  the  date  of  it,  and  this  was 
to  be  done  by  cutting  through  the  rampart  to  find  the  surface  lying 
beneath.  One  day  the  bandmaster,  Mr.  Laws,  the  leader  of  General 
Pitt  Rivers  private  band,  noticed  a  man  taking  soil  from  the  top 
of  the  rampart,  and  whilst  doing  so,  several  Roman  coins  were 
found.  Having  obtained  the  consent  of  the  landowner,  Sir  Edmund 
Hulse,  to  commence  the  search,  he  found  several  coins  of  Claudius 
Gothicus  on  the  other  side  of  the  Dyke,  nearly  on  the  surface, 
and  on  the  old  surface  as  many  as  600  coins  of  Honorius  and 
Octavius  were  found.  Honorius  having  left  this  country  about 
A.D  404,  we  have  an  approximate  date  for  the  age  of  the  work. 
In  the  corner  a  skeleton  was  found  tying  so  near  the  old  surface  that  it 
had  been  evidently  buried  before  the  Dyke  was  made  ;  therefore  a 
settlement  must  have  existed  here  anterior  to  that  date.  Relics  of  fires 
and  skeletons  were  found,  as  at  the  village  of  Woodyates,  and  Roman 
coins  were  scattered  about,  proving  the  settlement  to  be  older  than  the 
Dyke.  Why  the  Romans  scattered  coins  about  in  this  way  was  not  certain. 
It  was  evident  that  the  people,  who  came  after  the  Romans,  dug  into  the 
foundation  of  their  houses,  and  threw  up  the  earth  for  the  ramparts 


without  observing  the  coins,  and  these  were  thrown  with  the  earth. 
General  Pitt  Rivers,  in  conclusion,  said  there  was  no  doubt  in  his  mind 
that  Bokerley  Dyke  was  Roman  or  post-Roman. 

The  party  then  drove  to  the  Dyke,  six  miles  distant  from  Farnham, 
but  before  they  reached  it  a  very  severe  storm  of  rain  was  encountered, 
wrhicli  curtailed  the  pleasure  of  the  visit  very  seriously.  General  Pitt 
Rivers,  however,  who  kindly  conducted  the  party  over  the  work  in  spite 
of  the  weather,  pointed  out  the  place  where  he  had  cut  through  the 
rampart  and  found  the  escarps  of  the  Dyke.  Nothing  Saxon,  he  said, 
had  been  found.  He  pointed  out  the  way  in  which  silting  had 
rounded  the  escarps  of  the  Dyke.  With  regard  to  supposing  this 
to  be  the  site  of  Vindogladia,  he  said  that  one  reason  in  favour  of 
this  was  that  Vindogladia  was  twelve  Roman  miles  from  Sarum, 
which  was  the  exact  distance  of  this  spot.  Another  reason  wras  that 
the  Roman  Road  ran  in  a  direct  line  from  Sarum  to  that  point,  and 
from  there  in  a  direct  line  to  Badbury.  At  this  particular  spot, 
however,  it  turned,  and  as  that  was  the  only  turn  in  the  road  from 
Sarum  to  Badbury  it  must  have  been  a  very  important  place.  The  name 
Vindogladia  might  have  bee*h  derived  from  "  Vint,"  signifying  white,  and 
"  Gladh,"  a  rampart,  which  must  have  been  at  the  time  of  its  construction 
a  conspicuous  white  chalk  object  towering  over  the  green  swrard. 

The  rain  continuing  to  fall  heavily  the  party  was  obliged  to  break  up, 
and  this  most  interesting  meeting  was  brought  to  an  unsatisfactorily 
premature  conclusion. 

was  held  in  the  County  Museum  at  Dorchester  on  Friday,  November 
28th,  and  although  the  weather  was  extremely  cold  there  was  a  large 
attendance.  The  President  was  unable  to  attend,  therefore  his  place  was 
occupied  by  the  Rev.  0.  P.  Cambridge.  Five  new  members  were  duly 
proposed  and  elected.  After  some  matters  of  business  had  been  brought  to 
the  notice  of  the  members  the  various  subjects  enumerated  on  the  printed 
programme  for  the  day  wrere  taken  in  order.  The  first  of  them  was  a 
paper  on  "Roman  Fortifications  with  special  reference  to  those  of 
Dorchester"  by  the  Rev.  W.  Miles  Barnes.  This  will  be  found  printed 
in  full  at  p.  135  of  this  volume.  A  discussion  ensued  on  the  conclusion 
of  this  paper.  Mr.  Moule  remarked  that  a  gate,  other  than  those 
mentioned  in  the  paper  had  been  identified  by  Mr.  Jowett,  the  late  town 
surveyor,  who  unearthed  the  foundation  in  Gallows  Hill,  which  appeared 
to  be  Roman,  and  it  seemed  to  him  (Mr.  Moule)  that  from  the  many 
references  to  Durngate  in  the  Dorchester  "Doomsday"  these  foundations 


were  those  of  the  Durn  Gate.  That  Durngate  was  not  necessarily  in  a  line 
with  the  street  of  that  name.  In  the  Middle  Ages  the  North  Gate  was 
in  Glyde  Path.  It  appeared  to  him  from  the  enormous  massiveness  of 
the  Roman  fortifications  that  the  medireval  residents  would  not  be 
so  foolish  as  to  make  new  gates,  and  therefore  the  mediaeval  gate 
was  probably  the  successor  to,  if  not  the  identical  Roman  gate, 
and  consequently  it  stood  at  Glyde  Path,  near  the  cottage  at  Colliton 
House.  A  paper  on  "Studland  Church,"  by  Mr.  W.  Masters  Hardy, 
was  next  read  by  the  Secretary.  This  will  be  found  at  p.  164.  At 
the  conclusion  of  the  paper  Mr.  Albert  Bankes  said  as  this  was  the 
parish  church  of  his  old  home  he  should  like  to  speak  in  praise  of 
those  who  had  undertaken  the  work  of  the  preservation  of  this  church — 
Mr.  Digby  as  rector,  Mr.  Luckham  as  churchwarden,  Mr.  Crickmay  as 
architect,  and  Mr.  Hardy  as  builder.  Referring  to  a  statement  of  Mr. 
Hardy,  that  at  a  time  when  there  was  no  rectory  a  travelling  priest 
did  duty  and  occupied  a  chamber  in  the  church,  he  said  this  was  no 
doubt  true,  because  until  50  years  ago  there  was  no  resident  clergyman, 
and  the  late  Clerk  told  him  he  remembered  when  they  had  to  catch  a 
service  when  they  could.  The  church  was  served  at  that  time  by  a 
Curate  from  Swanage,  and  the  Rectors  being  Pluralists  the  services  were 

A  paper  on  "  Dorset  Implements  of  Stone  in  the  Museum  "  was  then 
read  by  H.  J.  Moule,  Esq.  This  is  given  at  p.  16. 

A  paper  on  the  subject  of  "  Rooks  Planting  Acorns  "  was  then  read  by 
the  Rev.  O.  P.  Cambridge,  F.R.S.  This  paper  is  printed  on  p.  132  of 
this  volume. 

At  the  conclusion  of  this  paper,  the  programme  for  the  day  having 
been  completed,  the  meeting  closed. 

A  SECOND  WINTER  MEETING  was  held  in  the  Museum  at  Dorchester 
on  Tuesday,  February  24th,  1891.  Unfortunately,  the  President  was 
absent  through  ill  health,  and  the  Treasurer  was  detained  through  the 
illness  of  his  eldest  son.  Mr.  Albert  Bankes  took  the  chair  at  the 
commencement  of  the  meeting.  Five  new  members  were  elected  to  the 
Club.  A  proposal,  suggested  by  the  Rev.  F.  A.  H.  Vinon,  that  an 
account  of  the  explorations  lately  carried  out  at  Silchester,  under 
the  direction  of  the  Society  of  Antiquaries,  should  be  laid  before 
the  Club  by  a  lecturer  who  superintended  the  operations,  was  first 
considered.  The  general  feeling  of  the  meeting  was  opposed  to  spending 
any  part  of  the  funds  of  the  Club  on  a  subject  outside  the  bounds  of 
the  county. 


Sir  Talbot  Baker  (Vice-Presiclent),  now  occupying  the  chair,  referred 
to  the  general  impression  of  the  existence  ot  a  Roman  Villa  in  the  parish 
of  Iwerne  Minster  which  had  never  been  excavated.  He  had  written  to 
General  Pitt  Rivers,  who  owned  the  field  where  the  villa  was  supposed 
to  exist,  and  in  reply  the  General  stated  his  doubts  of  the  existence  of  a 
Roman  Villa  on  the  spot  alluded  to,  which  was  immediately  east  of 
Hambledon  Hill.  However,  with  his  permission,  some  preliminary 
excavation  had  been  commenced,  and  various  objects,  such  as  the 
remains  of  a  flint  wall,  fragments  of  pottery,  tiles,  and  a  large  number 
of  nails,  which  were  found,  led  to  the  conclusion  that  a  habitation 
had  existed  on  the  spot.  On  reaching  the  Greensand,  which  formed  the 
substratum,  there  were  marks  of  fire,  soot,  and  ashes  about  the  walls  and 
tiles.  General  Pitt  Rivers,  who  was  working  at  Oxford,  had  promised 
to  commence  excavating  the  spot  himself,  and  in  the  summer  they  might 
hope  that  something  really  interesting  would  be  opened  out. 

Mr.  T.  B.  Groves  exhibited  a  case  of  birds,  collected  by  him  in  the 
vicinity  of  Weymouth  during  the  recent  hard  weather.  No  less  than 
seven  Bitterns  had  been  killed  in  the  neighbourhood  during  this  winter 
—  viz.,  two  at  Chickerell,  one  at  Weymouth,  two  at  Dorchester,  and  two 
at  Abbotsbury.  The  case  exhibited  contained  a  male  bird,  from  a  flock 
of  six,  one  of  the  finest  he  had  ever  seen.  The  bird's  crop  on  examination 
was  found  to  contain  nothing  but  hairs  of  animals.  The  other  birds  in 
the  case  were  a  golden  eye,  a  sheldrake,  and  grey  plover,  and  the  little 
spotted  woodpecker,  Picus  minor,  which  had  had  been  observed  pecking 
at  one  of  the  posts  on  the  Portland  railway.  Mr.  Richardson  exhibited  a 
Queen  wasp  he  had  observed  on  December  14th  hibernating  on  the 
curtain  of  a  bedroom.  The  insect  was  found  suspended  entirely  by  its 
mandibles,  its  wings  and  legs  being  folded  up  under  its  body.  Mr. 
Eustace  Bankes  said  that  on  February  17th  he  had  found  a  wasp  sunning 
itself  on  a  paling,  which  was  a  very  early  date  to  find  wasps  out  of  doors. 
Mr.  Wallis  exhibited  some  relics  of  Romano- British  times  lately  found 
at  Portland— a  ring,  beads,  fragments  of  pottery,  and  a  portion  of  a 
human  jaw  (female)  containing  teeth.  Three  graves  had  been 
discovered  on  the  Island  lately  by  some  workmen  whilst  setting  up  a 
crane,  two  of  which  each  contained  an  urn ;  the  ring  and  the  beads  were 
found  in  the  third  grave. 

The  papers  on  the  printed  programme  for  the  day  were  then  read  in 
order.  These  included  the  following  : — "  Stone  Implements  in  the  Dorset 
County  Museum  "  by  H.  J.  Moule,  Esq.  This  was  a  supplementary 
paper  to  that  read  by  him  at  the  meeting  on  November  28th  on  "Dorset 
Stone  Implements."  This  will  be  found  at  p.  25  of  this  volume. 


The  Rev.  R.  P.  Murray  read  "Notes  on  some  of  the  Rarer  Forms  of 
E ubus  lately  found  in  Dorset."  This  is  printed  at  p.  71.  Mr.  Nelson 
M.  Richardson  read  a  short  paper  on  a  "  Moth,  Tinea  subtilella,  Fuchs, 
recently  discovered  at  Portland,  and  New  to  Britain,"  after  which  a  paper 
on  a  "  Remarkable  Deformity  in  the  Flowering  Head  of  Charlock,"  which 
was  found  in  a  corn  field  near  Radipole,  was  read  by  the  same  author. 
These  papers  are  given  at — Moth,  p.  161 ;  Charlock,  p.  157. 

A  paper  entitled  "  A  Brief  Historical  and  Descriptive  Sketch  of  the 
Churches  in  the  Rural  Deanery  of  Dorchester  (Dorchester  portion)  "  was 
read  by  the  Rev.  W.  M.  Barnes,  rector  of  Monckton.  This  paper  is 
printed  at  p.  36. 

At  the  conclusion  of  this  paper  some  discussion  ensued.  Mr.  A.  Bankes 
referred  to  the  probable  depopulation  of  the  village  of  Winterborne 
Farringdon  by  the  plague  as  a  very  interesting  matter.  Mr.  Moule 
remarked  that  East  Fordington  Church  was  a  rich  field  for  the  investiga- 
tion of  archaeologists.  He  had  been  struck  with  the  similarity  between 
the  design  of  the  Bayeux  tapestry  and  the  carving  on  the  doorway  of 
Fordington  St.  George.  The  latter  was  not  a  tympanum,  as  it  had 
often  been  called,  but  a  thing  of  most  unique  construction.  Indeed,  so 
curious  was  it  that  he  thought  it  had  not  gained  the  fame  it  deserved. 
He  regretted  the  disgracefully  rude  elevation  of  the  north  side  of  the 
church.  The  atrocious  north  aisle  had  been  actually  sanctioned  by  the 
Diocesan  architect  of  that  day.  The  Rev.  W.  M.  Barnes  said  in 
Canterbury  Cathedral  one  could  plainly  see  where  the  axe  work  ended, 
and  the  chisel  work  began.  Two  papers  included  in  the  programme  for 
the  day — viz.,  "  On  some  New  and  Rare  Dorset  Spiders  "  by  the  Rev.  O. 
P.  Cambridge,  and  "  Some  New  and  Rare  British  Shells"  by  Mr.  Charles 
Owen  P.  Cambridge,  Avere  presented,  and,  in  the  unavoidable  absence  of 
the  authors,  were  taken  as  read.  These  papers  will  be  found,  the  former 
at  p.  80  and  the  latter  at  p.  99  of  this  volume.  This  brought  the 
meeting  to  a  conclusion,  and  with  it  terminated  the  work  of  the  season 

Presentation  of  n  ^estimonivtl  to  iht 
JRorton  d.  Stuart, 

The  occasion  of  Mr.  STUART'S  marriage,  in  December,  1890, 
afforded  the  members  of  the  Club  an  opportunity  of  testifying 
their  personal  friendship  towards  him,  as  well  as  their  approbation 
of  his  zeal  and  efficiency  in  his  official  capacity.  A  valuable 
Antique  Coffee  Pot  and  a  Binocular  Field  Glass  were  therefore 
presented  to  him  as  a  wedding  present.  The  subscription  was 
limited  to  a  maximum  of  2s.  6d.  each,  and  153  members  con- 
tributed towards  the  testimonial. 

A  warm  letter  of  thanks  in  acknowledgment  of  this  mark  of 
friendship  and  esteem  was  received  from  Mr.  STUART  and  com- 
municated to  the  Club  at  a  meeting  at  Dorchester  on  the  24th  of 
February,  1891  ;  and,  subsequently,  at  the  annual  meeting  on 
May  27th,  1891,  Mr.  STUART  expressed  in  person  his  gratification 
at  the  receipt  of  this  welcome  and  unexpected  present. 

0.  P.   CAMBRIDGE. 

Jkfo  Jftembcrs  filecttb  since  the  publication  of 

.  xi. 


Askew,  Rev.  R.  H.  Winterborne  Zelstone  Rectory,  Blandford 

Portarlington,  The  Earl  of  Portman  Lodge,  Bournemouth 

Luff,  Montague,  Esq.  Blandford 

Weld-Blundell,  H.,  Esq.  Lulworth  Castle,  Wareham 
Browning,  Benjamin,  Esq., 

M.D.  Weymouth 

Mason,  Philip  B.,  Esq.  Horningham  Street,  Burton-on-Trent 

House,  Edward  H.,  Esq.  Tomson,  Blandford 

Freeman,  Rev.  H.  P. 

Williams  Affpuddle  Vicarage,  Dorchester 

Gravener,  Captain  South  Walks,  Dorchester 

Williams,  E.  W.,  Esq.  Herringston  House,  Dorchester 

Tweed,  The  Rev.  Canon  H.  E.    St.  John's  Villas,  Weymouth 

DORCHESTER,  MAY  27TH,  1891. 

Atkinson,  T.  R.,  Esq.  Gainsborough  House,  Sherborne 

Eaton,  H.  G.,  Esq.  Shepton  Montague,  Castle  Gary 

Furlonge,  Rev.  A.  M.  Chilcombe,  St.  Andrew's  Villa,  Biidport 

Scoror,  A.  P.,  Esq.  Canford,  Wimborne 

Ridley,  Rev.  Stewart  Wareham 

WAREHAM,   JUNE   18TH,    1891. 

Lamb,  Captain  Stephen  E.       Dorchester  Dep6t,    1st  Dorset  Regiment, 

Barracks,  Dorchester 

Carter,  William,  Esq.  The  Hermitage,  Parkstone 

Barnsdale,  Rev.  J.  G.  3,  York  Terrace,  Weymouth 

LYME  REGIS,  JULY  21ST,  1891. 
Garland,  Henry,  Esq.  Worgret,  Wareham 

Daniel,  Woodruffe,  Esq.,          Wareham 
Mitchell,  F.,  Esq.  Chard 

Stephens,  J.  Thompson,  Esq.    Wanderwell  House,  Bridport 
Saunders,  Miss  Augusta  Corscombe,  Cattistock 

LULWORTH,  AUGUST  19xH,  1891. 

Randall,  Colonel  Melbury  Lodge,  Wimborne 

Burdekin,  Norman,  Esq.  Castle  Rise,  Parkstone 

Cother,  Rev.  P.  S.  Turnworth  Rectory,  Blandford 

Carre,  Rev.  Arthur  14,  St.  John's  Terrace,  Weymouth 



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character  and  which  are  Deyoiiu.  ^~  _ 
the  county.  Through  the  perseverance  of  man 
Nature  is  yielding  up  much  of  her  hidden 
treasures ;  energy,  or  its  equivalent  force  heat,  electricity,  and 
other  primary  elements  which  possess  no  material  constituents 
and  are  among  the  most  powerful  agents  in  Nature,  have  not 
escaped  the  grasp  of  man.  Phonography,  perhaps,  is  making  the 
most  startling  progress,  and,  under  the  genius  of  Edison,  is  in  a  fair 
way  towards  perfection.  Geology,  which  50  years  ago  had  no 
standpoint  in  the  Areopagus  of  science,  now  stands  on  one  of  its 
highest  platforms  through  the  genius  of  Lyell,  Sedgwick, 
Murchison,  Prestwich,  and  those  who  have  followed  the  lines  laid 
down  by  these  pioneers,  all  of  whom  have  contributed  towards  the 
knowledge  of  the  physical  and  biological  history  of  our  earth 
from  the  earliest  periods.  We  now  know  the  characteristic  features 
and  constitution  of  the  rocks  which  are  classified  according  to  their 


For  ''June  5th,  1891,"  in  opposite  page,  read  "June  5th, 




o  o  o 
<N   co   ira 

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JUNE  5ra,  1891.) 

SHALL  not  confine  myself  this  morning  to  local 
subjects  which  come  especially  within  the  province 
of  our  Club,  but  shall  include  others  of  a  general 
character  and  which  are  beyond  the  limits  of 
the  county.  Through  the  perseverance  of  man 
Nature  is  yielding  up  much  of  her  hidden 
treasures ;  energy,  or  its  equivalent  force  heat,  electricity,  and 
other  primary  elements  which  possess  no  material  constituents 
and  are  among  the  most  powerful  agents  in  Nature,  have  not 
escaped  the  grasp  of  man.  Phonography,  perhaps,  is  making  the 
most  startling  progress,  and,  under  the  genius  of  Edison,  is  in  a  fair 
way  towards  perfection.  Geology,  which  50  years  ago  had  no 
standpoint  in  the  Areopagus  of  science,  now  stands  on  one  of  its 
highest  platforms  through  the  genius  of  Lyell,  Sedgwick, 
Murchison,  Prestvvich,  and  those  who  have  followed  the  lines  laid 
down  by  these  pioneers,  all  of  whom  have  contributed  towards  the 
knowledge  of  the  physical  and  biological  history  of  our  earth 
from  the  earliest  periods.  We  now  know  the  characteristic  features 
and  constitution  of  the  rocks  which  are  classified  according  to  their 


constitution  and  order  of  superposition,  fossils  having  a  very  subordi- 
nate place,  and  are  only  made  use  of  to  indicate  the  beds  with  which 
they  are  associated.  Professor  Prestwich's  two  recently  published 
volumes  embodying  chemical,  physical,  and  strato-geographical 
geology  treat  exhaustively  of  this  phase  of  the  science,  while  the 
labours  of  Owen,  Huxley,  Hulke,  Lyddeker,  &c.,  in  animal 
palaeontology,  and  of  Carruthers,  Starkie  Gardner,  Clement  Eeid, 
and  Count  Saporta  in  botanical  palaeontology  trace  the  various 
changes  animal  and  plant-life  have  undergone  from  the  remotest 
time  to  the  present.  Inductive  genius  has  never  been  exercised 
more  successfully  than  by  the  late  Mr.  Godwin  Austen,  to  whose 
inspiration  we  are  mainly  indebted  for  the  discovery  of  coal  near 
Dover,  which  is  likely  to  prove  of  much  national  importance  and 
restore  to  the  southern  districts  of  England  the  mineral  industries 
which  they  lost  when  the  iron  ores  of  Wales  and  the  north  of 
England  associated  with  coal  were  found  could  be  more  economi- 
cally smelted  than  the  ferruginous  beds  of  the  Weald  by  the  fuel 
supplied  from  the  forests  of  Kent  and  Sussex.  From  the  days  of 
Buckland  and  Conybeare,  the  relation  of  the  Belgian  coalfields 
and  those  of  the  north  of  Erance  with  the  coalfields  of  Somerset- 
shire was  suspected.  In  the  year  1856  Mr.  Godwin  Austen  sent 
forth  his  memorable  paper,  which  was  read  before  the  Geological 
Society  of  England  in  1856,  "  On  the  possible  extension  of  the 
Coal  Measures  beneath  the  South-Eastern  part  of  England,"  in 
which  was  shown  the  probability  of  the  occurrence  of  coal  near 
enough  to  the  surface  to  be  profitably  worked  in  Kent,  Sussex,  and 
the  Thames  Valley.  A  series  of  coalfields  exist  in  a  direct  line 
from  Minden  in  Hanover  to  the  neighbourhood  of  Calais,  of  which 
the  basin  of  the  Ruhr  in  Westphalia  is  the  largest,  its  estimated 
area  being  2,800  square  miles  ;  those  of  Osnabriick  and  Aix  la 
Chapelle  are  also  in  the  German  territory.  Belgium  has  two 
large  coal-basins  in  the  Province  of  Hainault  arid  N"amur  ; 
while  Valenciennes  and  the  Departments  of  the  Nord  and  of  the 
Pas  de  Calais  yield  abundant  supplies  in  the  French  territory. 
Mr.  Godwin  Austen  considered  that  the  whole  of  the  area  was  once 


a  marshy  swamp,  supporting  a  vegetation  of  vascular  Cryptogams 
and  other  coal-producing  plants,  which  towards  the  close  of  the 
Carboniferous  age  underwent  great  disturbances,  accompanied  with 
a  considerable  compression  of  the  beds  into  numerous  folds  near  the 
German  and  Belgian  frontier.  The  coal  measures  of  Westphalia  have 
a  visible  breadth  of  about  16  miles,  but  are  really  much  greater,  as 
they  dip  under  the  Cretaceous  series,  beneath  which  they  are  now 
worked.  The  diminution  of  breadth  in  the  Belgian  coalfields  is 
referable  to  the  foldings  of  the  strata,  otherwise  the  area  would 
occupy  more  than  five  times  its  present  surface  breadth.  The 
synclinals  only  have  been  preserved,  denudation  having  removed 
the  upper  folds  (anticlinals),  forming  a  chain  of  isolated  narrow 
troughs  parallel  to  a  lineal  ridge,  which  Mr.  Godwin  Austen  terms 
the  Axis  of  Artois,  elevated  after  the  deposition  of  the  uppermost 
Coal  Measures,  and  the  conversion  of  the  vegetable  matter  and 
associated  strata  into  Coal  and  crystalline  limestones.  This  line  of 
disturbance  traverses  the  coal-bearing  districts,  far  into  the  German 
area,  and  along  the  whole  line  the  beds  are  of  the  same  mineral 
character  ;  the  precarboniferous  rocks  of  Somersetshire  are  also 
similar  to  those  on  the  Continent.  After  an  interval  of  ten  or 
eleven  years,  when  Mr.  Godwin  Austen's  bold  theory  became 
generally  accepted  by  geologists,  a  Royal  Commission  was  appointed 
to  consider  the  question.  In  1871  Professor  Prestwich,  who  was  a 
prominent  member  of  the  Commission,  drew  up  a  report  which 
supported  Mr.  Godwin  Austen's  views,  especially  on  the  ground 
that  the  Belgian,  French,  and  Somerset  coalfields  similarly 
disappeared  beneath  the  upper  Secondary  beds.  In  the  year 
following,  the  Sub-Wealden  Exploration  Committee  was  formed,  of 
which  Mr.  Henry  Willett  was  the  originator  and  director.  Boring 
was  commenced  at  Netherfield  near  the  base  of  the  Wealden  Beds. 
The  work  was  abandoned  after  carrying  it  on  to  a  depth  of 
about  2,000  feet,  when  60  feet  only  of  the  Oxford  clay  was  reached, 
mainly  in  consequence  of  an  accident  to  the  lining  pipes  and  the 
irrecoverable  loss  of  the  boring  tool.  The  expense,  which 
amounted  to  £6,275,  was  defrayed  by  private  subscription.  It  was 


evident  the  borings  had  not  touched  Mr.  Godwin  Austen's  ridge,  and 
that  the  next  trial  would  have  to  he  made  some  way  further  north, 
where  the  Wealden-heds  are  absent  and  the  Oolites  very  much 
thinned  out ;  the  JN'etherfield  borings  proved  these  to  be  more  than 
1,700  feet  thick.  The  existence  of  the  ridge  in  the  London  basin, 
where  the  Silurian  and  Old  Red  Sandstone  strata  were  reached 
at  depths  varying  from  800  to  1,200  feet,  and  where  the  Weaiden 
beds  are  absent,  was  confirmed  in  1883  and  subsequent  years, 
-and  the  Oolites  no  thicker  than  87  feet.  The  presence  of  the  lower 
Palaeozoic  rocks  in  the  Thames  Valley  so  near  the  surface  rendered 
the  discovery  of  coal  southward  most  hopeful.  Under  the  advice  of 
Mr.  Boyd  Dawkins,  who  was  an  original  member  of  the  Sub-Wealdeii 
Exploration  Committee,  Sir  Ed.  W.  Watkin,  on  the  part  of  the 
Channel  Tunnel  Company,  commenced  a  boring  experiment  in 
1886  near  Dover  ;  a  shaft  was  sunk  on  the  west  side  of 
Shakespeare  Cliff,  and  at  the  commencement  of  the  present  year  the 
Coal-Measures  were  reached  at  a  depth  only  of  1,204  feet,  and  good 
coal  20  feet  further  down.  They  are  covered  with  500  feet  of  the 
Lower  Cretaceous  and  660  feet  of  the  Upper  Oolites.  It  is 
noticeable  that  Mr.  Godwin  Austen's  views,  expressed  35  years  ago, 
that  the  Wealden  and  Purbeck  Beds  terminate  abruptly  against  the 
Paleozoic  riclge  and  that  coal  might  be  successfully  looked  for,  have 
been  verified  at  Shakespeare  Cliff,  where  the  Lower  Cretaceous  Beds 
have  been  found  to  be  in  contact  with  the  Portland  Beds.  It  will 
be  well  to  bear  in  mind  that  the  Carboniferous  series,  which  is  the 
youngest  of  the  Palaeozoic,  and  the  older  underlying  Silurian  and 
Devonian  rocks,  have  been  encountered  in  the  Thames  Valley 
-borings  near  London,  while  the  Trias,  Permian,  Rh&tic,  and 
Lias  are  entirely  absent,  accompanied  with  a  rapid  thinning  out  of 
the  Oolitic  Beds  and  the  total  disappearance  of  the  Weald  and 
Purbeck  Beds. 

I  will  now  transfer  your  thoughts  from  the  earliest  stratified 
rocks  to  those  which  preceded  the  present  and  Quaternary 
periods.  There  are  good  grounds  for  supposing  that  a  Pleiocene 
Bed  occurs  near  Dewlish,  on  the  ridge  commanding  the  eastern  side 


of  the  village.  The  axis  of  the  bed"  is  unconformable  with  the 
valley,  which  I  consider  has  been  formed  subsequently.  The  fossil 
remains  are  restricted  to  one  species  only,  Eleplias  meridionalis. 
The  larger  bones  only  of  this  gigantic  animal  have  as  yet  been 
met  with,  the  smaller  ones  having  probably  perished  owing  to  the 
dissolving  power  of  rain  water  and  other  atmospheric  causes.  I 
hope  in  the  course  of  the  summer  to  make  a  thorough  examination 
of  the  bed  in  its  extension  across  the  plateau,  where  the  superin- 
cumbent material  is  thicker  and  more  protective,  and  to  find 
additional  confirmatory  evidence  of  the  Pleiocene  character  of  the 

From  the  evidence  of  the  flora  contained  in  the  Norfolk  Pleiocene 
Crags,  Professor  Prestwich  and  Mr.  Clement  Reid  are  both  agreed 
that  the  average  climate  during  the  Pliocene  period  was  much  the 
same  as  that  of  the  present  day.  The  gradual  dying  out  of  the 
southern  types,  and  corresponding  increase  of  the  northern  marine 
fauna  to  an  Arctic  one,  they  attribute  less  to  general  climatic 
changes,  rather  than  to  an  uninterrupted  communication  with  the 
Northern  Sea,  which  favoured  the  immigration  of  Arctic  species, 
while  the  southern  fauna  having  no  such  communication  with  the 
warmer  seas  of  the  south  would  be  ultimately  overwhelmed  and 
extirpated.  Southern  forms  of  freshwater  mollusca  occur  mixed 
with  Arctic  marine  shells  in  some  of  the  Crags,  leading  to  the 
conclusion  that  both  lived  at  the  same  time  side  by  side.  Oak, 
beech,  elm,  pine,  fir,  and  yew  occur  in  the  Forest-Bed,  and  while 
the  few  marine  animals  are  of  a  northern,  the  land  mammalia, 
25  in  number,  are  of  a  southern  type  ;  of  these  three  only  are  now 
living  in  Britain  and  five  in  any  part  of  the  world. 

After  the  gradual  refrigeration  of  the  Pleiocene  climate  a 
period  of  'intense  cold  prevailed,  modified  more  than  once 
probably  when  temperate  fauna  returned  -from  their  southern 
temporary  refuges  in  which  they  had  sought  shelter.  The 
Boulder  Clays  of  Norfolk  are  intercalated  with  lignites  and 
remains  of  Pleistocene  mammalia,  showing  that  considerable 
changes  of  climate  must  Jiave  occurred  during  the  deposition. 


The  changes  are  more  clearly  shewn  in  the  Scandinavian 
and  Danish  peat-beds,  by  which  are  defined  the  nature  of  the 
different  forests  which  grew  up,  perished,  and  succeeded  each  other, 
suited  to  the  altered  conditions  of  climate.  An  Arctic  flora  is  found 
beneath  the  oldest  forests  which  are  chiefly  composed  of  the  aspen 
and  birch.  The  Scotch  fir  comes  next  in  succession,  then  the  oak, 
and,  lastly,  the  alder.  The  beech  is  now  the  prevailing  tree.  It 
seems  clear  then  that  as  the  Glacial  Age  was  passing  away  and  the 
climate  ameliorated,  forest  trees  grew  and  flourished.  The  Scotch 
firs  in  the  earliest  beds  are  stunted  ;  their  rings  of  growth  are 
so  compact  that  70  can  be  counted  in  one  inch  of  thickness.  In 
spite  of  these  apparent  unfavourable  conditions  they  managed  to 
live  for  three  or  four  centuries.  The  beech  has  supplanted  the  oak 
in  Denmark,  and  the  forests  of  which  it  is  composed  are  reckoned 
to  be  the  finest  in  the  world.  The  flora  which  preceded  the  aspen 
and  the  fir  was  decidedly  Arctic,  such  as  Dryas  odopetala,  Salix 
polaris,  S.  herbacea,  and  S.  reticulata,  Betula  nana,  Oxyria  digyna, 
and  one  bird — a  Swift — Apus  glacialis,  which  is  not  uncommon  now 
in  the  Spitzbergen  lakes,  but  is  not  met  with  farther  south  than  the 
Douvre  Mountains.  The  Hippophae  rhamnoides,  which  grew  side 
by  side  at  that  remote  period  with  Dryas  octopetala,  has  lost  its 
Arctic  habits  and  even  grows  at  sea  level  in  temperate  regions.  I 
have  found  it  near  Grenoble,  on  the  dry  portions  of  the  bed  of  the 
river  Drac.  It  has  taken  a  firm  hold  in  the  green  walks  of  Lord 
Ilchester's  lovely  gardens  at  Abbotsbury  Castle.  It  is  noticeable 
that  the  Spruce-fir  was  indigenous  in  England  before  the  Ice  Age, 
when  it  migrated  southward  never  to  return  as  a  native.  The 
Grass  of  Parnassus  and  the  Stag-moss  are  among  the  few 
representatives  of  the  northern  flora  in  Dorsetshire. 

The  tufaceous  beds  of  France,  Italy,  and  Germany  have  thrown 
much  light  upon  the  migration  of  plants  caused  by  climatal  changes 
and  the  influence  of  man.  Their  origin  is  due  to  a  calcareous 
precipitate,  which  encrusted  every  object  with  which  it  came  in 
contact,  giving  it  the  appearance  of  having  been  turned  into 
stone,  leaving  impressions  of  the  shape  and  structure  of  mosses, 


twigs,  and  leaves  even  to  the  finest  fibre.  I  have  recently  visited 
one  of  these  "beds  in  the  Valley  of  the  Lez,  near  Montpellier, 
which  is  not  of  any  great  antiquity.  Of  the  30  species  of  plants 
contained  in  these  tufas,  nine  have  quitted  the  Valley  of  the  Lez, 
one  has  retired  to  the  Cevennes,  four  have  left  the  Department  of 
the  Herault  altogether.  These  losses  have  been  compensated  for  by 
fresh  accessions,  which  now  retain  a  predominant  hold  in  all  parts  of 
the  district,  none  of  which  are  represented  in  these  tufas.  Quercus 
coccifera,  a  dwarf  spinous-leaved  oak,  is  now  most  abundant  and  so 
characteristic  of  the  arid  limestone  plateaux  of  the  Department 
that  it  furnishes  the  name  garrigue,  derived  from  garroville,  its 
Proven£al  name.  The  tufas  of  Provence  to  the  east  and  Italy 
equally  contain  no  trace  of  the  Cistus',  the  Genistas,  the  Thymes, 
the  Rosemaries,  and  Lavenders  with  which  those  who  botanize 
over  these  vast  wastes  are  so  familiar,  and  which  form  their  leading 
botanical  features. 

The  remarkable  journey  of  Doctor  ISTansen  and  his  companions 
across  Greenland  in  August  and  September,  1889,  deserves  a 
passing  remark.  Jansen  and  Stunstrup  attempted  a  similar 
journey  in  1878,  and  after  encountering  many  difficulties  were 
unable  to  penetrate  further  inland  than  40  miles  after  reaching  an 
altitude  of  5,000  feet.  The  distinguished  Arctic  voyager  and 
explorer,  Baron  Nordenskiold,  was  somewhat  more  successful  in 
1885,  when  he  penetrated  90  miles  of  the  interior  after  travelling 
over  a  continual  snow  desert.  An  American,  Mr.  R.  E.  Peasy,  in 
the  year  following  reached  an  altitude  of  7,525  feet  after  a  journey 
of  100  miles  direct  into  the  interior.  Doctor  Nansen's  expedition 
left  Iceland  June  4th,  1888,  intending  to  land  near  Cap  Dan. 
Being  unable  to  get  within  50  miles  of  the  coast  on  account  of  the 
obstruction  by  icebergs,  he  took  to  his  two  boats,  one  of  which  was 
disabled  ;  when  repaired  after  much  delay  and  danger  the 
journey  was  resumed,  but  strong  currents  carried  him  rapidly 
southward  along  the  coast ;  after  several  fruitless  attempts  to  land 
he  succeeded  in  reaching  Anoritok,  July  29th,  61°  30'  N.  lat.,  240 
miles  farther  south  than  he  intended,  and  did  not  reach  Umiavik 


64°  30'  N.  lat.  until  August  15th,  when  the  expedition  commenced 
its  arduous  task.     Strange  to  say,  at  first  the  intense  heat  compelled 
the  party  to  travel  at  night.     A  heavy  gale  was  encountered  the 
second  day,  which  confined  the  party  to  their  tents  three  days. 
In  the  early  part  of  September  an  extensive  plateau  between  8,000 
and  9,000  feet  above  the  sea-level,  and  resembling  a  frozen  ocean, 
was  reached,  which  occupied  three  weeks  to  cross.     The  cold  at 
this  altitude  was  excessive,  but   Doctor   Nansen  was   unable  to 
register  it  as  his  thermometers  were  not  adapted  for   so  low  a 
temperature ;    he    calculates    that    some    nights    it   was    80°   or 
90°  Fahr.  below  freezing  point.     The  mountains  of  the  west  coast 
were  first  sighted  on  September  19th,  when  they  were  arrested  by 
dangerous  ice  and  crevasses,  which  were  happily  safely  traversed, 
and  on  September  26th  the  party  reached  the  coast  at  Ameralik 
Fjord,  64°  12'  N.  lat.     The  sledges  of  the  expedition  were  propelled 
over  the  ice  by  sails,  which  relieved  the  party  considerably  when 
the  wind  and  weather  were  favourable.     Doctor  Nansen  and  his 
party  were  obliged  to  spend  the  winter  at  Godthaab,  as  the  last 
ship  of  the  season  had  left,  and  they  did  not  reach  Copenhagen 
until  May  last,  1889.     Doctor  Nansen's  main  object  was  to  prove 
the  possibility  of  traversing  the  Continent  of  Greenland,  and  in 
this  he  was  eminently  successful.     He  considers  that  Greenland 
is  completely  covered  over  by  snow,  the  accumulation  of   ages, 
which  in  some  instances  cannot  be  less  than  600  feet  thick,  and 
which  covers  the  tops  of  the  mountains  with  glaciers  and  crevasses. 
The  pressure  of  this  enormous  mass,  with  running  streams  under- 
neath, which  are  the  sources  of  the  ever-flowing  rivers,  prevent 
an  excessive  growth  of  the  ice.     It  seems  more  than  probable  that 
the  configuration  of  Greenland  is  similar  to  that  of  Norway  and 
Sweden   with   their   rugged   mountain   masses,   high   ridges,   and 
fjords.     Doctor  Nansen's  description  of  the  mass  of  frozen  snow 
forcing   its   way  from  the  high  plateaux   of   the   interior  to  the 
coast  with  a  resistless,  crushing,  grinding  pressure  gives  some  idea 
of  the  changes  the  earth's  crust  has  been  subject  to  under  glacial 


A  remarkable  phenomenon  in  the  shape  of  a  waterspout  occurred 
at  High  Stoy,  the  highest  point  of  a  range  of  hills  between 
Melbury  and  Minterne,  on  the  7th  of  June  last,  about  six  o'clock 
p.m.  It  followed  the  road  which  traverses  the  crest  of  the  hill, 
tearing  up  the  largest  stones  from  its  foundation.  It  was  preceded 
by  much  thunder  and  lightning,  but  with  little  rain,  during  the 
previous  afternoon.  The  column  of  water,  which  was  described  as 
being  about  the  thickness  of  a  man's  body,  moved  at  a  rapid  rate 
in  the  direction  of  the  axis  of  the  hill  range,  shown  by  the 
devastation  it  occasioned.  Holes  eight  or  nine  feet  deep  were  dug 
out  in  several  parts  of  the  road,  and  an  overwhelming  stream 
hurled  the  material  down  the  hill  side.  The  Rev.  A.  J.  Poole,  of 
Stowell  Kectory,  in  his  description  of  it  said  there  was  no  other 
evidence  of  the  destructive  effects  of  the  waterspout  neither  on 
the  other  parts  of  the  road  nor  on  the  surrounding  land,  and  that 
the  holes  could  not  be  assigned  to  the  action  of  a  storm,  as  the 
road  is  situated  on  a  ridge  of  the  hill,  and  could  only  have  been 
occasioned  by  a  solid  column  of  water  falling  with  force  from  a  great 
height.  The  contents  of  the  waterspout  were  poured  out  in  its 
passage  over  Batcombe,  Hannaf ord,  .and  Chetnole  on  the  west  side  ; 
Cerne  and  Minterne  on  the  north.  The  tumultuous  torrents  poured 
down  the  hill  side  and  took  the  course  of  a  small  stream,  which 
soon  overflowed  its  banks,  carrying  destruction  to  everything  which 
opposed  its  course.  At  Hannaford  Mill  much  stock  was  drowned, 
and  at  Chetnole  Mills  the  men  had  scarcely  time  to  escape  before  the 
water  had  reached  the  first  floor.  Large  trees  were  uprooted  and 
carried  down  some  distance  by  the  force  of  the  stream.  About  a 
hundred  yards  of  Major  Wingfield  Digby's  garden-wall  and  his  green- 
house were  thoroughly  wrecked.  Through  his  help  several  school- 
children were  promptly  rescued  from  a  watery  grave.  The  atmos- 
pheric disturbances  in  the  neighbourhood  were  very  excessive  ; 
thunder  and  lightning,  accompanied  with  torrents  of  rain,  occurred 
at  Cattistock  in  the  afternoon  of  the  7th  of  June.  At  Melbury 
there  was  thunder  and  lightning  without  rain.  A  terrific  thunder 
storm  occurred  at  Langton  Herring  on  the  night  of  the  6th.  At 


Wliatcombe  there  were  heavy  thunderstorms  that  night,  which 
lasted  until  11.30  p.m.  ;  the  rain  was  inconsiderable.  Mr.  G.  T. 
Symons,  -F.R.S.,  the  eminent  meteorologist,  regretted  that  the 
contents  of  the  waterspout  had  not  been  tested  so  as  to  ascertain 
whether  the  water  which  supplied  it  was  fresh  or  salt.  Mr.  Poole 
states  a  lady  of  his  acquaintance  saw  a  large  waterspout  a  few  years 
ago  carried  up  from  the  sea  with  one  of  its  spouts  hanging  over 
Batcombe  Hill,  which  ultimately  became  absorbed  in  the  clouds. 

An  earthquake,  the  centre  of  which  was  supposed  to  have  been 
near  Cherbourg,  was  felt  in  Dorsetshire  on  the  13th  May.  The 
vibration  travelled  onwards  at  the  rate  of  about  90  miles  a  minute, 
and  reached  our  south  coast  at  8.21  p.m.,  and  London  8.21  J.  The 
shock  was  felt  at  Blandford,  which  Mr.  H.  Groves  states  lasted 
about  ten  seconds,  and  at  about  the  same  time,  8.15.  The  shock 
was  felt  in  the  Wareham  parish  church  during  Divine  service  ;  the 
first  was  slight  and  only  caused  the  roof  to  creak  ;  it  was  succeeded 
by  a  severer  one  which  set  the  chancel  lamps  swinging;  those 
whose  seats  were  fixed  to  the  piers  or  pillars  experienced  a  distinct 
trembling  movement.  The  shock  extended  to  Bournemouth  and 
Poole.  An  earthquake,  accompanied  by  a  heavy  ground  sea,  was 
felt  at  Lyme  Regis,  July  5th,  between  11  and  11.15  p.m. 

Archeeologists  are  awaiting  General  Pitt  Rivers'  report  upon  his 
excavations  in  Bockerly  Dyke  with  much  interest,  there  will 
probably  be  a  cause  of  modification  of  opinion  as  to  its  date  and 
origin.  The  Dyke  traverses  the  remains  of  an  extensive  Roman 
settlement,  which  may  prove  to  be  the  long  contested  site  of 
Yindogladia.  Among  the  various  relics  found  in  the  entrenchments 
is  a  series  of  coins  ranging  from  Gallienus  A.D.  260,  to  Honorius  A.D. 
395,  a  period  embracing  a  most  important  portion  of  the  Roman 
occupation  of  Britain.  General  Pitt  Rivers  divides  the  history  of 
the  Dyke  into  three  periods,  its  south-eastern  being  the  oldest, 
and  might  possibly  be  earlier  Roman  or  pre-Roman.  He  accounts 
for  the  abrupt  termination  of  both  extremities  by  their  being 
flanked  by  a  forest  which  would  render  any  artificial  means  of 
defence  superfluous.  The  second  period  is  marked  by  an  extension 


of  the  Dyke  in  the  direction  of  West  Woodyates,  crossing  the 
present  Salisbury  road  and  the  Roman  road.  The  third  by 
the  destruction  of  that  part  of  the  rampart  which  lies  between 
the  Salisbury  road  and  its  western  extension,  and  by  the  substitu- 
tion of  another  rampart  a  little  to  the  north,  over  ground  more 
strategically  defensive.  A  restoration  of  the  whole  line  of  the 
Dyke,  including  the  entrenchments  made  at  all  three  periods,  was 
made  at  this  time. 

Pre-historic  remains  have  been  frequently  met  with  in  Portland. 
Bones  of  animals  usually  associated  with  man  are  found  in  the 
fissures  which  intersect  the  limestone  beds.  An  interment  of  which 
I  spoke  at  our  last  meeting,  and  which  I  conceive  to  be  of  great 
antiquity,  was  found  in  one  of  these  fissures  at  the  Verne  quarries. 
My  intelligent  friend,  Mr.  Wallis,  of  Mallams,  Portland,  lately  sent 
me  a  sketch  of  a  grave  in  which  was  the  body  of  a  human  being  in 
a  crouching  position.  It  was  accompanied  with  two  stone  spindles, 
three  large  round  stones  (not  pebbles),  weights  probably  of  a 
loom,  also  a  rudely  worked  piece  of  Kimmeridge  shale.  The 
remarkable  underground  bee-hive  chambers  which  are  sometimes 
uncovered  by  the  quarrymen  seem  to  have  been  store-places  for 
corn  in  the  days  of  plunder  and  insecurity. 

The  accession  of  the  eminent  biologists,  Professor  Allman, 
F.R.S.,  and  Doctor  Alfred  Russell  Wallace,  L.L.D.,  as  members  of 
our  Club  is  a  subject  for  much  congratulation  to  myself,  as  I  feel 
sure  it  is  to  every  member.  Professor  Allman,  late  President  of 
the  Linnsean  Society,  has  contributed  largely  during  his  long  and 
laborious  life  to  the  science  of  biology.  His  special  attention  has 
been  turned  towards  the  early  forms  of  animal  life — the  Protozoa 
and  Polyzoa.  His  two  voluminous  folio  memoirs  on  the  Fresh 
Water  Polyzoa  and  Hydroida  are  master-pieces  of  research  and 

Dr.  Allman's  anniversary  address  as  President  of  the  Linnsean 
Society  in  1876  on  "  Recent  Researches  among  some  of  the 
Sarcode  Organisms  "  has  removed  some  of  the  obstructions  which 
obscured  the  knowledge  of  the  early  stages  of  life  from  the 


protoplasmic-cell  to  maturity.  A  subsequent  Anniversary  Address 
to  the  Society  in  1879  embraces  the  phenomena  of  the  growth  of 
the  egg-cell  of  animal  and  vegetable  life  by  cell  multiplications. 
His  address  the  following  year  (1880)  "On  the  aspects  of 
vegetation  in  the  littoral  districts  of  Provence,  the  Maritime  Alps, 
and  the  western  extremity  of  the  Ligurian  Blviera,"  shews  him  to 
be  a  lover  of  Nature,  both  physical  and  botanical. 

Dr.  Wallace's  important  work,  "  The  Geographical  Distribution 
of  Land  Animals  with  the  relation  of  living  and  extinct  Fauna,"  is 
the  Naturalist's  text-book  of  the  first  order.  His  most  recently 
published  work,  entitled  "  Darwinism,"  is  intended,  as  he  says,  to 
give  such  an  account  of  the  theory  of  Natural  Selection  as  may  enable 
any  intelligent  reader  to  obtain  a  clear  conception  of  Darwin's 
work.  He  incorporates  original  and  important  statements  of  his 
own  views  and  observations,  which  are  of  great  value  to  the 
student  of  Natural  History.  Among  much  that  is  interest- 
ing are  his  remarks  on  the  uses  of  colour  in  animals.  He 
insists  that  coloration  has  a  definite  purpose  in  Nature,  either 
for  protection  or  concealment  and  recognition  by  those  of  similar 
species,  that  the  sexual  difference  of  colour  is  only  prominent 
among  the  higher  and  more  active  animals.  Doctor  Wallace's 
observations,  too,  on  the  nests  of  birds  are  equally  interesting.  He 
shews  that  when  they  are  open  and  the  female  sits  exposed  in  her 
nest,  as  is  the  case  writh  pheasants,  &c.,  instead  of  being  brightly 
coloured  like  the  male  she  escapes  observation  by  being  furnished 
with  a  sombre  plumage  suited  to  the  environments  of  her  nest,  and 
conferring  upon  her  greater  security  during  her  period  of  incubation. 
In  these  cases,  where  the  sexes  are  equally  brilliantly  coloured  and 
conspicuous,  such  as  the  Kingfishers,  Woodpeckers,  Toucans, 
Parrots,  &c.,  they  all  nest  in  holes  in  the  ground  or  in  trees,  or 
build  a  domed  or  covered  nest,  so  as  completely  to  conceal  the  sitting 
bird.  In  an  interesting  chapter  upon  the  ornaments,  brilliancy  of 
colour,  and  other  accessories  peculiar  to  many  males,  Doctor 
Wallace  takes  a  different  view  to  that  of  Darwin,  who  regarded 
them  as  causes  of  attraction  for  female  preference.  Doctor 


Wallace  considers  these  ineffective  to  secure  the  fittest  for  the 
struggle  of  life,  inasmuch  as  many  possessing  them  are  not 
necessarily  the  most  healthy  and  vigorous,  and  that  the  selection 
must  be  restricted  to  the  direct  result  of  male  struggle  and 
combat.  He  shewed  there  cannot  possibly  be  female  selection  in 
the  case  of  merit,  as  not  one  out  of  a  hundred  of  their  eggs 
produces  a  perfect  insect  and  lives  to  breed.  Our  Treasurer 
supports  Doctor  Wallace's  view  on  this  subject.  An  extract  from 
a  letter  written  by  him  in  1869  is  reproduced  in  "Darwinism," 
upon  which  Dr.  Wallace  makes  the  following  remark  : — "  This 
passage  gives  the  independent  views  of  a  close  observer,  one, 
moreover,  who  has  studied  the  species  of  an  extensive  group 
of  animals,  both  in  the  field  and  in  the  laboratory,  and  very  nearly 
accords  with  my  own  conclusions  above  given,  and  so  far  as  the 
matured  opinions  of  a  competent  naturalist  have  any  weight,  affords 
them  an  important  support."  His  remarks  upon  the  sexual 
coloration  of  insects  are  equally  fascinating,  and  he  points  out  that 
from  an  animal  point  of  view  geology  reveals  to  us  the  conditions 
of  an  earlier  and  a  better  state  of  things  than  prevails  at  present. 
I  share  the  author's  belief  in  the  spiritual  nature  of  man,  and  I 
rise  from  the  study  of  "  Darwinism  "  with  the  assurance  that  this 
spiritual  nature  is  derived  from  the  Spirit  of  God,  which  confers 
the  possession  of  an  eternally  living  Soul. 

It  seems  to  me  the  Darwin  theory  does  not  clearly  define  the 
influence  it  assigns  to  natural  selection  in  its  relation  to  coloration 
and  instinct.  It  grants  that  new  varieties  of  animals  and  plants 
can  be  produced  without  the  aid  of  natural  selection,  and  in  the 
case  of  instinct  it  must  have  been  coeval  with  primordial  life  or 
derivative.  Later  on  there  is  no  reason  to  doubt  instincts  have  been 
acquired.  With  regard  to  coloration  it  is  remarkable  that  Alpine 
plants  where  insect  life  is  very  sparse  are  more  intensely  brilliant 
and  varied  in  colours  than  in  the  genial  plains  below  with  their 
myriads  of  insects.  The  coloration  of  Alpine  plants  cannot  be 
employed  as  a  means  of  attracting  insects  for  the  purpose  of  crosa- 
fertilization.  .  They  are .  for  the.  .most  part  propagated  by  self- 


fertilization,  and  thereby  maintaining  a  vigorous  and  prolific 

The  seasonal  changes  of  colour  to  which  the  coats  and  furs  of 
animals  are  subject,  especially  in  Polar  regions,  seem  to  be  due  to 
the  action  of  light  and  heat  upon  the  pigmefnt-cells  and  upon  the 
chlorophyll-cells  in  the  case  of  plants.  With  regard  to  instinct, 
much  intelligence  is  apparent  amongst  the  lowest  and  most  rudi- 
mentary forms  of  animal  life,  which  could  not  have  been  evolved 
but  are  original  and  primary.  The  questions,  both  of  coloration 
and  of  instinct,  are  highly  interesting.  Are  protective  or  attractive 
coloration  and  instinct  exclusively  the  product  of  natural  selection 
or  the  results  of  an  overruling,  directing,  intelligent  mind  ? 

Among  the  various  problems  connected  with  Darwinism,  none  has 
engaged  more  attention  than  that  of  heredity,  the  more  so  just  now 
owing  to  the  publication  of  Doctor  Weissman's  tracts  on  the  subject, 
which  have  recently  become  accessible  to  the  general  reader  by  an 
English  translation  from  the  German.  To  explain  the  process  which 
persistently  carries  organisms  through  successive  generations,  uniting 
the  ancestor  with  its  most  recent  descendant,  has  engaged  the 
attention  of  biologists  since  the  time  of  Hippocrates.  There  is  a 
recognised  tendency  of  every  organism  to  produce  its  like,  or 
varying  from  it  slightly,  and  in  every  case  the  parent  transmits  to 
the  offspring  structural  modifications  and  functional  peculiarities. 
A  constant  struggle  for  existence  follows  these  changes  ;  the 
swiftest,  strongest,  hardiest,  and  colour  favouring  concealment  in  the 
case  of  animals  ;  strength  of  shoot,  period  of  flowers  or  seeding, 
armature,  colour,  or  odour  to  attract  insects  in  the  case  of  plants. 
In  the  case  of  unicellular  organisms,  which  multiply  by  fission,  and 
when  the  two  parts  are  exactly  alike  in  size  and  structure, 
heredity  depends  simply  upon  the  continuity  of  the  individual 
during  the  uninterrupted  process  of  fission ;  but  in  the  case  of 
multicellular  organisms,  which  do  not  increase  in  numbers  by  simple 
division,  but  multiply  by  means  of  sexual  reproduction,  great 
difficulties  arise  to  account  for  the  principle  of  heredity.  Darwin's 
theory  of  Fangenesis,  which  he  put  forward  as  a  provisional 


solution,  goes  to  shew  that  every  cell  in  all  the  tissues  of  a 
multicellular  organism  throws  off  germs  or  gemmules,  which 
multiply  by  self-division,  and  after  circulating  through  the  whole 
body  are  collected  from  all  parts  of  the  system  in  the  condition  of 
cell-seeds,  which  have  a  strong  affinity  for  each  other.  These 
constitute  the  generative  ova  and  spermatozoa,  the  fusion  of  which 
produces  a  new  organism.  A  large  number  failing  to  develop,  are 
transmitted  in  a  dormant  state  to  future  generations  to  be  sub- 
sequently developed.  These  are  not  thrown  off  until  the  organism 
is  in  an  adult  state.  Doctor  Weissman,  on  the  other  hand, 
supposes  that  in  multicellular  organisms  some  cells,  which  he 
terms  somatic  cells,  are  specially  fitted  to  provide  for  nutrition, 
while  others  —  germ-cells  —  perform  the  work  of  production. 
These  he  considers  are  transmitted  without  break  of  continuity 
from  one  generation  to  the  next,  and  do  not  differentiate  until 
late  in  embryo  growth,  ultimately  attaining  a  highly  specialised 

The  germ-plasms,  which  originated  in  the  unicellular  organisms, 
are  carried  on  in  the  multicellular  in  continuity  from  generation  to 
generation.  On  the  occasion  of  the  fusion  of  two  germ-plasms  a 
new  organism  is  formed  and  a  portion  of  it  placed  aside  in  the 
gemmule-cells  to  secure  that  continuity.  This  fusion  must  bring 
different  proportions  of  different  elements  together  in  each 
generation  ;  but  a  point  requiring  explanation  is — how  the  several 
varieties  in  the  germ-cells  commenced  in  order  to  make  generic  and 
specific  differences.  The  two  theories  of  Pangenesis  and  heredity 
are  extremes  of  several  intermediates,  differing  more  or  less  from 
both.  For  my  part  it  appears  to  me  the  problem  must  remain 
among  the  hidden  arcana  of  Nature's  mysteries. 

Jtote*  on  the  §tont  Implement*,  #r.,  in  the 


By  H.    J.    MOULE,    M.A. 

ET  me  begin  by  saying  in  what  spirit  it  is  that  I 
act  on  Dr.  Smart's  suggestion  that  I  should  write 
a  paper  on  the  Stone  Implements,  &c.,  in  the 
Dorset  Museum.  I  aim  low.  Our  collection 
would  be .  poor  without  the  specimens  acquired 
from  Mr.  Cunnington.  Now  he  promises  a  book 
on  his  important  researches.  In  view  of  this  I,  of  course,  must 
take  heed  lest  I  seem  to  be  in  the  slightest  degree  forestalling  him. 
And,  apart  from  this,  it  is,  I  suppose,  a  short  notice,  not  an  essay, 
that  is  wanted  from  me.  In  trying  to  carry  out  these  ideas  I  have 
an  unpleasant  fear  that  I  am  rash.  It  is  very  hard  to  condense 
without  squeezing  out  every  particle  of  interest  from  a  subject  like 

Probably  some  members  of  the  Club  entirely  doubt  the  artificial 
working  of  many  of  the  flints  and  other  stones  called  implements. 
If  so,  I  would  ask  my  friends  to  remember  that  stone  implements 
as  rude  as  the  roughest  ancient  ones  are  in  use,  or  have  been  in 
quite  recent  years.  In  this  Museum  there  is  a  very  rudely  split 
pebble,  which,  found  with  charred  and  splintered  moa  bones  in 

Proc.  Dorset  JV.  H.  &  A.  F.  Club  Vol.  J2Z".  7&9/ .   7Y    7. 

1 .  Arrow  tvecul..  Mar  Cr-artbvT'na .  Smout  CcUF  J .  Scraper  for  arrow-shafts ? 'Frome  WdbvellJlogg  C? 
2,3.      D°:        2,&nqygarHM,Forduvgtorv      6.  I)^r^peMr^haft^^Fordiiigtori, Fields. Hogg  Col Ln 

'   3,  Frcme  Wdtwell> .  Bcdi,  Tlagg  Coll™  1 '.Minute  Celt.  One,  oftfw  circular  entrerichjiierjuLs, 

41.  Knife.  Pentr-idge 3i2l,  Cranborne.Jmart  CoUP'  KnoUoiv.  Smart  CoW^  Tfdj  celt  may  be-  cav 

H  J.Moulp  del.  indtcUMTVofculjJ'Ontieonj^.  Mi-nterrL  Bros .  lith. . 

ALL      FULL    SI-Z'E  . 

STONE    IMPLEMENTS.    ETC.,    IN    THE    DORSET    MUSEUM.         17 

New  Zealand,  was  undoubtedly  an  implement  for  getting  at  the 
marrow.  Further,  I  think  we  may  fairly  give  trust  and  acceptance 
to  the  opinion  of  experienced  antiquaries. 

In  now  proceeding  to  speak  of  the  chief  specimens  in  the  Dorset 
Museum  I  shall  follow  Evans,  both  in  beginning  with  Neolithic 
implements  and  (roughly)  in  order  of  their  varieties.  I  shall  also 
be  guided  by  him  in  including  within  the  four  corners  of  the 
subject  several  contrivances  and  articles  not  exactly  implements. 

i.  Evans'  first  class  of  Neolithic  implements  consists  of  celts. 
First  used,  he  says,  as  an  antiquarian  word  in  1696,  the  name  celt 
seems,  to  my  mind,  curiously  ill  chosen.  It  makes  many  think 
that  it  has  some  reference  to  the  Celtic  race.  It  has  none.  Further, 
it  is  from  celtts,  a  Latin  word  found  in  only  one  single,  solitary 
place — namely,  the  Vulgate  of  Job  xix.,  24.  Otherwise  unknown 
in  antiquity,  it  looks  as  if  it  must  be  a  scribe's  mistake.  Then  it 
is  taken  to  mean  in  that  verse  a  chisel.  In  antiquarian  parlance  it 
means  an  implement  more  like  an  axe.  There  is  a  glamour  about 
celts.  They  were,  nay  are,  called  thunderbolts,  and  credited  with 
magic  power  as  charms.  Before  pointing  out  a  few  of  our  Dorset 
specimens  I  would  say,  in  passing,  that  they  give  one  proof,  among 
many,  that  progress  is  not  always,  and  in  all  things,  a  characteristic 
of  man.  In  the  chipping  of  flints  and  other  stones  into  large 
implements  the  Neolithic  men  seem  to  have  been  less  skilful 
than  some  of  the  much  more  remote  Palaeolithic  men.  And  it  is 
chipping  that  is  the  art  part  of  stone  implement  making.  What 
the  Neolithic  people  did  introduce  (it  seems)  was  smoothing  the 
tools.  But  Ruskin  lays  down  that  nothing  producible  merely  by 
patience  and  sandpaper  is  artistic.  Now  we  have  chipped  Neolithic 
celts  far  ruder,  to  my  eye,  than  most  large  Palaeolithic  implements. 
And  here,  while  speaking  of  rude  celts,  a  word  may  fitly  be  said 
of  certain  extremely  rough  worked  flints  and  other  stones,  also  of 
Neolithic  date  in  the  opinion  of  experts,  as  I  understand.  They 
are  of  the  class  of  implements  called  by  some  mattocks,  and  were 
in  certain  instances  probably  used  in  tillage.  So,  likely  enough, 
were  the  ruder  celts.  But  several  of  these  extra-rough  mattocks, 

18        STONE    IMPLEMENTS,    ETC.,    IN    THE   DORSET    MUSEUM. 

having  been  found  by  Mr.  Cunnington  near  barrows,  are  in  liis 
belief  tools  made  hastily  for  the  interment-work  and  then  thrown 
away.  Again,  in  our  Dorset  collection  we  have  a  fair  number  of 
well  chipped  Neolithic  celts.  Most  stone  celts,  even  from  far  apart 
lands,  such  as  England  and  Japan,  have  a  strangely  marked  family 
likeness.  They  are  of  a  long,  narrow  form,  widening  gradually 
towards  the  end,  where  seems  to  be  the  cutting  edge.  In  connection 
with  this  instinct  for  producing  that  shape,  Evans  notes  that  the 
burnishing  stones  used  at  this  day  by  pewterers  and  bookbinders 
aie  curiously  like  celts.  But  we  have  one  or  two  ancient  Dorset 
specimens  of  a  different  type  of  celts.  It  is  hard  to  say  whether 
this  kind  of  flint  celt  is  the  prototype  of  the  plain,  flat  bronze  celt, 
or  an  imitation  of  it.  Very  possibly  the  latter.  The  flint  tools, 
doubtless,  continued  to  be  used  long  after  bronze  was  imported. 
This  is  the  state  of  things,  as  regards  steel,  to  this  day  in  Central 
America.  One  of  our  flint  celts  (PI.  I.,  fig.  7)  in  question  is 
almost  too  small  to  be  called  a  celt,  and  another  is  not  much 
larger.  But  then  we  have  a  bronze  celt  about  on  a  par  as 
to  size.  And  now  we  come  to  the  celts  which,  among  French 
antiquaries,  give  a  name  to  the  Neolithic  epoch — the  polished 
celts.  To  us  in  this  hurrying  age  the  thought  of  the  time 
which  must  have  been  spent  in  grinding  down  flint,  to  the 
extent  which  we  see,  is  simply  appalling.  But  it  is  nothing  at 
all  to  the  work  done  in  boring  beryl  within  quite  modern  years  by 
certain  South  American  Indians.  With  them  the  boring  of  one 
charm  went  on  during  great  part  of  two  lifetimes,  the  task  being 
bequeathed  from  father  to  son.  But  we  need  not  pity  Indians,  or 
Celts  either,  in  their  long  labours.  In  their  condition  and  mode  of 
life  leisure  was  often  unlimited.  A  piece  of  sedentary  work,  not 
very  laborious,  that  could  be  taken  up  and  put  down  in  a  moment, 
was  not  a  burden,  but  a  positive  relief.  The  smoothing  down  of 
the  surface  of  the  celts  such  as  you  may  see  in  the  Museum,  and 
the  bringing  the  edge  to  that  regularity,  was  not  a  bore  but  a  solace 
to  our  Dorset  forefathers.  You  can  almost  see  them,  sitting  about, 
among  their  round  wattled  huts,  Chalbury  way  or  near  Poundbury, 

STONE    IMPLEMENTS,    ETC.,    IN    THE    DORSET    MUSEUM.         19 

each  man  plodding  away  at  his  celt  with  a  bit  of  heath-stone,  or 
perhaps  with  a  foreign,  basalt  rubber  with  sharp  sand.  This 
polishing  helped  off  a  quantity  of  time  between  hunt  and  hunt,  raid 
and  raid,  field-work  and  field-work.  I  hazard  the  idea  that  these 
wonderfully  finished  celts  must  have  been  ceremoniously  broken 
at  the  burial.  If  broken  in  use  surely  the  edge  would  be  the 
chief  part  to  suffer.  But  sometimes  the  celt  is  broken  across 
and  the  delicate  edge  little,  if  at  all,  damaged.  There  is  a  good 
example  in  the  Museum  from  Laurence  Barrow,  which  till  a  few 
years  ago  stood  behind  Sydney  Terrace,  Dorchester.  In  flinty 
Dorset  flint  celts  are  in  enormous  majority,  compared  with  those  of 
other  kinds  of  stone.  Of  Greenstone  we  have,  however,  two 
excellent  ones  and  fragments  of  others  of  basalt.  And  there  is  in 
the  Cunnington  Collection  another  most  noteworthy  fragment. 
Mr.  Cunnington  found  it  on  B-idgway  by  the  exercise  of  the  extra 
sense  which  he  seems  to  have.  But  I  must  leave  the  story  for  his 
own  telling.  Suffice  it  to  say  that  its  material  is  an  iron-stone  of 
the  utmost  rarity,  and  jet  black.  I  need  hardly  say  that  greenstone, 
basalt,  and  this  ironstone  have  all  come,  wrought  or  unwrought, 
from  outside  Dorset.  The  two  greenstone  celts  are,  indeed,  of 
different  proportion — namely,  rounder  in  section  than  our  flint 
ones  ;  and,  therefore,  may  very  likely  be  foreign-made.  As  to  the 
way  in  which  celts  were  used,  I  may  perhaps  say  a  little  here.  In 
the  opinion  of  some  antiquaries,  as  well  as  of  certain  persons  who 
have  seen  savages  at  work,  celts  were  often  used  for  peaceful 
purposes  without  any  handle  at  all.  An  Australian  settler  has  told 
me  that  he  has  often  watched  a  "  black  fellow  "  holding  a  piece  of 
wood  free  in  his  left  hand  and,  with  an  English  carpenter's  chisel  in 
his  other  hand,  jobbing  away  at  the  wood  in  a  manner  totally 
different  from  anything  that  a  European  would  do.  Very  rough 
work  was  made,  but  the  black  fellow  trusts  to  scraping  to  bring  all 
smooth.  "Depend  upon  it,"  said  my  friend,  "these  celts  were 
often  used  in  that  way."  Very  likely.  Some,  however,  were 
hafted  axe-wise,  past  a  doubt,  for  at  least  two  specimens  have  been 
found  in  the  north  with  their  handles  remaining,  one  in  Solway 

20        STONE    IMPLEMENTS,    ETC.,    IN   THE   DORSET    MUSEUM. 

.Moss.  In  these  instances  the  celt  was  set  in  a  hole  made  through 
the  haft-end.  For  an  implement  of  war,  of  tree-felling,  hunting, 
or  tillage,  a  good  long  handle  was  indispensable.  From  the  Swiss 
lake-villages,  again,  comes  presumptive  evidence  that  probably  here, 
as  certainly  there,  celts  were  sometimes  handled  with  short  pieces 
of  stag's  horn,  to  be  used  as  chisels.  Or  the  butt-end  of  the 
horn-socket  was  in  some  cases  fitted  into  the  side  of  the  knob  of  a 
club,  thus  forming  a  ponderous  axe.  Again,  Swiss  specimens  have 
been  found  in  which  the  celt  is  fitted  into  a  piece  of  the  root-end 
of  the  "  beam  "  of  a  stag-horn,  and  the  brow  antler  retained  as  a 
short  haft.  None  of  these  stag-horn  fittings  have  been  found  in 
Dorset,  that  I  know  of.  But  one  or  two  pieces  of  antler  in  the 
Museum  look  as  if  they  may  have  been  intended  to  be  so  applied. 
There  is  in  the  Cunnington  Collection  one  celt  of  the  sort  which 
seems  intended  for  a  withe  handle,  like  that  of  a  smith's  punch. 
Before  passing  away  from  this  class  of  implements  I  ought  perhaps 
to  say  something  about  the  possibility  of  using  them  for  working 
timber.  I  can  quite  think  that  many  may  disbelieve  this.  I 
would  point  out  two  considerations.  First,  in  ignorance  of  the 
cutting  qualities  of  iron  or  bronze  it  is  likely  that  men  would  be 
satisfied  with  work  which  to  us  would  seem  mere  mangling  of 
wood.  In  Ireland  a  wooden  hut  has  been  found,  preserved  in  peat. 
The  timbers  were  morticed  with  firmness  enough,  it  seems.  But 
the  tenons,  and  everything  showing  tool  marks,  proved  that  all  had 
been  wrought  with  tools  of  a  bluntness  which  to  our  thinking 
would  make  them  useless.  Secondly,  in  the  probably  important 
and  common  work  of  digging  out  canoes  it  is  very  possible  that  fire 
came  into  play.  The  North  American  Indians,  some  of  them, 
thus  made  their  flint  adzes  useful  in  canoe  hollowing.  They 
lighted  small  fires  along  a  log.  After  a  time  they  cleared  away  the 
fire  and  chopped  out  the  charred  timber  below.  Then  another  fire 
and  another  chopping,  and  so  on. 

ii.  Evans'  second  class  of  stone  implements  consists  of  picks, 
chisels,  gouges,  &c.  Of  gouges  I  do  not  think  we  have  any  Dorset 
ones  in.  the  Museum.  They  may  be  described  as  celts  with  a 

ProvDoravb  N.H.&A.F.  Club  Vol.  JIT.  1891.  PI.  11. 

Foot  of  couch,  or  stool.  It  is  made 
of  Eimmeridf/e  Coal. 

ffogy  Cell? 


or  MauL  of  Bcusajit. 
Alderholt    Ccmmorv. 
Smart  CoUF 

Fragment  ofcu  discs,  of  ctudk.  The,  superficial 
hol&s  vary  from  fyirv.  to  Uk  irv  depttv. 
JoroLarv  HtiL,  Weynwuih/. 
Presented  by  M*.'  Smith/. 

6  IN. 

I  FT. 

S    C   A    L  E  . 

B.J.Moule  del. 

Miri-terrL  Bros  .  lith. 

STONE    IMPLEMENTS,    ETC.,    IN    THE   DORSET    MUSEUM.         21 

slightly  curved  edge,  like  that  of  a  steel  gouge.  Picks  and  chisels, 
too,  differ  little  in  general  form  from  celts,  but  are  of  longer  shape. 
Of  these  there  are  some  Museum  specimens  from  Dorset,  which 
agree  pretty  closely  with  Evans'  figures. 

iii.  Evans  next  treats  of  perforated  axes,  and  then  of 
hammers.  I  may  take  them  together,  as  our  number  of  Dorset 
specimens  in  the  Museum  is  hardly  enough  to  make  up  two 
classes.  We  have,  however,  a  few  very  good  ones.  For 
instance,  there  is  a  perforated  axe  from  Winterborne  Steeple- 
ton,  and  belonging  to  the  Warne  Collection,  which  has  been 
figured  not  only  by  the  late  Mr.  Warne,  but  in  the  books  of 
other  antiquaries,  including  Evans.  It  is  one  of  the  many  stone 
axes  which  seem  certainly  to  have  been  meant  solely  for  use  in 
war.  This  little  basalt  one  of  ours  would  break  a  man's  skull  most 
effectually,  but  it  has  not  the  least  approach  to  a  wood-cutting  edge. 
The  same  may  be  said  of  the  very  fine  axe  or  maul  (PI.  II.,  fig.  2) 
found  at  Alderholt,  near  Cranborne,  and  given  by  Dr.  Smart. 
But  on  the  other  hand  this  axe  is  of  such  weight,  4Jlb.,  that  it 
must  have  been  a  strong  warrior  who  could  find  it  handy  in  use. 
It  shows,  however,  little  or  no  sign  of  having  been  used  for  any 
such  purpose  as  hammering  stone  or  metal,  or  as  a  mattock.  I 
next  draw  your  attention  to  a  very  remarkable  hammer-head  in 
the  Cunnington  Collection,  and  found  in  a  barrow  on  Kidgway. 
It  seems  originally  to  have  been  of  disc  form,  but  to  have  been 
battered  by  long  use  to  a  roughly  octagonal  shape.  This  battering 
looks  to  my  eye  to  have  been  caused  by  hammering,  not  flints,  but 
the  bone  punch  which  is  conjectured  to  have  been  the  tool  used  in 
some  of  the  very  fine  flaking  of  the  edges  of  arrow-heads  and 
scrapers.  Then,  also  in  the  Cunnington  Collection,  there  is  a 
specimen  of  the  rare  class  of  hammers  in  which  the  ingenious  Celts 
took  advantage  of  natural  holes  in  flints  or  other  stones.  In  the 
hammer  in  question  the  hole  seems  to  me  to  have  naturally 
penetrated  about  half  way  through  the  pebble.  This  encouraged 
some  clever  man  to  try  to  bore  it  deeper,  which  he  did,  but  not 
quite  through.  It  may,  just  possibly,  have,  been  hafted  as  it 

22        STONE    IMPLEMENTS,    ETC.,    IN    THE    TORSET    MUSEUM. 

stands.  But  most  likely  it  was  thrown  aside  unused.  From  the 
nature  of  the  boring  I  should  think  it  to  be  of  late  date.  In  this, 
however,  I  may  be  quite  mistaken.  While  speaking  of  bored 
hammers  and  axes  I  cannot  help  throwing  out  a  conjecture  that  in 
perforating,  and  perhaps  in  shaping,  these  implements  water  may 
possibly  have  been  sometimes  used  here,  as  it  is  now  in  New 
Britain.  Powell  thus  describes  the  method  : —  *  "  The  native  .  . 
takes  a  piece  of  suitable  granite,  which  he  places  in  a  slow  fire  of 
cocoa-nut  shells  .  .  and  allows  it  to  become  redhot.  He  then, 
by  the  aid  of  a  split  bamboo  in  the  place  of  tongs,  removes  it  from 
the  fire  and  begins  to  drop  water  on  it  drop  by  drop.  .  .  That 
portion  of  the  stone  on  which  the  water  falls  begins  to  fly  and 
crack  off  until  the  heat  has  gone  out  of  the  stone.  He  then  repeats 
the  process  until  an  irregular  hole  is  formed  through  the  centre." 
This  method  could  be  used,  probably,  only  with  igneous  stones,  as 
basalt  and  granite.  They  are  of  old  used  to  fire,  and  do  not 
crumble  with  great  heat  as  flint  and  some  other  stones  would  do. 
It  seems  possible,  I  repeat,  that  both  boring  and  fashioning  may 
sometimes  have  been  done  partly  by  water  by  our  early  ancestors. 
But  I  do  not  think,  to  tell  the  truth,  that  any  of  the  few  bored 
implements  of  igneous  stone  in  the  Dorset  Museum  have  been  thus 
perforated.  Evans  points  out  a  puzzle  connected  with  some  perfo- 
rated implements.  Our  great  Cranborne  maul  is  an  instance  in 
point.  The  difficulty  is  to  understand  how  a  haft  small  enough  to 
go  through  the  hole  could  be  strong  enough  to  wield  the  great 
weapon  with.  Evans  half  thinks  that  the  handle  may  have  been 
of  twisted  raw  hide  or  sinews,  which  would  harden  into  a  haft  of 
great  toughness,  and  also  stiffness,  as  he  thinks.  Is  it  possible 
that  a  short  handle  might  be  made  of  an  ox-horn  ?  The  solid  part 
might  be  fitted  into  the  hole  of  the  weapon,  and  the  hollow  part, 
if  pretty  thin,  might  be  held  in  the  hand.  Or,  again,  this  hollow 
part  might  have  a  wooden  handle  fitted  into  it. 

iv.  We  have  next  to  consider  flakes  and  scrapers.     The  former 
are  found  in  very  large  numbers,  which  is  no  wonder.     They  are 
*  "  Wanderings  in  a  Wild  Country,"  p.  160. 

STONE    IMPLEMENTS,    ETC.,    IN    THE    DORSET    MUSEUM.         23 

the  necessary  product  of  the  work  on  large  implements.  Many  of 
them  may  have  been  never  put  to  any  use.  On  the  other  hand 
numbers  of  them  have  such  a  keen  edge  that  they  might,  and 
doubtless  did,  serve  for  knives.  Indeed,  to  my  eye  they  look  far 
more  useful  for  cutting  purposes  than  what  are  considered  to  be 
carefully  fashioned  knives.  There  is  a  long  flake,  for  instance, 
from  Laurence  Barrow,  the  edge  of  which  might  pretty  successfully 
be  used  -to  hack  a  rough  slice  off  a  roast  boar  from  Poundbury  Een. 
It  is  probable  that  with  simple  keen  flint  flakes  it  was  that,  if  not 
here,  yet  on  the  Continent,  the  ancient  Celtic  folk  actually 
trepanned  skulls.  The  scrapers  are  flakes,  varying  from  about 
three  inches  in  diameter  down  to  little  more  than  half-an-inch. 
By  minute  flaking  they  are  for  the  most  part  brought  to  a  more  or 
less  exactly  semicircular  blunt  edge.  Evans  speaks  of  some  being 
ground.  I  see  no  such  edges  here.  But  one  or  two  have  that 
look  from  a  strange  curve  in  the  cleavage.  I  cannot  myself  under- 
stand that  they  could  serve  for  cutting  anything.  From  analogy 
of  Esquimaux  use,  and  from  difficulty  of  assigning  any  other 
purpose  for  them,  they  are  believed  to  have  been  for  scraping 
hides,  and  perhaps  wood,  bone,  and  horn.  They  very  likely  were 
often  inserted  in  a  handle,  as  is  the  custom  with  the  Esquimaux. 
Preparation  of  skins  was  no  doubt  an  important  industry  among 
the  Celts.  Yet  the  multitude  of  scrapers  still  found  seems  to  me 
a  puzzle.  A  different  and  less  common  class  of  scraper  is  well  illus- 
trated among  the  Hogg  and  Smart  specimens  (PI.  I.,  figs.  5  and  6). 
They  are  wrought,  with  great  pains  and  skill,  to  a  more  or  less 
regular  crescent  edge,  some  at  the  end,  others  at  the  side.  Almost 
certainly  these  were  for  scraping  arrow  and  lance  shafts,  and  also  for 
sharpening  tines  of  deer  horns,  which  seem  to  have  been  used  as 
daggers.  Some  flints  of  this  shape  are,  however,  thought  by  Evans 
to  be  strike -lights.  These  scrapers,  too,  at  least  the  smaller  ones, 
were  no  doubt  the  tools  used  for  making  bone  pins,  bodkins,  and 
borers.  Among  scrapers  I  should,  probably,  name  the  carefully 
worked  specimens  sometimes  found  both  here  and  elsewhere  in 
undoubtedly  ancient  sites,  and  yet  having  an  extraordinary 

124        STONE    IMPLEMENTS,    ETC.,    Itf    THE    DOllSET    MUSEUM. 

likeness  to  gunflints.  But  I  only  passingly  mention  them 
here,  as  Evans  seems  inclined  to  include  them  in  another 
class,  which  may  perhaps  be  considered  on  another  occa- 
sion. Then  there  are  saws,  which  are  thin  flakes  with  one 
edge  notched,  often  with  great  delicacy.  We  have  several 

v.  Our  fifth  class  is  that  of  horers.  I  confess  that  of  some 
implements  figured  by  Evans  as  borers  I  should  without  his 
authority  feel  some  doubt  as  to  their  use.  As  to  others,  again, 
there  can  hardly  be  any  hesitation.  Eor  piercing  holes  for 
sewing  hides  I  should,  however,  myself  prefer  some  of  the 
keenly  pointed  small  flakes  to  such  flaked  borers  as  I  have  seen. 
The  bone  ones,  again,  look  very  handy.  We  must,  how- 
ever, take  it,  I  suppose,  that  borers  were  not  only  for  such 
work  as  piercing  hides,  but  also,  some  of  them,  for  perforating 
wood,  bone,  horn,  and  even  stone.  I  do  not  think  that  Evans 
speaks  of  there  being  any  certainty  that  borers  were  mounted  in 
handles.  It  is,  however,  most  likely  that  they  wyere  so  fitted 

Having  now  reached  about  the  middle  of  the  subject,  but  the 
end  of  the  time  that  with  any  conscience  I  can  take  up  to-day,  I 
close  this  paper.  I  hope,  however,  if  the  club  will  indulgently 
honour  me  with  another  audience  at  the  next  meeting,  to  have 
something  more  to  say  then.  Some  of  the  stone,  or  quasi-stone, 
antiquities  unmentioned  to-day  are  by  far  the  most  interesting  and 
rare  of  any  in  the  Museum.  I  hope  also  to  touch  on  a  very 
remarkable  and  little  considered  distinction  drawn  by  Dawson  and 
others  between  the  witness  borne  by  Neolithic  worked  stones  and 
Palaeolithic  ones  about  the  men  of  their  respective  epochs.  For 
to-day,  let  me  leave  with  you  a  picture,  however  faint,  of  our 
Celtic  Durotrigian  forefathers,  as  men  of  clever  heads,  deft  hands, 
long  toilsomeness,  men  (as  Dr.  Jessop  darkly  hints)  much  more 
forward  in  the  world  than  we  have  hitherto  been  taught.  Such,  in 
a  sentence,  is  the — not  "  sermon" — but  history  in  these  worked 
stones  of  Dorset. 

STONE    IMPLEMENTS,    ETC.,    IN    THE    DORSET    MUSEUM.         25 

In  beginning  a  second  paper  on  the  Dorset  Stone  Implements 
and  other  Appliances  in  the  County  Museum,  I  feel  that  it  is  no 
easy  task  which  I  am  taking  up.  For  among  the  things  now  to  "be 
noticed  are  several  of  the  utmost  rarity,  to  say  the  least  of  it. 
These  deserve  a  far  better  describer  than  I  can  pretend  to  be. 
But  I  must  do  my  best. 

In  the  paper  which  I  read  on  November  28th  I  followed  pretty 
nearly  the  order  adopted  by  the  great  antiquary  Evans  in  his 
handbook.  I  pursue  the  same  plan  now  as  regards  the  few  regular 
classes  of  implements  yet  to  be  spoken  of.  But  besides  these  there 
are  the  rarities  noticed  above.  These  do  not  exactly  fall  into 
Evans'  category.  After  speaking  of  them,  I  again  follow  his  lead 
by  closing  with  what  I  have  to  say  in  connection  with  Palaeolithic 

On  November  28th,  I  described  five  classes  of  Neolithic 
implements.  I  now  come  to  Class  vi.,  which  consists  of 
trimmed  flakes,  knives,  &c.  Of  these  we  have  some  characteristic 
specimens.  But,  as  far  as  I  know,  certainly  as  far  as  the  Dorset 
Museum  collections  are  concerned,  this  county  does  not  abound  with 
this  kind  of  implement  anything  like  so  much  as  with  the  cognate 
class  known  as  scrapers.  I  would  draw  your  attention  to  a  very 
beautifully  wrought  knife  in  the  Smart  Collection  (PI.  I.,  fig.  4). 
It  was  found  on  Pentridge  Hill.  Conspicuous  by  their  absence  from 
the  Museum  Dorset  Collections,  if  not  from  the  county,  are  three- 
types  of  knife  found  in  some  districts.  These  are  dagger-knives, 
lance-head  knives,  and  a  curved  and  very  elaborately  flaked  sort  of 
knife,  found  in  Sussex  and  elsewhere.  Perhaps  I  may  here,  as  well 
as  at  any  other  point,  mention  two  puzzling  flints  in  the  Smart 
Collection.  They  look  almost  like  crystalline  prisms,  although 
really  nothing  of  the  sort.  They  seem  likely,  at  the  very  least,  to 
have  been  fashioned  to  their  roughly  prismatic  shape  for  some 
definite  purpose.  But  what  this  may  have  been  I  find  inscrutable, 
unless  just  possibly  to  be  used  as  punches  in  flaking  other  flints.  I 
hardly  think  this,  however. 

26        STONE    IMPLEMENTS,    ETC.,    IN    THE    DORSET    MUSEUM. 

vii.  Next  come  arrow-heads  and  lance-heads.  To  this  class  of 
flint  implements  great  interest  is  attached,  and  always  has  been. 
I  said,  in  speaking  of  celts,  that  round  them  even  now  hovers  a 
spell,  a  belief  in  their  possessing  occult  influences.  This  is  still 
more  true  respecting  arrow-heads.  Of  the  many  extraordinary 
beliefs  connected  with  them  I  must  mention  only  one  or  two. 
They  are  called  elf-darts.  They  appear  and  disappear  mysteriously. 
If  you  set  yourself  to  search  for  elf-darts  you  certainly  will  not 
find  any.  This  bit  of  folklore,  however,  I  think  hardly  that  Mr. 
Cunningtoii  will  maintain  to  be  true.  Then,  again,  on  the  other 
hand,  when  you  are  thinking  of  anything  rather  than  of  elf-darts, 
lo  and  behold  there  is  one  right  under  your  feet,  and  where  you 
could  make  oath  that  nothing  of  the  sort  was  lying  only  a  short 
time  before.  And,  when  found,  elf-darts  are  things  to  keep, 
having  very  powerful  talismanic  virtues.  Evans  figures  one  which 
is  set  in  silver  as  a  charm.  A  similar  one  is  in  the  Museum  at 
Palestrina,  I  am  told.  As  long  ago  as  in  ancient  Etruscan  times 
this  belief  in  their  magic  influence  existed,  it  seems.  A  flint 
arrow-head  forms  a  central  pendant  in  a  necklace  of  gold  beads 
found  in  one  of  the  tombs  in  Tuscany.  But,  I  think,  it  was 
chiefly  or  only  in  the  barbed  arrow-heads  that  the  spell  was  sup- 
posed to  reside.  Certainly  they  are  remarkable  enough,  sometimes 
beautiful  enough,  and  the  mode  of  making  them  incomprehensible 
enough,  to  account  almost  for  the  belief  in  their  being  formed  by 
elfin  hands,  and  therefore  in  their  possessing  occult  qualities.  But, 
in  speaking  of  the  Museum  specimens  (PL  I.,  figs.  2  and  3),  it  will  be 
best  to  begin  with  ruder  forms.  Very  rude,  truly,  are  some  of  the 
small  chipped  flints  which  antiquaries  call,  and  doubtless  truly  call, 
arrow-heads.  The  Museum  contains  not  a  few  specimens  of  this 
very  rough  and  clumsily  contrived  sort.  But,  rough  or  delicate, 
the  arrow-head  was  used  only  locally.  This,  it  is  suggested  in 
passing,  may  some  day  serve  as  an  argument  respecting  the  races 
dwelling  in  this  and  that  part  of  England.  Evans  says  that  in 
Sussex,  where  in  places  flint  implements  of  several  kinds  are 
countless,  he  has  never  seen  a  single  arrow-head.  Here,  in  Dorset, 

STONE    IMPLEMENTS,    ETC.,    IN    THE    DORSET    MUSEUM.         27 

we  do  find  them.  Indeed,  a  friend  of  mine  used,  when  a  boy,  to 
pick  up  dozens  of  them,  and  literally  play  at  ducks  and  drakes 
with  them.  I  don't  say  that  this  difference  between  Dorset  and 
Sussex  proves  the  races  of  dwellers  in  the  two  counties  to  have 
been  diverse  in  Neolithic  times,  but  it  looks  that  way.  Of  course, 
however,  this  point  can  here  be  only  indicated,  not  followed  up. 
The  roughest  arrow-heads  need  no  description.  Indeed,  they 
almost  defy  it,  in  their  varied  rudeness.  Of  more  carefully  wrought 
arrow-heads  there  are  several  shapes,  such  as  the  leaf  form  ;  the 
simply  triangular ;  triangular  with  a  slight  notch  at  one  side  ;  the 
same  with  the  notch  deepened  so  as  to  produce  a  two-barbed  form  ; 
the  same  with  one  barb ;  the  triangle  with  two  notches,  forming  a 
sort  of  tang  between  the  barbs  ;  the  same  developed  into  the  fully 
barbed  and  tanged  make  ;  and  lastly,  according  to  Evans,  a  chisel- 
edged  form.  The  leaf  form  is  often  carried  out  splendidly,  both  for 
arrow  and  for  lance-heads.  Of  the  former,  the  Museum  possesses 
several  good  Dorset  specimens,  particularly  one  from  near  Cranborne, 
in  the  Smart  Collection  (PI.  I.,  fig.  1).  This  is  noted  by  Mr. 
Thurman  in  the  Archseologia  and  in  Warne's  Celtic  Tumuli.  It  is 
worked  with  much  delicacy  and  to  a  very  thin  section.  Indeed,  the 
thinness  of  some  arrow-heads,  both  of  this  and  the  barbed  sort,  looks 
like  a  display  of  skill  in  producing  a  beautiful  weapon  for  show, 
but  too  fragile  for  use.  One  leaf -shaped  head  in  the  Cunnington 
Collection  is  large,  and  may  have  been  for  a  javelin  rather  than 
an  arrow.  The  same  may  be  said  of  the  splendid  Cranborne 
one  just  noticed.  Dr.  Smart,  by-the-bye,  tells  me  of  a  remarkable 
localisation  of  javelin  heads,  at  least  as  regards  that  district.  In 
the  long  series  of  years  over  which  his  researches  there  have 
extended,  he  has  found  large  weapon  heads  only  in  low  ground, 
near  the  stream ;  never  on  Pentridge  Hill  and  other  high  ground, 
where  small  arrow-heads  abound.  He  conjectures  that  the  javelins 
may  have  been  used  as  fish  spears  or  for  killing  animals  frequenting 
marshes.  But  this  Cranborne  specimen  is  small  compared  to  some 
from  other  localities,  such  as  the  splendid  one  from  Gloucestershire 
in  the  non-Dorset  Warne  Collection.  Of  the  other  specified  forms 

28        STONE    IMPLEMENTS,    ETC.,    IN    THE    DORSET    MUSEUM. 

of  arrow-head  the  Museum  contains  Dorset  specimens,  of  which 
several  are  good,  but  which  need  not  be  particularly  spoken  of  for 
the  most  part.  But  a  few  specially  excellent  ones  may  be  named. 
For  instance,  there  is  a  one  barbed,  or  unequally  barbed,  arrow-head 
from  Upwey,  in  the  Cunnington  Collection.  It  is  of  minutely 
careful  make,  and  so  is  a  smaller  one  in  the  Hogg  Collection 
from  Fordington  Field  (PI.  I.,  fig.  2).  Then  we  have  to 
say  one  word  about  the  Museum's  chief  treasure  in  the 
department  of  flint  implements  —  namely,  the  six  almost 
matchless  barbed  and  tanged  arrow-heads  from  a  barrow  at 
the  southern  edge  of  Fordington  Field.  To  give  an  idea  of 
the  extraordinary  delicacy  of  the  fashioning  of  these  I  need 
only  say  that  the  heaviest  weighs  25  grains,  the  lightest  16. 
Now  Evans  quotes  38  grains  as  a  remarkably  small  weight,  the 
head  being,  however,  slightly  larger  than  the  Dorset  ones.  And 
these  arrow-heads  here  are  not  only  light  but  are  most  skilfully 
^flaked.  In  fact,  the  more  you  look  at  them  the  greater  puzzle  the 
modus  operandi  seems  to  be.  Of  these  heads  it  appears  certain  that 
they  can  never  have  been  meant  for  use,  but  only  for  show  on  state 
occasions.  It  is  annoying  to  doubt  their  being  Dorset  made.  But 
their  exceeding  superiority  over  any  others  of  that  shape,  known  to 
me,  as  found  in  the  county,  makes  me  think  that  they  may  have 
been  imported.  I  ought  to  say  that  Mr.  Cunnington  personally 
discovered  these  splendid  specimens.  Of  the  chisel-edged  arrow- 
heads I  am  not  sure  that  the  Museum  has  examples.  One  or  two 
small  wrought  flints,  however,  come  at  least  very  near  to  those 
considered  by  Evans  to  be  chisel  arrow-heads.  No  one  probably 
would  have  guessed  this.  But  he  quotes  an  Egyptian  and  a 
Norwegian  specimen,  both  having  part  of  the  arrow  shaft  still 
attached.  He  considers  this  proof  conclusive. 

I  can  but  name  the  spindle-whorls,  pulley-shaped  stones,  whet- 
stones both  rude  and  highly  finished,  and  the  pointed  pieces  of 
rag-stone  found  on  a  pottery  site,  and  thought  to  be  potters'  tools. 

We  have  now  gone  hurriedly  and  imperfectly  through  the  series 
of  Neolithic  Dorset  stone  tools  and  weapons  in  the  County  Museum. 

STONE    IMPLEMENTS,    ETC.,    IN    THE    DORSET    MUSEUM.         29 

But  before  speaking  of  one  or  two  rare  specimens  of  other  appliances 
of  stone,  or  quasi  stone,  I  must  refer  for  a  moment  to  certain  flints 
which  are  the  exact  converse  of  those  concerning  which  I  spoke  at 
the  outset  of  my  first  paper.  Those  are  decided  to  be  fashioned 
by  man.  These,  although  seeming  to  show  plain  signs  of  man's 
work,  are  by  some  thought  to  be  naturally  or  accidentally  shaped. 
There  is -for  instance  one,  presented  by  the  Rev.  0.  P.  Cambridge, 
which  looks,  and  by  many  is  believed,  really  to  be  a  whetstone, 
showing  palpable  traces  of  hard  work  done  on  it.  Yet,  considering 
that  flint  is  a  most  unsuitable  stone  for  grinding  on  it  either 
another  flint  or  metal,  it  is  doubtful  whether  these  marks  are  not 
natural.  Again,  there  is  a  flint,  presented  by  Dr.  Smart,  on  which 
are  marked  the  eyes,  nose,  and  mouth  of  a  man.  Yet  these  are 
pronounced  by  a  high  authority  to  be  produced  accidentally.  Dr. 
Smart  has  also  presented  a  remarkable  holed  flint  which,  whether 
unworked  or  partially  worked,  he  believes  to  have  been  a  weapon, 
a  sort  of  knuckle-duster.  This,  by  the  way,  he  believes  to  have 
been  the  use  of  some  of  the  large  and  slightly  worked  flints,  called 
by  some  mattocks,  and  referred  to  in  my  first  paper. 

To  come  now  to  the  closing  section  of  this  paper,  I  would 
say  that,  in  including  things  made  of  materials  not  technically 
classed  as  stone,  I  am  following  Evans'  handbook.  Amber, 
for  instance,  he  touches  on.  But  that  treatise  was  written 
before  Mr.  Cunnington's  great  find  in  Clandown  Barrow.  Nor 
must  I  do  more  than  allude  to  it,  as  it  will  make  an  important 
feature  in  his  book.  Suffice  it  to  say  that  that  barrow  produced, 
not  only  the  rare  kind  of  vessel  called  an  incense-burner,  and  a 
thin  plate  of  the  purest  gold,  but  also  the  greater  part  of  a  most 
beautiful  amber  cup,  which  to  my  eye  looks  like  Greek  work  ;  and, 
further,  a  gold  adorned  jet  head  of  a  staff  or  sceptre.  The  latter  is 
unique,  and  the  cup  all  but  so.  The  only  other  amber  cup  recorded 
was  found  near  Brighton,  and  is  of  rude  make.  I  would  refer 
those  who  have  access  to  Evans'  handbook  to  his  suggestion 
respecting  a  shale  cup  much  like  our  amber  one.  He  thinks  that 
it  was  made,  handle  notwithstanding,  on  a  pole  lathe.  To  my  eye 

30        STONE    IMPLEMENTS,    ETC.,    IN   THE   DORSET    MUSEUM. 

this  looks  to  be  the  case  as  regards  the  Clandown  cup.  I  have 
now  to  say  a  little  about  a  quasi  stone,  very  characteristic  of 
Dorset,  and  on  which  Evans  does  not  say  much.  This  is  Kimme- 
ridge  shale,  commonly  called  coal.  I  need  but  say,  in  passing,  that 
the  Dorset  Museum  possesses  many  specimens  of  the  lathe-cores  of 
shale,  formerly  called  Kimmeridge  coal  money.  There  is  also,  in 
the  Smart  Collection  here,  an  armlet  turned  of  this  shale  by  the 
late  Mr.  Medhurst,  with  the  core.  This  exactly  resembles  one  of 
the  two  ancient  types.  I  should  also  remark  that  the  Museum 
contains  two  ancient  shale  armlets  more  perfect  than  usual.  They 
were  found  at  Fordington  by  my  father.  Next  I  must  draw  your 
attention  to  a  very  remarkable  slab  of  this  shale.  Several  of  an 
oblong  form  have  been  found  in  Dorset,  Wilts,  and  Hants.  For 
instance,  General  Pitt  Rivers  found  a  large  one  at  Woodcuts,  and 
has  reproduced  the  ornament  thereof  on  the  covers  of  the  splendid 
volumes  describing  his  discoveries.  These  slabs  have  been  thought 
by  some  to  be  boards  for  draughts  or  some  such  game,  the  squares 
having  been  painted,  and  so  obliterated  by  Time.  Others  think 
them  to  have  been  writing  tablets,  the  unadorned  reverse  having 
been  covered  with  wax.  The  General  inclines  to  the  latter  opinion, 
and  so  does  Dr.  Smart.  We  have  in  the  Hogg  and  Warne  Collec- 
tions fragments  of  these  slabs,  one  wholly  unornamented.  But  I 
wish  specially  to  mention  another  slab,  a  large  fragment  of  which 
is  in  the  Cunnington  Collection.  It  seems  to  me  to  increase  the 
puzzle  about  this  class  of  antiquity  not  a  little.  For  this  thin  slab, 
about  nine  inches  across,  was  a  disc.  Now  this  circular  shape 
seems  most  unlikely  for  a  writing  tablet,  and  nearly  as  much  so  for 
a  draught-board.  Nearly,  I  say.  For  in  the  Middle  Ages,  and 
therefore  perhaps  earlier,  they  used  chess  boards  of  a  round  form. 
(Pictorial  Hist,  of  England  ii.)  This  fragment  is  depicted  in  the 
Purbeck  Papers,  p.  225.  It  is  ornamented  with  incised  circles 
forming  a  border  near  the  circumference,  with  a  small  concentric 
circle  an  inch  or  two  within.  The  border  is  decorated  with  a 
series  of  intersecting  semicircles,  and  the  inner  circle  seems  to  have 
been  surrounded  by  several  little  ones.  The  small  circles,  certainly, 

STONE    IMPLEMENTS,    ETC.,    IN   THE   DORSET    MUSEUM.        31 

and  the  large  ones,  probably,  were  struck  with  compasses.  It  is 
suggestive  that  a  pair  of  ancient  bronze  compasses  were  found  not 
very  far  from  the  slab,  with  which  they  are  now  grouped  in  the 
Museum.  On  the  whole  this  remarkable  relic  looks  to  me  like  an 
ornament,  and,  if  so,  probably  the  rectangular  ones  were  so  likewise. 
It  is  impossible  that  the  ornamented  side  of  this  round  slab  could 
have  been  used  as  a  writing  tablet  or  game  board.  And  it  does 
not  seem  likely  that  that  side,  ornamented  and  also  slightly  convex, 
would  be  placed  downwards  when  the  appliance  was  in  use,  what- 
ever the  use  might  be.  My  idea,  given  with  much  doubt,  is  that 
this  round  slab  or  plaque  was  affixed  by  glueing,  or  more  likely 
by  inlaying,  in  the  middle  of  a  wooden  panel,  simply  for  ornament. 
If  so,  the  rectangular  ones  were  perhaps  for  the  same  purpose. 
The  slight  scoring  on  the  reverse  of  some  of  these  plaques  might  in 
that  case  be  for  giving  the  glue  a  better  hold.  I  see  no  signs  of 
holes,  as  if  for  nails,  in  any  Dorset  specimens.  But  two  small 
rectangular  fragments  from  Nursling,  Hants,  now  placed  with  the 
round  slab,  have  a  small  hole  in  each.  Next  I  have  to  speak  of 
another  disc  of  Kimmeridge  coal  in  the  Warne  Collection ;  quite 
a  different  sort  of  thing,  however.  It  is  nearly  two  inches  thick 
and  has  been  fifteen  inches  in  diameter,  turned  on  a  lathe.  On 
one  side  it  has  a  circular  centre  sinking,  and  from  this  three 
rectangular  ones  have  branched,  judging  from  one  and  part  of 
another  remaining.  This  remarkable  fragment  is  the  largest 
ancient  appliance  of  Kimmeridge  shale  ever  found,  as  far  as  I 
know.  It  comes  from  the  site  of  a  Roman  pottery  at  Bagber. 
Taking  this  into  account  I  think  that  Mr.  Warne  can  hardly  have 
been  wrong  in  considering  the  disc  to  have  been  a  potter's  throwing 
wheel.  The  sinkings  in  the  under  face  would  fit  on  to  a  frame 
connected  with  the  driving  wheel  in  the  usual  way.  The  fragment 
is  described  and  engraved  in  "  Warne's  Ancient  Dorset."  The 
last  application  of  Kimmeridge  shale  which  I  have  to  notice  is  a 
very  rare  one — namely,  as  a  material  for  parts  of  furniture.  Of 
such  use  of  this  shale  the  only  published  notice,  known  to  me,  is 
by  Mr.  Warne,  In  "  Ancient  Dorset,"  p.  297,  he  says  that  Mr. 

32        STONE    IMPLEMENTS,    ETC.,    IN   THE   DORSET    MUSEUM. 

Hall  possessed  a  piece  of  shale,  from  Frampton,  rudely  carved  with 
a  lion's  or  leopard's  face,  and  seeming  to  have  been  a  supporter  of 
some  piece  of  furniture.  Now,  the  Dorset  Museum  does  not  possess 
this  specimen  (I  wish  it  did),  but  in  Mr.  Hogg's  Loan  Collection  are 
three  most  interesting  ones.  The  largest,  found  in  South  Street, 
Dorchester,  is  of  massive  make,  being  three  and  a-half  by  three 
inches  thick  (PI.  II.,  fig.  1).  It  is  rather  more  than  six  inches 
long,  sharply  carved,  and  apparently  of  Roman  work.  There  can 
be  no  doubt  that  it  was  part  of  a  leg  of  a  stool  or  couch.  The 
lower  end  is  brought  to  a  curved  foot ;  and  on  each  side,  above,  is 
an  ornament  in  relief,  slightly  like  a  man's  leg.  What  it  is 
intended  for  I  know  not,  unless  it  may  be  the  stem  of  a  leaf  or 
flower  which  was  carved  on  a  possible  extension  of  the  block,  now 
lost.  The  other  two  objects  are  smaller,  but  of  similar  style, 
speaking  roughly.  They  also  were  found  in  South  Street,  but  not 
with  the  larger  leg.  Mr.  Warne  seems  to  consider  Kimmeridge 
shale  a  suitable  material  for  legs  of  furniture.  I  should  hardly 
think  so  myself,  although  very  diffident  in  uttering  any  opinion 
contrary  to  his.  I  should  have  supposed  the  stools,  couches,  or 
tripods,  to  which  these  curious  legs  belonged,  to  have  been  not  for 
use,  but  either  purely  for  display,  or  to  be  dedicated  as  votive 
offerings  in  a  temple.  Is  it  not  possible  that  Kimmeridge  coal, 
different  from  jet  geologically,  but  like  in  appearance,  may  have 
shared  its  supposed  talismanic  virtues?  It  was  held  that  jet 
"  drives  away  serpents,  relieves  fantasies,  and  has  virtues  against 
the  visits  of  fiends  by  night,"  as  Mr.  Warne  quotes  in  "Ancient 
Dorset,"  p.  295.  The  use  by  Roman  joiners  of  this  shale  for  legs  of 
furniture  is  perhaps  a  point,  as  far  as  it  goes,  in  favour  of  the  shale 
plaques  having  been  ornamentally  applied  to  or  let  into  woodwork. 
I  close  what  I  have  to  say  particularly  of  Kimmeridge  coal  by  noting 
that  we  have  in  the  Museum  several  pieces  roughed  out  into  a  ring 
form  apparently  with  the  intention  of  their  being  carved,  not 
turned,  into  armillse.  Mr.  Warne  speaks  of  an  armilla  so  made. 

I    must    now    draw    your    attention    very    specially    to    two 
specimens   of    a   contrivance    which    seems  to  be.  hitherto    un- 

STONE    IMPLEMENTS,    ETC.,    IN    THE    DORSET    MUSEUM.         33 

described.  One,  like  the  things  just  noted,  is  of  Kimmeridge 
shale.  It  was  found  at  Smallmouth,  Weymouth,  and  was 
presented  by  Mr.  Cunnington.  But  the  larger  one,  which 
I  will  describe,  is  of  chalk.  It  was  found  at  Jordan  Hill, 
Weymouth.  It  is  a  fragment  of  a  disc,  which,  when  entire,  was 
about  nine  inches  across,  and  is  fully  three  and  a-half  inches 
thick.  It  was  pierced  by  a  central  hole,  three  and  a-half  inches  or 
so  in  least  diameter,  but  expanding  a  little  towards  each  surface. 
This  may  have  been  caused  by  friction,  for  the  surface  of  the 
opening  is  very  smooth.  On  the  periphery,  between  this  opening 
and  the  outer  edge,  are  five  superficial  holes  and  parts  of  two 
others.  They  are  ranged  irregularly  in  two  ranks.  Now  these 
carefully  made,  round-based  holes,  are  of  varying  and  seemingly 
graduated  depths.  The  shallowest  is  a  quarter  of  an  inch  deep, 
the  deepest  one  inch  and  a  quarter.  The  puzzle  is  to  decide  what 
was  the  use  of  these  holes,  which,  probably,  are  only  a  few  of  many 
which  the  entire  disc  contained.  The  other  fragment,  much 
smaller  and  made  of  shale,  is  in  design  apparently  identical  with 
the  chalk  disc.  I  have  sent  slight  drawings  of  these  curious  relics 
to  Mr.  Franks,  of  the  British  Museum,  and  to  General  Pitt- 
Rivers,  to  both  of  whom  the  contrivance  is  quite  new.  Mr. 
Franks  confesses  entire  inability  to  explain  it,  but  says  that  the 
holes  remind  him  of  the  curious  "  cup  markings"  found  on  rocks 
and  stones.  General  Pitt-Rivers,  misled,  I  am  certain,  by  my 
imperfect  drawing,  conjectures  that  the  block  of  chalk  may  have 
been  used  for  the  rest  of  the  upper  end  of  a  "bow-drill,"  by  the 
friction  of  which  the  superficial  holes  mi6ht  be  produced.  Again, 
Mr.  Smith,  of  East  Street,  Weymouth,  who  presented  the  chalk 
fargment,  thinks  that  the  graduated  holes  were  for  casting  lead 
weights.  Now  it  seems  to  me  quite  fatal  to  all  these  suggestions 
that  they  do  not  in  the  slightest  degree  account  for  the  large 
central  opening.  And  other  objections  there  are.  To  my  own  eye, 
if  I  may  venture  an  opinion,  the  contrivance  looks  as  if  just 
possibly  it  may  have  been  for  a  game.  The  disc  may  have  been 
placed  on  a  smooth  board,  in  the  midst  of  which  was  fixed  a  round 

34         STONE    IMPLEMENTS,    ETC.,    IX    THE    DORSET    MUSEUM. 

peg  or  block,  loosely  fitting  the  central  opening.  The  game  may 
have  been  played  by  turning  the  disc  round  on  that  axis,  during 
which  rotation  the  players  would  drop  balls  into  the  holes,  and 
score  according  to  the  depth  of  the  hole  catching  each  ball.  I  give 
this  idea  with  much  doubt,  and  shall  be  grateful  for  opinions. 

And  now  I  must,  at  length,  wind  up  with  a  word,  and  a  short 
word,  on  the  Palaeolithic  implements  in  the  Dorset  Museum,  and 
on  the  limitation  of  the  witness  to  be  derived  from  them.  The 
implements  in  question  are  not  numerous.  There  is  one  flint,  from 
the  gravel  at  Blandford,  on  the  artificial  working  of  which  much 
doubt  has  been  thrown.  Yet  it  is  so  like  the  French  "  river-drift " 
men's  worked  flints  from  St.  Acheul  and  other  places  that  I  feel 
bound  to  mention  it.  There  is,  again,  a  roughly  chipped  celt  from 
Norden,  presented  by  Mr.  Cunnington.  It  is  pronounced  to  be 
Palaeolithic.  It  is  not,  however,  of  any  of  the  usual  Palaeolithic 
shapes,  to  my  own  eye.  Thirdly,  there  is  a  worked  flint  found  by 
Mr.  Cunnington  in  red  clay  at  the  west  of  Maiden  Castle.  Lastly, 
I  have  to  draw  your  attention  to  one  specimen  in  the  general 
collection  and  to  a  group  of  twenty-three  in  the  Cunnington 
Collection  of  wonderfully  well-worked  implements — JtdrJies  the 
French  call  them — all  from  Broom  ballast  pit,  Hawk  church.  Here 
there  must  have  been  a  manufactory,  for  that  pit  has  produced 
certainly  several  scores,  perhaps  hundreds,  of  specimens.  And  they 
are,  most  of  them,  as  sharp  and  unworn  as  on  the  day  when  they 
were  made.  In  shape,  and  in  what  Evans  considers  quite  an 
important  characteristic — namely,  in  orange  brown  colour,  they  are 
palpably  Palaeolithic.  One  of  them  is  remarkably  large,  nine  inches 
long.  In  clever  shaping,  and  accurate,  although  bold  flaking,  it 
certainly  seems  to  me  that  the  Hawkchurch  flint  "  knapper " 
sitting  among  the  gravel  there  day  after  day,  back  in  the  far 
dimness  of  Time,  was  a  cleverer  fellow  "  of  his  hands  "  than  his 
Neolithic,  far  more  recent  successors. 

And  now  as  a  close  allow  me  to  ask  you  to  note  the  often 
ignored,  although  geologically  obvious,  difference  between  what  we 
are  told  by  the  white  celts  of  the  Durotrigian  Neolithic  people  and 

STONE    IMPLEMENTS,    ETC.,    IN    THE    DORSET    MUSEUM.         35 

what  we  learn  from  the  orange  "  haches  "  of  the  Palaeolithic  folk, 
unnamed,  unstoried,  under  the  dark  shroud  of  millenniums.  We 
study  Neolithic  implements,  and  in  some  dim  degree  we  thereby 
learn  about  the  state  of  .our  forerunners  in  these  parts  two,  three, 
or  four  thousand  years  ago.  We  study  Palaeolithic  implements, 
and,  it  seems  to  me,  some  at  least  among  antiquarian  writers  think 
that  they  glean  information  about  the  Palaeolithic  folk  in  these 
parts  in  like  degree.  In  like  degree,  if  I  do  not  mistake  them. 
On  consideration,  however,  it  is  in  a  very  different  and  a  much  less 
degree.  Suppose  a  parallel  case.  Suppose  that  in  3,000  to 
5,000  years  hence  India  shall  have  sunk  600  feet.  The  antiquaries 
of  that  time  will  search  hut-sites  and  graves  of  Ghonds,  Lushais, 
Veddahs,  in  the  Ghauts,  Neilgherries,  Adams'  Peak,  and  other 
islands  then  representing  India  and  Ceylon.  Eude  enough  imple- 
ments they  will  find — signs  of  rude  enough  life.  Will  they  be 
right  in  saying  that  such  were  the  appliances,  such  the  life,  in 
India  of  the  far  back  nineteenth  and  earlier  centuries  ?  Of  course 
not.  Why  the  whole  amazing  architectural  and  other  art  of  India 
would  be  ignored.  No  word,  no  dimmest  hint,  of  the  vast  stone 
Cingalese  reservoir  dykes,  of  the  dome  of  Beejapore,  of  the  gemmy 
inlay  of  the  Taj,  compared  to  which  all  corresponding  European 
work  is  a  clumsy  bungle.  No  word  of  the  rock-hewn  architecture 
of  Karli,  to  which  Europe  hardly  affords  even  the  poorest  parallel. 
And  remember  that  such  submergence  of  the  Palaeolithic  regions 
has  come  to  pass,  as  Dawson  and  other  eminent  geologists  point 
out.  Let  us  then  bear  in  mind  that  these  cleverly  fashioned 
Hawkchurch  flint  implements  are  the  work,  most  likely,  not  of 
the  advanced  Palaeolithic  folks,  but  of  the  rough  hillmen  of  that 
epoch.  What  the  best  work  was,  who  shall  tell  1  Encrusted  with 
serpulae,  matted  with  algae,  it  lies  on  the  deep  down  sea  bed 
anywhere  within  the  wide-stretching  hundred-fathom  line. 

dhtirches  in  iJie  fhtntl 

4])  of  §)0rche0ter 


By  the  Rev.  W.  MILES  BARNES. 

RREP  ARABLE  injury  has  been  done  to  churches 
everywhere  through  injudicious  restoration  and 
repair.  It  is  in  the  power  of  the  clergy,  who 
are  practically  the  guardians  of  the  churches, 
especially  in  country  places,  to  save  what  remains 
of  the  ancient  structures,  and  they  and  others 
interested  are  invited  to  use  their  best  efforts  to  that  end. 

To  assist  those  who  are  desirous  of  doing  so,  but  have  no 
knowledge  on  the  subject,  and  to  preserve  a  permanent  record  of 
the  ecclesiastical,  historical,  and  archaeological  features  which 
should  be  carefully  guarded  in  each  church,  the  notes  which  follow 
have  been  prepared. 

Before  proceeding  to  the  description  of  the  churches  in  this 
rural  deanery,  a  few  hints  on  the  proper  restoration  of  ancient 
buildings  might  not  be  out  of  place. 

In  restoring  an  ancient  church  no  stones  should  be  removed  and 
no  walls  rebuilt,  unless  their  reconstruction  is  absolutely  necessary  ; 
walls  thrown  out  of  perpendicular  by  the  thrust  of  the  roof  may 
oftentimes  be  saved  by  the  addition  of  a  strong  buttress.  All  such 
buttresses  and  new  building  generally  should  be  of  unmistakeable 
19th  century  work,  not  an  imitation  of  old  work.  To  imitate  old 
work  is  a  forgery,  and  should  be  punished  at  least  with  repre- 


hension.  In  restoring  old  roofs  and  other  constructions  of  wood, 
only  so  much  as  is  decayed  and  unsound  should  be  removed,  and 
the  restoration  should  be  piece  by  piece.  Workmen  are  fond  of 
re-cutting  old  stonework  to  make  it  look  fresh  and  to  match  the 
new.  They  should  be  warned  not  to  do  this,  or  reface  the  stone  of 
walls.  The  tooling  on  the  face  of  the  stonework  of  walls  is 
sometimes  the  only  mark  by  which  the  date  of  a  wall  can  be  fixed. 
In  the  notes  on  the  churches,  instead  of  styles  centuries  are  given, 
as  the  mention  of  styles  does  not  convey  any  definite  idea  of  date 
to  minds  unfamiliar  with  them. 

Thus  by  12th  cent,  will  be  understood  Norman  style  ;  13th 
cent.,  Early  English;  14th  cent.,  Decorated  English;  15th  cent., 
Perpendicular  English.  The  chronological  table  beneath,  taken 
from  Rickman's  Gothic  architecture,  shews  the  duration  of  the 
styles  of  architecture  thus  classed  under  the  head  of  centuries. 

It  should  be  borne  in  mind,  however,  that  the  several  styles  may 
be  some  few  years  later  in  the  country,  in  out-of-the-way  places. 


12th  CENT.—  Norman 

William  I. 


William  II. 


Henry  I.     ... 


Stephen  I. 

1135  to  1154 

Transition  ... 

Henry  II. 

1154  to  1189 

13th  CENT.—  Early  English 

Richard  I  




Henry  III. 

1216  to  1272 

Transition  ... 

Edward  I  

1272  to  1307 

14th  CENT.—  Decorated 


Edward  II. 


Edward  III. 

1327  to  1377 

Transition  ... 

Richard  II. 

1377  to  1399 

*15th  CENT.—  Perpendicular 
English  ... 

HenryIV.,V.,  VI. 

1399  to  1422 

Edward  IV. 


Edward  V. 


Richard  III. 


Henry  VII. 


Henry  VIII. 

1509  to  1546 

*  Few,  if  any,  whole  buildings  were  executed  in  this  style  later  than 
Henry  VIII. 


The  facts  on  which  the  subjoined  descriptions  are  based  were 
obtained  in  every  case  by  personal  inspection  of  the  buildings, 
notes  of  their  features  being  taken  at  the  time,  in  which  survey  I 
received  much  kind  assistance  from  Mr.  T.  Hardy. 


A  fine  example  of  Perpendicular  work.  The  church  presents  many 
features  in  common  with  Sherborne  Abbey,  which  leads  to  the  suspi- 
cion that  both  churches  may  have  been  the  work  of  the  same  architect. 
The  arches  with  panels  in  the  soffit  are  characteristic  of  the  date. 
Arches  similarly  decorated  are  found  also  in  Sherborne  Abbey,  and 
in  the  Perpendicular  additions  to  Charminster  Church. 

The  DOORWAY  is  of  excellent  workmanship,  of  transition  Gorman 
period  ;  it  consists  of  two  orders,  the  inner  carrying  the  chevron  in 
an  enriched  form,  the  outer  a  zigzag  of  peculiar  character.  The 
roof  is  waggon-headed. 

The  FONT  is  modern,  and  so  also  is  the  SEDILIA  on  the  south 
side  of  the  chancel,  as  well  as  the  east  end  of  the  chancel  with  the 
east  window. 

The  date  of  the  effigies  of  the  Crusaders,  which,  according  to 
Coker  (Survey  of  Dorset),  were  brought,  at  the  dissolution  of 
monasteries,  from  the  priory  church,  judging  by  their  armour 
would  be  1360  to  1390.  The  reasons  for  fixing  this  date  are  as 
follows  : — The  gauntlets  are  detached  from  the  arm  pieces,  and  they 
were  not  separated  from  them  till  the  middle  of  the  14th  century. 
After  1400  plate  armour  was  used  ;  these  effigies  are  clad  in  chain 
and  plate  armour.  Moreover,  the  basinett  under  the  head  of  the 
knight,  the  camail  of  mail  attached  to  the  helmet,  the  horizontal 
sword  belt  formed  of  square  plaques  and  low  down  on  the  hips, 
are  distinct  evidences  of  the  period  to  which  these  effiigies  are 
assigned  (see  Archaeological  Journal,  vol.  43,  Xo.  171,  1886,  page 
334).  As  some  of  the  ejected  monks  were  in  all  probability  still 
living  in  Dorchester  when  Coker  wras  making  notes  for  his  history, 
what  he  relates  of  the  priory  and  of  the  transfer  of  these  effigies 
from  it  may  be  trusted. 

Proc.  Dorset  N.H.  &  A.F.  Club,  I'ol.xii.,  i8gr. 

PLATE     I. 




EASTER  SEPULCHRE  :  Of  the  same  period  is  the  rest  for  the 
Easter  sepulchre  on  the  north  side  of  the  chancel,  which  may  have 
been  brought  also  from  the  priory,  or  it  may  have  been  transferred 
from  the  old  St.  Peter's  church.  It  is  a  good  specimen  of 
architectural  design  of  the  14th  century,  late  in  the  style  and  in 
fair  preservation  ;  the  stone  slab  on  which  the  sepulchre  rested  is 
supported  on  panelled  sides  and  a  front,  which  is  ornamented  by 
sunk  quatrefoils  ;  the  canopy  above  is  an  ogee  in  form,  richly 
crocketted,  flanked  by  finials,  and  finished  beneath  in  a  large 
trefoil,  each  foil  of  which  is  trefoiled  in  its  turn ;  in  the  spandrels 
are  monograms  (plate  1). 

The  north  chancel  aisle  of  the  church,  where  this  sepulchre 
originally  stood,  is  said  to  have  been  built  by  the  ancestors  of  Sir 
John  Williams,  of  Herringston,  whose  monument,  erected  in  1628, 
now  stands  at  the  east  end  of  it.  As  the  "Williams'  family  were 
benefactors  to  the  church,  and  as  some  of  them  are  buried  within 
its  walls,  it  is  not  improbable  that  this  receptacle  for  the  sepulchre 
may  have  been  given  to  the  church  by  one  of  the  family,  in  which 
case  the  J.W.  in  one  of  the  spandrels  may  be  the  monogram  of  the 
donor.  John  is  a  name  which  frequently  occurs  in  the  history  of 
the  family.  Amongst  others  a  grant  of  arms  was  made  to  John 
Williams,  gentleman,  of  Herringston,  late  of  Dorchester,  in  1525  ;  a 
later  Sir  John  Williams  was  buried  in  1617.  If  the  K  in  the 
centre  of  the  second  quatrefoil  in  the  base  stands  for  Richard  II., 
the  date  of  the  sepulchre  would  be  somewhere  between  1377-1399, 
the  period  of  the  transition  from  Decorated  to  Perpendicular 
English  style,  with  which  date  the  architecture  of  this  sepulchre 
would  accord. 

"Bloxam"  (Principles  of  Gothic  Architecture,  vol.  2),  writes 
thus  of  the  Easter  sepulchre  :  "  Within  the  north  wall  of  the 
chancel  of  many  churches  near  the  altar  a  large  arch  like  that  of  a 
sepulchral  arch,  more  or  less  decorated,  may  be  perceived  ;  within 
this  the  holy  sepulchre — generally  a  wooden  and  moveable  struc- 
ture— was  set  up  at  Easter,  when  certain  rites  commemorative  of 
the  burial  and  resurrection  of  our  Lord  were  anciently  performed 


with  great  solemnity.  The  construction  is  thus  described  in  a 
document  of  the  period.  The  sepulchre  in  question  belonged  to 
St.  Mary  Kedcliffe,  Bristol : — *  Item,  that  Maister  Canyne  had 
delivered  this  4th  day  of  July,  in  the  year  of  our  Lord,  1470,  to 
Maister  Nicholas  Fetters,  vicar  of  St.  Mary  Redcliffe,  Moses 
Conterin,  Philip  Bartholomew,  Procurators  of  St.  Mary  Kedcliffe 
aforesaid,  a  new  sepulchre  gilt  with  golde  and  a  civer  thereto. 
Item,  an  image  of  God  Almighty,  rising  out  of  the  same  sepulchre 
with  all  the  ordinance  that  longeth  thereto,  that  is  to  say,  a  lathe 
made  of  timber  and  the  iron  work  thereto.  Item,  thereto  longeth 
heaven  made  of  timber  and  stayned  clothes.  Item,  Hell  made  of 
timber  thereto,  with  Divils  to  the  number  of  13.  Item,  4  knights 
armed,  keeping  the  sepulchre  with  their  weapons  in  their  hands ; 
that  is  to  say  2  axes  and  2  spears,  with  2  paves  (i.e.  shields). 
Item,  4  payr  of  angel  wings,  for  4  angels  made  of  timber  and  well 
painted.  Item,  the  Fadre,  the  Crowne  and  Visage,  the  ball  with  a 
cross  upon  it,  well  gilt  with  fine  gould.  Item,  the  Holy  Ghost 
coming  out  of  heaven  into  the  sepulchre.  Item,  longeth  to  the 
4  angels,  4  chevelures  (i.e.  perukes).' " 


Modern,  built  1876.  The  only  remains  of  the  old  church  are  a 
font  now  in  the  rectory  garden,  the  basin  of  Ham  Hill  stone,  dated 
1662  ;  the  base  of  the  14th  century  style,  the  intermediate  member 
between  the  two  which  does  not  belong  to  the  font  may  be  of  15th 
century  date. 

OLD  PARISH  CHEST  in  the  vestry,  with  three  locks  and  straps, 
and  a  handle  at  each  end  ;  it  is  dated  1683. 

3.  ALL  SAINTS'. 

Modern.  Rebuilt  in  1845.  In  the  porch  under  the  tower  is  a 
high  tomb  upon  which  is  a  recumbent  figure  clad  in  a  gown  with 
an  Elizabethan  ruff,  the  effigy  of  Matthew  Chubb,  who  was  bailiff 
of  the  town  in  1590,  and  member  for  the  town  in  the  Parliament 
held  in  the  first  year  of  King  James  I.  This  effigy  was  removed 


from  the  Old  Church,  together  with  the  sumptuously  carved  and 
painted  arms  of  Carolus  Kex  now  on  the  south  wall  of  church. 

Wholly  modern.     The  church  was  consecrated  in  the  year  1843. 


TOWER  :  An  excellent  example  of  a  15th  century  tower. 

NORTH  SIDE  OF  CHURCH  :  There  was  formerly  a  transept  on  this 
side,  similar  to  that  on  the  other. 

CHANCEL  :  Georgian  classic,  built  by  Mrs.  Pitt,  the  impropriator, 

CHANCEL  ARCH  :  15th  century,  of  poor  detail.  Of  the  old 
chancel  Hutchins  said  it  "  had  stalls  on  each  side  of  it  after  the 
manner  of  cathedrals  of  oak  very  curiously  carved,  gilt,  and 
painted ;  the  roof  of  timber  in  like  manner  was  very  curiously 
de viced,  and  much  larger  and  longer  than  the  body  of  the  church. 
The  rood  loft  at  that  time  was  highly  preserved." 

SOUTH  SIDE,  PORCH  ARCH  :  13th  or  14th  century.  The  porch 
has  15th  century  additions. 

DOORWAY  OF  CHURCH,  with  carved  head,  is  generally  ascribed 
to  the  Norman  period.  The  subject  is  supposed  to  be  St. 
George  at  the  battle  of  Antioch.  The  battle  of  Antioch  was  fought 
in  1098  ;  if  this  surmise  is  correct  the  work  could  not  be  earlier 
than  1100,  and  it  should  be  noted  that  the  Saracens  are  clad  in 
Norman  armour  and  that  the  armour  is  similar  to  that  represented 
in  the  Bayeux  tapestry.  Perhaps  the  workmanship  may  afford 
the  safest  clue  to  the  date  of  its  execution,  We  know  from  the 
description  by  Gervase  of  the  choir  of  Canterbury  Cathedral  (see 
Rickman),  that  the  chisel  was  introduced  for  carving  between  1100 
and  1180  ;  up  to  1110  the  axe  was  used.f  Now  there  are  no  signs 

*  "St.  George  was  chosen  by  our  ancestors  as  their  tutelar  saint  under 
the  first  Norman  king"  (Butler's  Lives  of  the  Saints,  Ap.  23,  vol.  iv., 
p.  253). 

t  The  use  of  the  chisel  and  gouge  was  well  known  to  the  Britons  (see 
Frank's  "  Horse  ferales  "  and  ArchaeologicalJournal).  A  bronze  chisel, 
similar  to  the  carver's  chisel  used  to-day,  was  found  in  a  British  barrow 
in  Devonshire. 


of  axe  work  in  the  sculpture  except  perhaps  in  the  ground,  and 
unless  it  can  be  shown  that  the  carving  has  been  recut  with  the 
chisel  at  a  subsequent  period  we  must  conclude  that  the  doorway 
and  the  transept  are  of  the  same  period — transition  Norman.  If, 
however,  it  can  be  shown  that  the  work  was  originally  wholly 
executed  by  the  axe  there  is  no  reason  why  it  may  not  have  been 
of,  Saxon  origin  and  a  portion  of  an  original  Saxon  church,  unless 
the  close  jointing  of  the  stones  of  which  the  sculpture  is  composed 
is  a  proof  of  later  work.  Buildings  of  the  10th  and  early  llth 
centuries  were  undoubtedly  of  a  ruder  kind  than  those  of  a  later 
and  perhaps  also  of  an  earlier  age,  if  we  may  take  Bradford-on-Avon 
as  a  type  of  an  8th  century  church. 

It  is  supposed  that  the  prevalence  of  the  belief  that  the  world 
wrould  come  to  an  end  in  the  year  1000,  of  which  there  is  frequent 
mention  in  documents  by  writers  of  the  time,  led  to  a  general 
neglect  of  building  in  stone  in  the  previous  century  ;  perhaps  the 
knowledge  of  the  art  almost  died  out  with  the  builders,  so  that 
when  building  in  stone  was  resumed  it  was  resumed  by  men  who 
were  untrained  and  unskilled  in  the  art.  This  would  account  for 
wide  jointed  masonry  and  the  crudeness  of  the  carving  common  in 
work  of  the  age.*  It  is  assumed,  and  perhaps  wrongly — for  the 
whole  subject  is  to  a  certain  extent  a  matter  of  conjecture — that 
from  the  armour,  the  subject,  and  other  details,  the  work  could  not 
have  been  of  an  earlier  date  than  the  12th  century.  Mr.  Parker, 
however,  on  the  authority  of  an  Italian  author,  has  stated  that 
similar  figures  were  found  in  Syrian  churches  300  years  before  the 
date  of  the  Norman  work  (Archaeological  Journal,  No.  88, 
page  349). 

The  new  window  between  the  transept  and  porch,  which  was  put 
in  in  1879,  is  Perpendicular  in  character  and  good  in  design. 

SOUTH  ARCADE  :  Transition  Norman.  TRANSEPT — Arch  into  Nave, 
Perpendicular,  15th  century.  Arch  into  Aisle,  ditto;  4  centred 
period.  High  windows  on  east  and  west :  Good  15th  century. 

*  On  the  other  hand  the  magnificent  illuminations  in  the  Benedictional 
of  S.  Aethelwoki  which  was  written  circa  977,  the  time  in  question,  and 
of  which  engravings  will  be  found  in  Archaeologia,  vol.  24,  undoubtedly 
shew  buildings  of  stone  as  existing  at  that  time. 


Assuming  the  walls  of  the  transept  to  be  of  13th  century — as 
there  is  good  reason  to  do — these  windows  must  be  insertions. 

PISCINA  :  Early  English  13th  century  with  face  cut  off.  The 
walls  of  this  transept  appear  to  have  been  much  cut  about  and 
patched,  so  that  it  would  be  difficult  to  say  where  the  Early 
English  masonry  begins  and  ends  without  uncovering  the 

FURNITURE.—  FONT  :  Perpendicular,  15th  century.  CORBEL  : 
Possibly  Early  English,  13th  century,  to  carry  the  floor  of  the 
chamber,  before  the  insertion  of  the  Perpendicular  windows. 
PULPIT  OF  STONE  dated  1592.  The  pulpit  was  originally  on  the 
opposite  side,  where  the  remains  of  the  iron  bond  by  which  it  was 
fixed  will  be  found  leaded  into  the  jamb  of  the  arch  on  that  side. 
It  was  removed  to  its  present  position  in  1863,  when  the  upper 
doorway  of  the  rood  loft  staircase  wag  lowered  two  or  three  feet  to 
give  access  to  it.  The  moulding  at  the  bottom  is  modern  ;  it  was 
worked  and  presented  to  the  builder  who  erected  it,  and  at  first  it 
decorated  (!)  the  upper  edge  of  the  pulpit. 

STOIJP  for  lioly  water  at  the  door,  Early  English,  13th  century  or 
earlier.  Its  form  is  most  unusual.  This  stoup,  which  is  16 Jin. 
high  by  15|in.  in  diameter,  was  discovered  in  1833  ;  it  seems 
evident  that  it  was  not  originally  a  stoup,  for  it  has  a  drain  through 
the  bottom  which  has  been  plugged  with  lead  ;  possibly  it  is  a 
small  Gorman  font  placed  in  the  present  position  in  the  13th 
century  (plate  2). 

The  modern  north  aisle  with  its  arcade  is  of  such  a  character  as 
to  ruin  the  aspect  of  the  whole  interior.  Before  these  arches  were 
inserted  the  north  wall  of  the  nave  was  solid,  with  a  15th  century 
window  between  the  tower  and  transept,  possibly  this  is  the 
window  which  is  now  in  the  east  end  of  aisle. 

HISTORY  :  It  is  not  possible  to  read  with  certainty  the  history  of 
this  church  in  its  stones ;  links  are  wanting  to  make  the  evidence 
complete.  The  history  which  follows  is  probable  and  is  consistent 
with  what  is  known  of  the  church,  and  with  what  may  still  be  seen 
in  the  building.  The  original  church  was  cruciform ;  the  north 


transept  was  standing  in  the  present  century.  The  depth  of 
the  transept  was  the  width  of  the  19th  century  aisle,  which 
is  a  lateral  extension  of  it.  The  south  transept  in  early  times 
corresponded  with  it ;  the  greater  depth  of  this  transept  may  be 
due  to  an  addition  made  for  a  purpose  which  will  be  considered 

The  original  structure  was  Saxon.  It  is  true  St.  Osmund  gave 
the  church  to  his  cathedral  of  Sarum  A.D.  1091,  25  years  after  the 
Conquest,  but  it  was  not  necessarily  built  at  that  time,  for  the 
occasion  of  his  presenting  it  was  not  the  building  of  the  church 
here,  but  the  foundation  and  endowment  of  the  cathedral  there. 

Fordington  was  a  Royal  manor  in  Saxon  times,  and  it  is  not 
likely  that  the  King  would  allow  his  own  manorial  lands,  upon 
which  so  considerable  a  population  dwelt,  to  be  unprovided  with  a 
church.  This  cruciform  church  probably  possessed  a  central 
tower.  It  was  a  plan  which  was  common  to  both  Saxon  and 
Norman  churches.  There  is  no  absolute  proof  of  this,  but  the 
evidence  of  the  stones  is  distinctly  in  its  favour  ;  it  will  be  noticed 
that,  although  the  Norman  arcade  is  in  such  excellent  preservation, 
the  whole  of  the  centre  of  the  church  where  the  tower  would  have 
been,  including  the  chancel  and  transept  arches,  was  renewed  in  the 
15th  century,  at  which  time  the  new  tower  was  built  at  the  west 
end.  This  of  course  may  be  a  coincidence,  and  there  may  be  no 
connection  between  the  two,  but  it  looks  very  much  as  if  the  old 
Saxon  tower  was  standing  at  that  date  ;  if  there  were  no  tower 
there  it  is  inexplicable  why  it  should  have  been  necessary  to  renew 
the  stonework  in  the  centre  of  the  church  where  it  would  have  the 
best  protection,  and  yet  that  the  Norman  work  in  the  nave  should 
be  in  such  excellent  preservation  three  or  four  centuries  later.  In 
confirmation  of  this  view  it  will  be  remarked  that  the  Norman 
arcade  to  the  east  ends  in  a  wall  which,  though  much  patched  and 
giving  evidence  generally  of  15th  century  reparation,  has  a  base 
which  was  evidently  at  one  time  much  larger,  and  might  have 
formed  part  of  the  original  pier  of  the  tower  at  the  south-west 
angle.  The  population  of  the  parish  having  increased  after  the 


Conquest  it  would  have  become  necessary  to  enlarge  the  church 
and  to  add  in  the  12th  century  the  transition  Norman  aisle  (with 
its  interesting  doorway  and  stoup).  The  piscina  in  the  south 
transept  where  an  altar  stood  must  have  been  added  not  long  after. 
Possibly  attached  to  the  transept  was  an  anchorite's  cell  (ankerhold 
or  domus  inclusi),  perhaps  a  lean-to  with  a  window  overlooking  the 
altar  to  which  this  piscina  belonged.  This  may  have  been  enlarged 
late  in  the  13th  or  in  the  14th  century  by  carrying  up  the  walls, 
incorporating  the  transept,  and  putting  in  a  floor  seven  or  eight 
feet  above  the  ground  level,  resting  on  corbels,  one  of  which  is 
still  to  be  seen  in  the  south  wall.  The  anchorite's  cell  frequently 
had  three  windows — one  small  window  through  which  food  was 
received,  a  window  opposite  to  admit  the  light,  a  third  over-looking 
the  high  altar  ;  the  domus  inclusi  sometimes  consisted  of  a  single 
cell,  sometimes  as  here  of  more,  in  which  case  it  afforded 
accommodation  for  an  attendant.  It  sometimes  possessed  an  altar 
of  its  own  and  oftentimes  contained  a  fireplace.  Perhaps  the 
Fordington  cell  was  furnished  with  the  latter  convenience  ;  there 
is  a  curved  hollow  channel  in  the  wall  which  might  have  been  a 
flue.  The  earliest  chimneys  were  not  carried  up  above  the  roof  as 
ours  are,  but  were  cut  in  the  wall  to  a  few  feet  above  the  fireplace, 
and  were  then  turned  out  at  the  side  of  the  wall  as  this  one  might 
have  been.  It  will  be  noticed  that  the  face  of  the  piscina  has  been 
cut  off.  From  the  direction  of  the  chimney  this  would  have  been 
necessary  to  give  room  for  the  construction  of  the  fireplace.  It  is, 
however,  more  likely  that  the  channel  (chimney  or  not)  was  made 
at  the  time  of,  or  shortly  after,  the  restoration  of  the  church  in  the 
15th  century,  and  in  this  manner;  the  builders  of  the  rood  loft 
staircase  and  doorway,  finding  the  old  wall  of  the  transept  out  of 
perpendicular,  instead  of  pulling  it  down  added  to  it  on  the  inside 
to  make  the  wall  plumb  for  their  work,  rounding  off  the  addition 
thus  made  into  the  old  Avail  at  the  top  ;  but  leaving  this  channel 
so  that  the  back  of  it  was  the  face  of  the  old  wall.  Anchorites 
when  they  took  up  their  abode  in  cells  were  conducted  thither  and 
installed  with  a  solemn  service,  after  which  the  doorway  by  which 


they  entered  was  often  built  up  or  closed  and  sealed.  The  estab- 
lishment of  anchorites'  cells  in  connection  with  churches  appears 
to  have  been  as  early  as  the  establishment  of  Christianity  in  this 
isle.  In  the  Saxon  chronicle,  under  the  date  657,  at  the  hallowing 
of  the  monastery  of  Peterborough,  the  Abbot  is  reported  to  have 
said  to  King  Wulfhere  :  "  I  have  here  holy  monks  who  wish  to 
Spend  their  lives  as  anchorites,  if  they  knew  where.  And  there  is 
an  island  here,  which  is  called  Anchorets'  Isle,  and  my  desire  is 
that  we  might  build  a  minster  there  to  the  glory  of  St.  Mary,  so 
that  those  may  dwell  therein  who  wish  to  lead  a  life  of  peace  and 

In  the  15th  century  great  changes  were  made  in  the  church. 
Besides  the  building  of  the  tower,  the  chancel,  and  transept  arches, 
of  which  I  have  spoken,  and  the  rood  screen  with  its  loft  and 
staircase,  the  south  transept  was  cleared,  the  floor  taken  down,  the 
south  window  inserted,  and  the  font,  windows,  and  other 
Perpendicular  work  put  in. 


The  church  is  a  modern  one  without  any  pretension  to  archi- 
tecture, but  it  contains  a  remarkable  font,  cylindrical  in  form.  At 
the  base,  above  a  plain  band,  is  a  narrow  moulding,  ornamented 
with  a  kind  of  chevron,  above  which  are  boldly  but  rudely  cut 
figures,  some  of  which  support  with  head  and  hands  a  cable 
moulding,  over  which  is  an  interlaced  pattern  of  Saxon  character. 
These  interlaced  designs,  though  continued  into  the  Norman  period, 
were  used  at  an  early  date  ;  in  a  Saxon  MS.  of  the  8th  century 
(Evangelia  Sacra  Nero  D.  4.)  are  designs  very  similar  to  this.  In 
Bede's  time  there  were  no  stone  fonts,  but  in  later  Saxon  times 
stone  fonts  were  common  ;  and  there  is  reason  to  believe  that  some, 
perhaps  many,  of  the  so-called  Norman  fonts  are  really  of  Saxon 
origin.  The  only  font  I  have  been  able  to  find  at  all  resembling 
this  is  the  font  of  Stoke  Cannon,  in  Devonshire.  In  that  also  the 
figures  are  rudely  cut,  and  four  figures,  one  at  each  corner,  support 
with  head  and  hands  the  basin,  which  rests  on  a  cable  moulding. 

Proc.  Dorset  N.H.  &  A.R  Club,  Vol.  xii.,  1891 . 

PLATE     II. 



Iii  that  font  also,  though  there  is  no  continuous  interlaced  pattern 
above  the  figures,  the  designs  are  distinctly  of  Saxon  character,  and 
the  figures  are  habited,  so  far  as  one  can  judge,  in  the  garb  with 
which  one  is  familiar  from  illuminations  in  Saxon  MSS.  (plate  2). 

Beneath  the  east  window  is  a  fragment  of  sculpture,  possibly  of 
14th  or  15th  century,  the  subject  of  which  is  St.  Mary  Magdalene 
wiping  the  Saviour's  feet  with  her  hair.  There  are  also  two  corbel 
heads  of  no  special  interest. 


NAVE,  arcades  :  Transition  Norman. 

CLERESTORY  :  14th  century,  or  early  15th. 

ROOF  :  15th  century,  corbels  ditto,  good. 

There  may  be  under  the  plaster  ceiling  a  good  oak  roof  panelled, 
or  similar  to  that  covering  the  porch. 

The  string  on  the  east  wall  of  the  nave  shows  the  pitch  of  the 
original  roof. 

CHANCEL  ARCH  :  An  interesting  specimen  of  transition  Norman 
There  may  be  hagioscopes  on  either  side  of  it. 

TOWER  AND  TOWER  AISLES  :  Fine,  late  15th  century  work  of  the 
date  of  St.  Peter's  Church,  Dorchester. 

CHURCH  DOOR  :   14th  century. 

PORCH,  mixed  :  The  gurgo^le  at  the  east  corner  is  especially  good. 

FURNITURE.— PULPIT,  Jacobean,  dated  1635— a  good  speci- 
men of  this  period. 

FONT  :  Might  be  Norman  ;  only  the  bowl,  much  cut  about  and 
without  lead  lining,  and  the  base  remain. 

MONUMENTS  :  There  are  two  interesting  monuments  in  Purbeck 
marble  on  the  south  side.  The  brasses  are  gone,  but  otherwise 
they  are  in  good  condition.  They  were  probably  erected  to 
members  of  the  Trenchard  family,  circa  Henry  VII. 

There  are  remains  of  a  hagioscope  which  opened  from  the  south 
aisle  into  the  chancel. 

original  church  was  of  the  Norman  transition  period  (plate  4).  Of 


this  church  the  arcades,  chancel  arch,  and  perhaps  the  font  remain. 
The  12th  century  work  in  this  church  is  in  so  perfect  a  state  of 
preservation  that,  standing  at  the  west  end  looking  towards  the 
chancel  and  disregarding  the  clerestory  above  and  the  pews  below, 
the  nave  of  the  church  presents  very  much  the  appearance  it  must 
have  presented  six  or  seven  centuries  ago.  The  principal  additions 
to  the  church  were  made  by  the  Trenchards,  late  in  the  15th 
century.  At  that  time  the  church  may  have  possessed  a  small 
early  tower.  In  the  place  of  this  the  Trenchards  built  the  present 
tower,  working  in  their  monogram,  which  is  a  good  design,  into 
every  part  of  it.  It  will  be  found  inside  and  out,  incised,  cut  in 
relief,  and  let  in  in  lead.  The  Trenchards  continued  the  aisles 
along  the  sides  of  the  new  tower  to  its  west  face.  The  present 
porch  was  somewhat  clumsily  added  at  the  same  time  ;  in  building 
it  the  materials  which  remained  from  the  greater  work  appear  to 
have  been  used.  The  clerestory  had  been  built  and  the  windows 
of  the  church  inserted  at  an  earlier  date.  The  chancel,  which  is 
not  ancient,  is  smaller  than  the  previous  one,  the  foundations  of 
which  have  been  met  with  in  digging  graves. 


This  church  was  in  the  main  built  in  1863  by  T.  H.  Wyatt? 
who  was  at  that  time  the  diocesan  architect. 

The  only  portions  of  the  ancient  church  now  remaining  are  the 
Early  English  (13th  century)  window  to  the  west  of  the  porch,  the 
base  of  the  tower  to  within  a  yard  or  so  of  the  string  course,  the 
piscina  in  the  transept,  and  a  small  locker  for  containing  the  sacred 
vessels,  &c.,  which  is  also  in  this  transept,  but  concealed  by  a  seat ; 
when  discovered  the  remains  of  the  hinges  were  still  attached  to  it. 
The  church  was  rebuilt  on  the  old  foundations,  except  the  chancel 
and  the  aisle,  which  is  a  late  addition.  The  old  chancel  was 
unusually  small,  covering  an  area  not  larger  than  8ft.  by  7ft. 
internally.  In  excavating  for  the  new  chancel  no  foundations 
were  discovered  outside  the  old  walls ;  there  is  reason,  therefore, 
for  believing  that  the  foundations  of  these  walls  were  the  founda- 

Proc.  Dorset  N.H.  &  A.F.  Club,  Vol.  xii.,  1891. 

PLATE  Illl. 




tions  of  the  original  chancel ;  the  walls,  however,  had  been  rebuilt, 
possibly  when  the  18th  century  window  which  it  contained  was 
put  in.  Incorporated  into  the  wall  were  three  stones,  which 
appeared  to  be  sills  of  an  Early  English  triplet  window.  The 
chancel  arch,  which  was  very  plain,  was  of  diminutive  proportions, 
being  only  about  5ft.  in  span  with  a  height  of  7ft.  Gin.  There  was 
a  plain  hagioscope  on  the  south  side  of  it.  The  transept,  now 
rebuilt  in  the  Early  English  style,  was  a  14th  century  addition  to 
the  church ;  the  piscina  is  of  that  date.  Before  the  rebuilding, 
about  1838,  the  nave  had  been  enlarged.  The  north  wall  was 
taken  down  and  rebuilt  farther  back,  so  as  to  take  in  the  whole  of 
the  area  now  covered  by  the  nave  and  aisle.  On  the  rebuilding  of 
the  church  in  1863  the  nave  was  restored  to  its  former  dimensions 
by  the  addition  of  the  arcade  by  which  the  new  area  enclosed  in 
1838  was  converted  into  an  aisle. 

The  chief  interest  of  the  building  now  centres  in  the  tower,  of 
13th  century  date,  of  which  happily  the  most  interesting  part,  the 
basement,  has  escaped  the  rebuilder's  hand.  Churches  of  this 
early  period  were  frequently  constructed  so  as  to  afford  a  refuge  to 
the  parishioners  in  any  sudden  emergency.  The  parish  church  was 
the  parish  castle  ;  and  in  the  event  of  a  sudden  attack  the  villagers 
could  fly  to  it  and  there  defend  themselves.  The  towers  were  the 
keeps  of  these  ecclesiastical  castles.  Previous  to  the  rebuilding  of 
the  church  in  1863  the  tower  was  a  low  but  solidly  built  structure, 
about  23ft.  in  height,  surmounted  by  a  pyramidical  roof,  which  was 
covered  with  tiles.  The  only  external  openings  were  two  slits,  one 
above  the  other,  in  the  west  face  of  the  tower,  of  which  the  lower 
one  remains  unaltered.  The  communication  between  the  church 
and  tower  was,  and  still  is,  by  means  of  a  small  13th  century 
archway.  When  closely  pressed  the  garrison  could  retire  to  the 
tower  and  barricade  this  entrance.  The  narrow  slit  or  loophole 
which  still  serves  as  a  window  is  widely  splayed  into  a  shouldered 
arch  in  the  inside,  and  could  be  used  by  archers  and  cross-bowmen. 
A  similar  loophole  constructed  for  use  in  this  way,  with  an  inner 
shouldered  arch,  may  be  seen  in  the  ancient  walls  of  York.  The 


upper  stage  of  the  new  tower,  including  the  two-light  windows  and 
gable  roof  which  were  added  in  1863,  were  suggested  by  the  tower 
of  a  church  near  the  lake  of  Zurich.  The  old  altar  slab  was  found 
in  the  pavement  near  the  door,  and  was  buried  under  the  north 
pier  of  the  new  chancel  arch. 


NORTH  SIDE  :  DOORWAY  OP  CHURCH,  14th  century.  WINDOW 
(north  chancel),  originally  14th  century ;  on  this  side  are  the 
foundations  of  what  may  have  been  the  rood  loft  staircase. 

EAST  END  :  EAST  WINDOW,  15th  century,  with  13th  century 
inner  splay  and  window  arch. 

SOUTH  SIDE  :  SOUTH  DOORWAY  (built  up),  14th  century. 

Two  of  the  square-headed  windows  (15th  century)  on  this  side 
are  remarkably  good. 

TOWER  :  15th  century  (late  Perpendicular). 

The  roof  of  the  church  was  a  characteristic  one  of  the  county  ; 
it  was  waggon-headed  and  plastered ;  the  chancel  ceiling  was 
divided  into  four  compartments  by  moulded  oak  ribs.  This  roof 
was  removed  and  the  present  roof  erected  in  its  place  in  1883. 

FURNITURE  :  FONT,  base  and  pedestal,  13th  century  ;  basin, 
15th  century.  PULPIT  :  Dated  1624,  good.  ALTAR  RAILS  : 

ROOD  SCREEN  :  Good  15th  century  work,  in  fairly  good 
preservation.  The  tracery  panels  in  the  heads  of  the  doors  are 
original ;  those  in  the  screen  modem  copies. 

MONUMENTS  :  On  the  south  side  is  a  monument  with  a  canopy  to 
it,  under  which  is  a  brass  to  the  memory  of  Dorothy  Miller,  who 
died  on  October  15th,  1591.  On  the  north  side  is  a  high  tomb 
with  effigies  of  Sir  John  Miller  and  Anna  his  wife ;  of  his  funeral 
achievements  the  helmet  still  remains  on  the  monument.  "  We 
meet  not  unfrequently  in  country  churches,  nigh  to  which  ancient 
manor  houses,  mansions,  or  halls  still  or  did  formerly  exist,  and 
sometimes  also  in  town  churches,  suspended  from  the  walls  or  lying 
about  the  church,  tattered  banners  and  penons  and  pieces  of 


armour,  in  general  not  such  as  were  intended  to  or  could  be  actually 

worn.     These formed  the  funeral  achievements  of 

individuals  of  a  greater  or  less  degree  of  rank,  and  were  borne  by 
the  heralds  at  funerals,  which  were  formerly,  especially  during  the 
16th  or  17th  centuries,  conducted  with  much  secular  pomp,  and 
marshalled  by  one  or  more  of  the  heralds  in  accordance  with  certain 
rules,  differing  with  regard  to  the  status  or  rank  of  each  individual 
whose  funeral  was  thus  performed." — ("  Companion  to  Gothic 
Architecture — Bloxam.") 

STONES  :  The  original  church  of  Winterborne  Came  was  built  in 
the  13th  century.  Of  this  church  there  are  still  portions  of  the 
walls,  the  window  arch  and  inner  splays  of  the  east  window,  the 
base  and  pedestal  of  the  font.  In  the  14th  century  the  north  and 
south  doorways  and  the  north  chancel  window  were  added,  and  in 
the  15th  century  the  Perpendicular  additions  to  the  church  and  the 
rood  screen.  The  rood  screen  must  have  been  dismantled,  and  the 
text  written  across  it,  circa  1561.  In  the  October  of  that  year  the 
Church  Commissioners  of  Queen  Elizabeth  ordered  that  the  rood 
lofts  should  be  taken  down ;  the  screens  themselves,  with  the 
addition  of  a  crest  in  the  place  of  the  lofts,  were  to  remain  to  serve 
as  a  partition  between  the  chancel  and  nave.  This  order  appears 
to  have  been  promptly  carried  out,  for  in  the  churchwardens' 
accounts  of  St.  Helen's,  Abingdon,  which  were  reprinted  in  the 
first  volume  of  "  Archa3ologia,"  is  the  entry  under  the  year 
1561  :  "To  the  carpenter  and  others  for  taking  down  the  roode 
lofte,  and  stopping  the  holes  in  the  wall  where  the  joices  stoode, 
15s.  8d.  To  the  peynter  for  writing  the  Scripture  where  the  roode 
lofte  stoode  and  overthwarte  the  same  isle,  3s.  4d." 


Farringdon,  now  united  to  Came,  was  an  ancient  village ;  from 
the  dedication  to  St.  German  it  is  probable  that' a  church  existed 
here  in  British  times  ;  of  the  later  church  only  the  east  end, 
which  is  of  14th  century  work,  now  remains.  Hutchins  states 


that  the  church  had  become  ruinous  as  early  as  the  year  1648,  when 
divine  service  ceased  to  be  celebrated  in  it,  and  the  services  for  the 
parish  were  held  in  the  domestic  chapel  belonging  to  Herringstone 
House.  Hutchins,  who  died  in  1773,  further  says  :  "The  tower 
and  some  of  the  walls  remained  a  few  years  since."  Forty  years 
later,  as  we  learn  from  a  drawing  now  in  the  possession  of 
E.  W.  Williams,  Esq.,  of  Herringstone  House,  portions  of  a  turret 
of  the  tower  and  of  some  of  the  walls  still  existed. 


SOUTH  SIDE,  PORCH  ARCH  :  13th  century.  CHURCH  DOORWAY, 
Norman.  WINDOWS,  15th  century. 

EAST  END:  EAST  WINDOW,  13th  century,  hood  moulding 
original  and  very  good,  the  windows  well  restored. 

NORTH  SIDE  :  WINDOWS,  15th  century.  NORTH  DOORWAY  (built 
up),  Norman.  CHANCEL  DOORWAY,  15th  century. 

TOWER  :  Embattled  and  well  proportioned,  15th  century.  The 
grilles  in  the  windows  are  remarkably  good.  The  seats  of  pinnacles 
remain  on  the  battlements. 

FURNITURE.— FONT  :  12th  century,  the  basin  of  Purbeck 
marble,  and  the  central  pillars  are  original,  the  small  pillars  later. 
There  is  a  stone  seat  on  the  north  side  of  the  chancel.  The  floor 
of  the  chancel  was  originally  lower ;  it  was  raised  20  or  30  years 
ago.  In  the  head  of  the  north  chancel  window  are  fragments  of 
ancient  glass  of  the  15th  century. 

There  was  formerly  a  rood  beam  supported  by  piers  of  rough 
stone  plastered  ;  probably  when  the  rood  was  removed  in  1561  the 
thin  partition  wall  was  carried  up  to  the  roof  and  plastered.  This 
wall  with  its  supporting  piers  was  taken  down  a  year  or  two  ago, 
when  a  portion  of  the  moulded  rood  beam  was  found  in  situ  ;  the 
beam  with  the  piers  formed  a  square  opening,  which  was  unsightly  ; 
possibly  it  would  have  been  taken  down  in  1561  had  the  command 
been  less  stringent  to  remove  the  roods  and  lofts,  but  to  leave  the 
partition  between  chancel  and  nave.  Over-officious  churchwardens 
who  removed  these  divisions  were  required  to  replace  them.  In 


the  churchyard  was  a  cross.  A  step  with  socket,  and  a  portion  of 
the  shaft,  the  date  of  which  may  have  been  of  13th  century,  are 
all  that  remain  of  it.  Notes  :  The  plan  of  the  church,  long  and 
narrow,  is  Norman,  and  some  of  the  ancient  walls  of  that  date 
are  still  standing.  No  portion  of  the  15th  century  roof  remains. 
The  15th  century  roof,  as  appears  from  the  weathering  on  the  east 
face  of  the  tower,  was  much  flatter  than  the  present  roof. 


Church  is  a  modern  building  and  not  on  the  site  of  the  old  one^ 

The  chancel  arch  shortened  was  brought  from  the  old  church  \  it 
is  of  the  15th  century,  but  of  poor  workmanship. 

The  FONT  is  ancient,  of  the  13th  or  14th  century. 

PISCINA,  Norman,  late  in  the  style. 

The  ancient  tympanum  described  and  figured  in  Hutchins'  Dorset 
is  not  known  to  the  villagers  or  vicar,  though  one  woman  says  she 
heard  there  is  a  carved  stone  underneath  the  ivy  on  one  side  of  the 

A  Tudor  house  stands  not  far  from  the  church  with  the  date 
1630.  The  front  with  well-proportioned  porch  is  in  good  preserva- 
tion. The  old  oak  wainscoting  with  overmantel  still  decorates  the 
King's  chamber,  and  in  the  cellar,  formerly  a  kitchen,  is  a  stone 
fireplace  of  the  date. 


Mainly  Early  English  and  early  in  the  style. 

NORTH  SIDE  :  Porch,  buttress,  and  priest's  door,  13th  century. 

DORMER  WINDOW  :  15th  century. 

EAST  END  :  East  window  originally  13th  century. 

WALLS,  ditto. 

SOUTH  SIDE  :  ARCADE  of  two  bays  dividing  transept  from  nave, 
13th  century,  good.  This  arcade  is  strengthened  by  arches  built 
up  on  the  transept  side,  circa  Charles  I. 

The  windows  in  the  transept  on  east  and  west  sides  are  pure 
Early  English  inside  and  out.  The  window  in  the  nave,  west  of 
the  arcade,  15th  century,  but  the  window  arch  and  splay  are 


earlier,    and   may   have   originally   contained   a  triplet  of    Early 
English  lights. 

TOWER  :  Early  English  (13th  century),  with  15th  century  upper 
stages  and  windows.  The  window  opening  on  the  west  face  of  the 
tower  may  have  contained  a  slit  to  serve  as  a  window  or  for  defence, 
as  at  Woodsford  (No.  8). 

CHANCEL  ARCH  :  Probably  Saxon ;  there  are  hagioscopes  on 
either  side  of  it. 

FONT  :  Modern. 

church  is  mainly  of  the  13th  century,  the  only  earlier  work  being 
the  chancel  arch,  it  seems  most  likely  that  the  original  church  to 
which  this  arch,  if  Saxon,  belonged,  or  if  Norman  was  added,  was 
a  Saxon  structure,  for  a  substantial  Norman  church  would  not  have 
become  so  decayed  in  eighty  years  or  so  after  its  erection  as  to 
necessitate  its  being  pulled  down  and  rebuilt.  The  Saxon  church 
gave  place  to  the  Early  English  in  the  13th  century,  the  chancel 
arch  alone  remaining  of  the  ancient  church.  The  upper  stage  of 
the  tower  and  the  Perpendicular  windows  in  it  and  in  the  church, 
including  the  dormer  window,  were  added  in  the  15th  century. 
At  this  time  the  13th  century  (Early  English)  roof  still  existed, 
and  the  dormer  window  was  built  into  it.  The  steep  slope  of  this 
roof  is  shown  by  the  weathering  on  the  tower  and  the  ancient 
eaves-course  which  still  remains  in  places  in  the  walls. 

At  a  late  period  after  the  Perpendicular  the  walls  were  raised, 
and  the  present  roof  superseded  the  steep  13th  century  roof. 

There  was  a  tradition  in  the  village  that  there  was  a  very 
beautiful  painting  on  the  east  wall  of  the  nave  above  the  chancel 
arch  ;  the  repair  of  the  ceiling  a  few  years  ago  gave  the  opportunity 
for  testing  the  truth  of  the  tradition — the  wall  was  examined  at  a 
distance  by  candle  light  when  upon  it  was  seen  a  short  word  in 
Hebrew  characters  surrounded  by  an  ornamental  border  in  colour. 
When  the  opportunity  occurs  again  for  examining  it,  it  should  be 
observed  whether  the  word  is  the  mysterious  word  A.G.L.A., 
the  meaning  of  which  is  not  known ;  but,  as  it  has  been  found 

Proc.  Dorset  N.H.  &  A.F.  Club,   Vol.  xii.,  i8gi. 





written  in  Hebrew  characters  on  paper  and  inserted  in  the  furniture 
of  churches,  engraved  on  rings  and  other  articles,  and  as  it  is  found 
in  a  mediaeval  medical  manuscript  of  the  14th  century,  as  a 
physical  charm  against  fever  (see  Archseologia,  vol.  xxx.,  p.  400, 
where  a  copy  of  the  MS.  is  given),  it  is  not  impossible  that  it  was 
used  as  a  talismanic  charm  against  the  plague.  For  further  par- 
ticulars see  Archaeological  Journal,  vol.  iii,  p.  359;  vol.  iv,  p.  78  ; 
vol.  xxiv,  p.  68;  vol.  xxviii,  p.  25. 


Very  little  that  is  ancient  remains  in  this  church ;  the  tower 
was  rebuilt  in  1695  by  Robert  Browne,  who  added  the  north  aisle 
with  its  arcade  a  few  years  later  ;  the  arcade  was  rebuilt  in  1862, 
when  much  of  the  new  work  in  the  church  was  added. 

The  original  church  is  said  to  have  been  built  in  the  reign  of 
Edward  IV.  That  the  roof  of  the  old  church  was  of  that  date  is 
probable  from  the  description  of  the  decoration  upon  it — "On  square 
panels  were  painted  a  rose  and  the  sun  issuing  from  it,  the  device 
of  King  Edward  IV."  (Hutchins).  There  is  nothing  in  the  present 
church  (except  a  13th  century  aumbry  in  the  south  aisle)  which 
shows  an  earlier  date  than  Edward  IV.  The  chancel  arch  and  the 
arcade  dividing  the  south  aisle  from  the  nave  would  be  about  that 
date,  and  so  might  be  the  square-headed  Perpendicular  doorway 
inserted  in  the  tower,  and  the  large  west  window  with  plain  tracery, 
and  the  small  two-light  window. 

Carved  on  the  capitals  of  the  columns  at  each  end  of  the  south 
arcade  are  grotesque  figures  of  monks ;  on  the  capital  at  the  west 
end  two  monks  are  represented  as  wrestling  for  a  hoop.  A  copy 
of  an  ancient  illumination  (Strutt's  Sports  and  Pastimes)  shows 
figures  in  a  similar  attitude,  but  instead  of  a  hoop  a  staff  is  the 
object  of  contention.  At  the  east  end  of  the  arcade  two  hoops  are 
behind  the  monks.  On  the  capitals  of  the  chancel  arch  are  cut  the 
monogram  of  St.  Mary  and  the  sacred  monogram.  Similar  capitals 
will  be  found  in  Winterborne  Church,  and  from  the  similarity  of 
the  work  it  is  possible  that  the  carving  in  both  churches  might  be 


by  the  same  hand.  The  church  contains  an  interesting  pulpit  of 
early  15th  century  work  ;  this  has  suffered  much  through  the 
re-tooling  of  the  stone  at  a  late  period.  Some  of  the  panels  carved 
in  figure  subjects  are  modern  imitations  of  the  old  ;  at  present  it  is 
easy  to  distinguish  them  (plate  3). 

In  the  chancel  are  the  effigies  of  Sir  John  Browne,  in  a  suit  of 
tilting  armour,  and  his  wife  ;  the  former,  it  should  be  noted,  on 
account  of  the  armour,  was  born  in  1558  and  died  in  1627. 

On  the  opposite  side  is  a  monument  bearing  a  so-called  emblem 
of  mortality,  the  representation  in  stone  of  a  corpse  sewn  in  a  sheet, 
and  thus  attired  for  burial ;  the  date  of  the  monument  is  1653. 
"Up  to  and  during  the  early  part  of  the  17th  century  the  bodies  of 
the  commonalty  were  as  a  rule  buried  without  coffins,  being  simply 
enveloped  in  a  linen  sheet  or  shroud."  (See  Bloxam,  "  Companion 
to  Gothic  Architecture,"  llth  edition,  p.  386.)  An  illustration  of 
a  corpse  similarly  attired,  copied  from  a  mural  painting  (late  15th 
century)  on  the  wall  of  the  chapel  of  the  Holy  Trinity,  Stratford- 
on-Avon,  is  given  on  page  196  of  Bloxam 's  "Principles  of  Gothic 
Architecture,"  vol.  ii.  The  sewing  up  of  corpses  in  cloth  for  burial 
was  at  an  earlier  date  common  amongst  persons  of  all  ranks.  In 
an  account  of  the  expense  of  the  funeral  of  a  great  man  who  lived 
at  Bridport  A.D.  1326  was  "  9d.  for  linen  cloth  in  which  to  sew  the 
body." — Bridport  Corporation  Kecords  (Dorset  Antiquarian  Field 
Club  Transactions,  vol.  xi.,  p.  101).  On  two  monuments  in  the 
north  choir  aisle  of  Salisbury  Cathedral  are  carved  effigies  of  corpses 
so  attired  ;  the  shroud  which  envelopes  one  of  them  is  represented 
as  tied  at  the  ends  and  open  in  the  middle,  disclosing  the  corpse 


PORCH,  ARCH,  AND  PORTIONS  of  the  walls  of  the  church  of 
south  side,  14th  century.  COPING  AND  APEX  STONE,  15th  century. 

The  date  above  the  entrance  and  in  the  gable  of  the  east  end 
(1640)  may  have  been  the  date  of  the  last  restoration  of  the 

CHURCH  DOORWAY  :  15th  century, 


SOUTH  SIDE  :  Window  to  the  west  of  the  porch  ;  the  oldest 
window  now  existing  in  the  church,  14th  century,  and  a  good 
specimen  of  the  style. 

NORTH  SIDE  :  Chancel  window,  originally  14th  century.  This 
window  has  been  much  mutilated  in  repair.  The  rebuilding  of  the 
wall  on  this  side  would  account  for  the  incongruities  noticeable  in 

KOOF  :  Waggon  ;  Perpendicular  English  in  character  ;  possibly 
the  ribs  have  been  renewed,  the  bosses  certainly  have. 

FUKNITUKE. — PULPIT,  CHANCEL  SCREEN,  and  PEWS  of  the  date 
cir.  1640,  are  interesting  and  in  fairly  good  preservation;  on  the 
south  side  the  original  pew  hinges  remain. 

FONT  :  Ancient,  possibly  14th  century.  Looks  as  if  an  inter- 
mediate member,  octagonal  in  form,  had  been  removed  from 
between  the  basin  and  base. 

A  brass  pulpit  light  of  excellent  design,  dated  1713.  There  are 
two  monuments  described  in  Hutchins. 

earliest  church  of  which  there  are  any  remains  was  of  the  14th 
century  ;  of  this  church  there  still  remain  wall,  porch,  moulding 
in  the  inside  of  the  north  chancel  window,  at  which  time  there 
probably  existed  an  early  tower.  1st  restoration  :  Perpendicular 
period,  when  the  tower  was  built  and  the  cinquefoil  Perpen- 
dicular windows  were  inserted.  2nd  restoration :  1640.  Some 
of  the  walls  were  rebuilt,  and  most  of  the  windows  were 
tinkered  and  debased  in  Tudor  style  and  the  carved  oak  work 

It  will  be  noticed  that  the  tower  is  out  of  centre  with  the 
church ;  this  may  be  accounted  for  in  two  ways  :  either  the  early 
church  was  a  Norman  structure  with  a  narrow  south  aisle,  of  which 
the  arcade  was  taken  down  to  increase  the  accommodation  when 
this  roof  was  put  up,  or  the  church  has  been  enlarged  by  putting 
back  the  north  Avail,  as  wre  know  was  done  at  Woodsford.  If  there 
was  a  Norman  aisle  the  width  of  it  would  have  been  5ft.  or  6ft. 



The  church  as  it  stands  is  mainly  of  the  15th  century. 

The  CHANCEL  was  wholly  rebuilt  at  that  time,  the  walls, 
windows,  door  in  the  south  side  (now  blocked  up),  the  piscina 
with  aumbry  above,  the  excellent  roof  (now  concealed  by  the 
plaster  ceiling),  are  all  of  the  period.  The  cill  of  the  window  on 
the  south  side  was  carried  down  to  form  a  sedilia ;  the  seat  seems 
inconveniently  high  above  the  floor,  but  there  are  clear  tokens  that 
the  floor  at  the  east  end  of  the  chancel  was  originally  much  higher. 
On  either  side  of  the  east  window  is  a  bracket  supported  by  a 
pillar  ;  these  brackets  presumably  were  for  images.* 

The  roofs  throughout  the  church  are  of  15th  century  construction, 
and  are  very  good  for  a  country  church. 

The  TOWER  pinnacled  and  embattled,  of  three  stages,  is  also  of 
the  Perpendicular  period ;  the  turret  at  the  side  is  later  than  the 

When  the  walls  of  the  church  towards  the  west  end  were 
repaired  some  years  ago  MURAL  PAINTINGS  were  found  upon  them ; 
they  are  believed  to  be  still  there  underneath  the  whitewash. 

The  FONT,  of  Purbeck  marble,  is  probably  Saxon  (plate  4). 

The  very  peculiar  arcade  dividing  the  nave  from  the  aisle  calls 
for  some  remark  ;  that  there  was  an  aisle  here  anciently  is  certain 
from  the  bases  of  the  columns,  which  are  undoubtedly  ancient. 
That  the  arcade  has  not  been  rebuilt  since  the  15th  century  seems 
probable  from  the  fact  that  the  roof  of  the  aisle  is  of  that  style. 
The  stonework  of  it  until  recently  was  coloured.  A  few  years  ago 

*  "In  the  'Concilium  Provinciale  Cashelense,'  Provincial  Council  of 
Cashell  in  Ireland,  held  A.D.  1453,  it  was  enjoined  that  in  every  church 
there  should  be  at  least  three  images— namely,  of  S.  Mary  the  Virgin,  of 
the  crucifix,  and  of  the  patron  of  the  place,  in  honour  of  whom  the 
church  was  dedicated.  But  besides  the  images  thus  specially  enjoined 
and  required  to  be  placed  in  every  church  at  the  expense  of  the 
parishioners,  many  other  images  of  saints,  or  such  as  were  so  esteemed, 
were  made  at  the  costs  of  and  presented  by  individual  benefactors,  or 
left  by  will  to  churches  ;  and  the  brackets  on  which  they  were  placed 
are  still  retained,  mostly  projecting  from  one  side,  or  both,  of  an  east 
window." — "Principles  of  Gothic  Ecclesiastical  Architecture— Bloxam. " 


the  colouring  was  chiselled  off  by  masons,  which  accounts  for  the 
new  face  upon  the  stone.  Above  the  chancel  arch,  which  is  of 
very  debased  character,  are  the  Royal  Arms  of  George  II.,  and  on 
the  west  wall  of  the  aisle  is  a  remarkable  painting  on  an  old  oak 
panel  representing  King  David  playing  on  a  harp  :  the  frame  is  not 
the  original  setting  of  the  painting,  before  the  gallery  was  taken 
down  it,  decorated  the  front  of  it,  what  position  it  originally 
occupied  in  the  church  is  not  known. 


The  original  church  consisted  of  a  chancel  and  a  nave  with  a 
tower,  which  was  on  the  south  side  of  it  and  in  the  centre  of  that 
side.  To  the  east  of  the  tower  was  a  chapel  dedicated  to  the 
Holy  Trinity  ;  this  chapel  was  rebuilt  and  converted  into  a  family 
pew  in  1773.  A  sketch  made  by  Miss  Phyllis  Wollaston  in 
1775,  now  in  the  family  archives  of  the  lord  of  the  manor,  shews 
the  old  church  as  it  was  after  the  rebuilding  of  this  chapel.  The 
vestry  on  the  west  of  the  tower  was  added  in  1776,  when  the  stone 
steps  shewn  in  the  sketch  as  leading  from  the  outside  to  the  west 
gallery  were  removed  to  make  room  for  it.  The  tower  and  nave 
were  rebuilt  at  the  same  time,  and  the  apse  added  in  the  place  of 
the  ancient  chancel.  The  north  aisle  was  built  in  1840  ;  there  was 
no  aisle  previously  on  this  side  of  the  church. 

There  is  not  a  great  deal  in  the  church  which  will  interest  the 
antiquary,  the  church  having  been  rebuilt  so  recently. 

The  basin  of  the  font  is  of  the  15th  century,  and  there  are  two 
arches  of  the  same  date  on  the  south  side  of  the  nave,  both  much 
renewed,  and  one  of  them  brought  from  another  part  of  the 

In  the  chapel  is  a  well  preserved  brass  to  the  memory  of 
James  Frampton,  some  particulars  of  which  being  given  in 
Hutchins  need  not  be  repeated.  The  kneeling  figure  is  represented 
without  sallet  or  helmet,  as  is  usual  in  brasses  of  the  date.  He  is 
habited  in  plate  armour,  the  shoulder  pieces  are  broad,  and  there 
are  large  tassets  in  front  over  a  skirt  of  mail,  which  is  divided  for 


convenience  of  riding  ;  round  the  neck  is  an  upright  neckguard  of 
plate,  and  on  the  feet  broad-toed  sollarets.  He  is  armed  with 
sword  and  dagger.  Except  the  sollarets  the  armour  is  of  an 
earlier  date  than  1523,  which  is  the  date  of  the  "brass;  1500  would 
be  about  the  date  of  the  armour.  (See  monumental  brass  to 
Sir  Humphry  Stanley  in  Westminster  Abbey. — Hewett's  "Ancient 
Armour  in  Europe  "  supplement,  page  58.) 

The  memorial  in  white  Carara  marble,  erected  in  1762  to  the 
memory  of  Mary,  the  wife  of  James  Frampton,  executed  by 
Peter  Matthias  Van  Gelder,  of  Amsterdam,  should  be  noticed  for 
the  exquisite  carving,  in  the  border,  of  flowers,  which  are  treated  in 
a  naturalistic,  not  conventional,  manner.  An  engraving  of  this 
monument  is  given  in  the  earlier  edition  of  Hutchins'  "Dorset." 

In  the  west  window  of  the  nave,  and  in  the  east  window  of  the 
north  aisle,  are  heraldic  medallions  in  painted  glass.  On  comparing 
the  arms  represented  in  them  with  the  descriptions  given  in  the 
first  edition  of  Hutchins'  "  Dorset "  of  windows  in  the  old  mansion 
house,  it  will  be  seen  that  these  windows  must  have  been  removed 
to  the  church  from  thence.  The  painted  glass  belongs  to  the  latter 
half  of  the  16th  century  ;  one  of  the  medallions  is  dated  1585,  and 
from  the  character  of  the  painting  it  is  clear  that  all  of  them  were 
painted  about  that  time.  The  method  of  painting  employed  is  the 
enamel.  Enamel  colours  were  invented  about  the  middle  of  the 
16th  century.  Their  first  use  was  to  give  depth  and  detail  to 
mosaic  glass  windows ;  it  was  not  until  some  time  after  their 
discovery  that  glass  was  painted  wholly  in  enamel  colours.  These 
paintings,  therefore,  are  not  late  in  the  style. 

18.  MONKTON. 

NORTH  SIDE  :  PORCH  ARCH,  late  Decorated.  CHURCH  DOORWAY, 
Norman.  WINDOWS,  generally  15th  century,  much  debased.  EAST 
WINDOW,  15th  century.  QUOINS  OF  CHANCEL,  externally  12th  or 
13th  century.  Under  the  east  window  is  a  13th  century  buttress, 
the  top  of  the  buttress  has  been  cut  off,  it  looks  as  if  originally  it 
was  continued  up  the  gable  with  a  13th  century  window  on  each 


side  of  it,  supporting  the  small  cot  which  contained  the  sanctus 

ARCADE  WITHIN  THE  CHURCH,  15th  century. 

TOWER,  late  15th  century.  There  are  some  indications  which 
lead  one  to  suspect  that  the  core  of  the  tower  may  be  Early  English. 

FURNITURE.— FONT  :  The  basin  and  a  portion  of  the  pedestal 
14th  century  (late). 

PISCINA  :  Originally  in  the  south  aisle,  15th  century. 

SCREEN  :  The  head  of  the  ancient  screen  is  inserted  in  the  base  ; 
the  date  is  late  14th  century,  style  Decorated  English,  approaching 

RESTORATION  OF  THE  CHURCH  in  1870.  At  this  restoration  the 
north  wall,  which  was  Norman,  was  taken  down  ;  it  was  very  thick 
and  of  rubble,  built  upon  the  surface  of  the  ground  without  founda- 
tions.* To  find  a  solid  foundation  for  the  new  wall  the  masons 
had  to  go  down  six  feet.  Into  this  wall  oaken  beams  had  been 
built,  the  wood  had  perished,  little  more  than  dust  was  left ;  {  the 
use  of  wood  in  stone  walls  by  the  Normans  may  have  been  a  relic 
of  the  Roman  practice.  "Turn  in  crassitudine  perpetuee  talese 
oleaginece  ustilatee  quam  creberrimse  instruantur  uti  utrseque  muri 
frontes  inter  se,  quemadmodum  fibulis,  his  taleis  conligatae  eeternam 
habeant  firmitatem,  &c."  (Vitru,  lib.  1,  cap.  5.) 

The  roof  was  waggon-headed,  plastered  with  one  moulded  rib 
dividing  the  nave  from  the  chancel.  The  chancel  was  shorter  than 
the  present  one,  the  ancient  screen,  the  base  of  which  was  found 
in  situ  between  two  high  pews,  being  on  the  east  side  of  the  rood 
loft  doorway.  This  base,  which  was  much  decayed,  consisted  of  an 
oak  framework  with  three  plain  panels  on  either  side,  the  head  of 
the  screen  was  found  upon  the  base,  and  is  inserted  in  the  new 
screen  in  a  position  similar  to  that  in  which  it  had  been  found. 

*  It  seems  to  have  been  in  Saxon  and  Norman  times  a  common 
practice  to  build  upon  the  surface  of  the  soil  without  foundations ;  the 
soil,  however,  was  no  doubt  well  rammed.  Of  one  church  built  in  Saxon 
times  it  is  recorded  that  the  soil  was  beaten  together  by  means  of  a 
battering  ram. 

t  Cavities  left  by  the  decay  of  oaken  ties  in  Norman  walls  were  to  be 
seen  at  Dinas  Powis,  Brunlaise,  Rochester,  and  Lincoln  Castles. 


There  was  a  circular  staircase  leading  to  the  rood  loft,  the  upper 
doorway  to  which  was  a  small  square  opening,  the  stone  steps,  with 
the  exception  of  the  uppermost  one,  which  is  now  supported  by  an 
iron  bar  built  in  for  the  purpose,  were  removed  and  a  doorway  made 
in  the  opposite  side  of  the  turret  to  give  access  to  the  organ 
chamber.  A  plain  painted  oak  17th  century  pulpit  stood  against 
the  door  of  the  rood  loft  turret,  entirely  blocking  it,  so  that  its 
existence  was  not  suspected  until  the  pulpit  was  removed.  The 
door  was  then  revealed,  and  on  opening  it  the  turret  within  was 
found  filled  with  hay  and  straw,  which  must  have  been  there  for 
centuries,  possibly  since  Cromwell's  visit  to  these  parts,  for  the 
pulpit  was  of  that  date. 

On  removing  the  whitewash  from  the  walls  of  the  south  aisle 
15th  century  wall  paintings,  rudely  executed  in  outline,  were  found. 

One  altar  slab  was  found  in  the  pavement  of  the  porch  turned 
upside  down';  this  was  buried  in  the  chancel. 

The  organ  chamber  with  its  archways  into  the  chancel  and  aisle 
were  added  at  this  time,  the  old  windows  of  the  church  displaced 
by  the  arches  being  repaired  and  inserted  in  its  walls. 

The  piscina  now  on  the  south  side  of  the  chancel  was  in  the 
south  aisle,  and  there  were  indications  that  there  had  been  a  chapel 
there,  possibly  formed  by  a  parclose  from  the  first  pillar  to  the  wall. 

There  were  some  ancient  oak  benches  (14th  century),  but  these 
were  too  much  decayed  to  be  used  again. 


The  CHANCEL  :  Early  English  (13th  century),  contains  a  triplet 
east  window  with  the  characteristic  roll  moulding  round  the  three 
lights  on  the  inside,  three  single-light  windows,  one  on  the  north, 
two  on  the  south,  and  a  piscina  with  trefoil  head,  which  has  been 
re-tooled,  all  of  the  same  date.  In  the  south  wall  is  a  13th  century 
doorway  (now  walled  up). 

NAVE  :  On  the  south  side  partly  concealed  by  the  stairway  to  the 
pulpit  is  another  piscina,  and  near  it  a  14th  century  window.  The 
church  doorway  next  to  it  is  of  the  13th  century.  The  window  to 


the  west  of  the  doorway  has  a  cinquefoil  head  of  the  15th 

WEST  END  :  A  doorway  with  stoup  outside  on  the  south  of  it 
and  a  window  above,  15th  century  ;  much  repaired. 

NORTH  AISLE  :  The  window  nearest  the  east  end  is  original  and 
of  the  14th  century ;  the  other  windows  in  this  aisle  are  copies. 
The  arch  opening  into  the  vestry  is  the  ancient  chancel  arch  of 
13th  century,  removed  to  this  spot  at  the  last  restoration.  The 
arch  is  not  more  than  six  feet  in  span,  and  is  constructed  of  a  soft 
white  stone  not  unlike  chalk,  known  by  the  name  of  CLUNCH. 
This  stone  was  much  used  in  ancient  building.  It  will  be  found  in 
Westminster  Abbey,  in  the  front  of  Exeter  Cathedral,  in  one  of 
the  chapels  at  Christchurch,  and  in  this  neighbourhood,  at  Great 
Toller,  where  an  early  arch  lately  discovered  is  mainly  built  of  it. 
Similar  stone  is  found  in  the  quarries  of  Beer,  near  Seaton,  in 

The  TOWER  on  the  south  side  of  the  nave  is  of  two  stages — 
the  lower,  13th  century,  containing  an  arch  and  two  windows 
of  that  date,  with  a  small  doorway  at  the  back  facing  the 
roof,  which,  with  the  higher  stage  of  the  tower,  was  added  two 
centuries  later. 

PORCH  :  In  the  porch,  within  the  lower  stage  of  the  tower, 
are  a  stoup  with  the  face  cut  off  and  showing  the  basin  in 
section,  and  a  niche  ;  over  the  entrance  is  also  a  niche  of  the 
14th  century. 

FUKNITURE.—  FONT  :  The  basin,  15th  century,  of  ordinary 
type  ;  some  of  the  panels  have  been  chiselled. 

was  built  mainly  in  the  13th  century;  the  greater  part  of  the 
church  now7  standing  is  of  that  date.  The  chancel  with  its  windows, 
the  priest's  door  in  the  side  of  it,  a  portion  of  the  nave  walls,  the 
tower  (lower  stage),  and  the  church  doorway  are  all  of  the  Early 
English  period,  and  so  is  the  small  arch  in  the  aisle,  the  removal  of 
which  from  the  chancel  has  ruined  the  Early  English  aspect  of  the 
interior.  The  heads  of  the  windows  are  unusually  round  ;  the 


point  can  scarcely  be  discerned  in  some  of  them.*  This  is  a  local 
peculiarity  of  the  builder.  Of  the  same  date  is  the  piscina  near 
the  pulpit  (with  drain  cut  off),  where  there  was  formerly  an  altar 
and  a  chapel. 

The  substitution  of  the  14th  century  windows  in  the  nave  for 
the  narrow  Early  English  windows  may  have  been  for  the  sake  of 
obtaining  more  light. 

In  the  following  century  the  cinquefoil  perpendicular  head  was 
put  into  the  nave  window,  and  the  great  west  window  and  door, 
with  its  stoup,  were  inserted,  an  additional  stage  was  added  to  the 
tower,  and  a  small  doorway  was  cut  in  the  lower  stage,  by  which 
the  belfry  was  reached  from  the  outside.  Beneath  this  doorway  is 
a  string  moulding  with  sockets  cut  in  it  for  the  beams  of  a  floor. 
How  this  floor  communicated  with  the  church  is  not  clear,  as  it  is 
above  the  present  and  was  above  the  ancient  roof ;  and  there  is 
nothing  to  show  that  there  was  ever  a  roof  over  it,  though  it  must 
have  been  wide  enough  for  a  small  room. 

At  the  last  restoration,  some  years  ago,  by  Mr.  Hicks,  architect, 
of  Dorchester,  the  north  aisle,  with  its  arcade,  were  added.  It  was 
at  this  time  that  the  chancel  arch  was  removed  and  the  present 
wide  chancel  arch  substituted. 


NORTH  SIDE  :  PORCH  with  its  archway  and  niche  above,  Early 
English  (late)  or  Decorated  (early).  CHURCH  DOORWAY  :  Inner 
arch  Tudor,  outer  arch  ancient.  WINDOWS,  15th  century,  pure 
and  good. 

EAST  END  :  The  quoins  are  stop  chain f erred.  Stop  chamfers  in 
such  a  position  are  unusual,  except  in  early  work.  CHANCEL  ARCH  : 
Early  English  (13th  century),  settled  out  of  shape.  There  are 
hagioscopes  on  either  side  of  it. 

*  Arches  with  heads  similar  in  shape  may  be  seen  supporting  the 
clerestory  in  the  west  wall  of  the  south  transept  in  Netley  Abbey.  They 
are  undoubtedly  of  the  Early  English  period,  though  possibly  late  in  the 


SOUTH  SIDE  :  WINDOWS,  Flamboyant  (beginning  of  15th  century). 
SOUTH  DOORWAY,  ancient. 

TOWER,  14th  century  period  with  15th  century  insertions  and 

The  spiral  staircase  in  the  south-west  corner,  enclosed  in  oak 
casing,  belongs  to  the  fan  tracery  period  of  Henry  VIII.  reign. 
FURNITURE.— FONT,  13th  century. 

In  the  churchyard  was  a  15th  century  cross,  of  which  only  the 
foundations  and  steps  now  remain. 

original  church  was  of  Norman  construction,  built  circa  1140. 
This  church  it  is  reasonable  to  suppose  was  of  the  type  common  to 
village  churches  of  the  Norman  period,  a  long  narrow  building, 
whose  timber  roof  was  covered  with  thatch  or  shingles  of  wood. 
The  Norman  church  may  have  been  burnt  out,  or  it  may  have  been 
taken  down  to  make  way  for  a  larger  building ;  both  hypotheses  are 
tenable.  That  some  disaster  befel  the  church  is  probable,  if  only 
from  the  disappearance  of  the  Norman  font  at  so  early  a  period  as 
the  Early  English,  whilst  the  fact  that  the  Early  English  church 
had  entrances  on  the  north,  west,  and  south  seems  to  show  that  the 
village  had  extended  on  all  sides  of  it. 

A  piscina  belonging  to  this  church  was  found  in  a  heap  of 
stones,  the  remains  of  the  old  chancel.  Originally  it  projected 
from  the  wall  and  was  supported  on  a  shaft.  Of  the  Early  English 
church  which  succeeded  the  Norman  building,  the  porch,  chancel 
arch,  hagioscopes,  walls,  and  font  remain.  Surmounting  the  gable 
of  the  western  end  was  in  all  probability  a  bell  turret  or  cage. 
This  gave  place,  a  hundred  years  later  or  so,  to  the  present  tower, 
which  belongs  to  the  14th  century  period. 

Early  in  the  15th  century  the  Flamboyant  windows  were 
inserted  in  the  south  side,  and  later  in  the  same  century  the 
windows  on  the  north  side  and  the  Perpendicular  insertions 
in  the  tower  were  added — the  windows  in  the  place  of  the 
Early  English  windows.  In  the  heads  of  the  windows  are 
fragments  of  well  painted  glass — the  sacred  monogram  and  the 


monogram  of   S.    Mary  in  the  tracery  of   one  ;    in   another   the 
Tudor  rose  of  Henry  VII. 

Since  the  above  was  written  the  rebuilding  of  the  church  has 
been  commenced.  A  chancel  with  organ  chamber  are  to  be  added  to 
the  nave  ;  the  ancient  chancel  arch,  with  one  of  its  hagioscopes,  will 
be  removed  to  the  latter.  The  removal  of  the  whitewash  from  the 
walls  disclosed  wall  paintings  of  different  dates  over  every  part  of 
the  church ;  on  the  splay  of  a  window  on  the  north  side  was  a  good 
design  of  the  15th  century,  on  the  west  end  of  the  same  side  and 
on  the  south  side  were  figure  subjects  of  the  same  date  rudely 
executed,  and  on  the  east  end  texts  of  a  much  later  date.  In  the 
gable  at  the  east  end,  above  the  ceiling,  were  the  Royal  arms  of 
King  Charles,  well  painted,  and  the  motto  "  Feare  God,  honor  the 
King"  above  it,  the  whole  filling  up  the  gable. 

The  removal  of  the  lead  covering  revealed  an  oak  timbered  roof 
of  most  massive  construction.  The  tie  beams  were  squared  trees 
16x12  inches;  the  struts  between  the  principals  from  the  tie 
beams  to  the  ridge  formed  a  series  of  arches,  and  similar  struts 
from  those  beams  to  the  purlins  formed,  where  perfect,  a  similar 
series  of  arches  on  either  side,  in  planes  at  right  angles  with  the 
rafters.  The  effect  from  the  floor,  had  the  ceiling  been  removed, 
would  have  been  unusual  and  striking.  This  roof  was  originally 
undoubtedly  of  the  14th  century,  and,  although  it  had  been  repaired 
in  1721  and  again  in  1813,  the  character  of  the  14th  century  roof 
was  well  preserved.  Timber  roofs  of  this  period  are  rare. 
Amongst  the  carved  stones  belonging  to  the  Xorman  building, 
found  in  taking  down  the  old  walls,  were  some  rich  chevron 
ornaments  belonging  to  an  arch,  the  plinth  of  a  pilaster  with 
cable  moulding,  and  a  portion  of  some  decorative  work. 


This  church  was  rebuilt  a  few  years  ago.  The  tower,  of 
ordinary  15th  century  character,  alone  remains  of  the  old 
church.  The  brass  described  by  Hutchins  is  still  in  its  place. 
An  ancient  (15th  century)  piscina  is  built  into  the  chancel  wall, 


but  it  has  been   re-cut  so   as  to  be  almost  past  recognition   as 
old  work. 


A  tiny  church,  yet  not  wanting  in  interesting  features.  The 
plan  of  the  church  is  Norman,  or  earlier. 

The  chancel  has  been  built  recently. 

On  the  north  side  of  the  church  is  a  doorway  (built  up)  of  late 
12th  century  (Norman)  workmanship.  The  familiar  dog-tooth 
ornament  which  appears  in  the  moulding  of  the  arch  is  an  evidence 
of  the  lateness  of  the  work  in  the  period.  This  is  the  first 
Norman  work  I  have  met  with  in  Ham  Hill  stone. 

The  font  may  be  of  the  same  period.  The  basin,  however,  has 
no  trace  of  the  staples  for  fastening  the  cover,  which  are  generally 
to  be  found  in  ancient  fonts. 

Some  of  the  nave  windows,  which  are  rudely  cut,  may  have 
been  originally  of  the  14th  century,  and  so  may  be  the  arch  of 
the  porch,  the  head  of  which  has  been  tampered  with.  These 
have  no  special  interest. 

The  narrow  chancel  arch,  as  is  shown  by  the  foundation,  was 
formerly  of  the  same  width  at  the  base  as  it  is  just  below  the 
impost.  The  jambs  have  been  cut  away  at  some  time  and  a  pointed 
head  substituted  for  the  ancient  round  head.  The  original  arch  is 
not  later  than  the  Norman  period  ;  the  indented  ornament  on  the 
impost  is  of  that  period,  and  this  may  have  been  executed  some 
time  after  the  erection  of  the  arch,  as  was  a  similar  indented 
ornament  on  an  impost  of  one  of  the  arches  in  the  triforium  of  the 
Abbey  Church  of  St.  Alban's  (plate  3). 


The  church  was  rebuilt  in  1850  on  the  old  foundations.  A  loth 
century  arch  and  the  bowl  of  the  font,  which  appears  to  have  been 
re-cut,  are  all  that  remain  of  the  old  church.  The  font  is  of 
13th  century  character. 

The  church,  poor  in  other  antiquities,  is  rich  in  painted  glass. 
On  the  north  side  of  the  chancel  is  a  two  light  window  of  ancient 


glass.  The  medallions  of  which  it  is  composed  are  described  in  the 
first  edition  of  "  Hutchins'  History  of  Dorset"  as  having  been  in  the 
east  windows  of  the  church  with  others  which  have  disappeared. 
From  a  sketch  of  the  old  church  in  the  possession  of  Mr.  H.  B. 
Middleton  it  appears  that  the  chancel  was  of  the  13th  century 
(Early  English)  style,  and  from  the  remark  of  Hutchins  that  this 
glass  was  in  the  east  windows  of  the  church  there  is  ground  for 
assuming  that  the  east  windows  were  an  Early  English  triplet,  or 
two  single  light  windows,  perhaps  divided  by  a  flat  pilaster  buttress 
which  carried  the  cage  of  the  sanctus  bell  above  the  gable.  As 
architectural  styles  are  oftentimes  much  later  in  remote  places  than 
in  large  towns,  it  is  not  too  much  to  assume  further  that  the  church 
though  Early  English  in  style  was  built  very  early  in  the  14th 
century.  Now,  the  subjects  of  the  pictures  are  outlined  and  shaded 
in  enamel  brown  and  tinted  with  yellow  stain — the  yellow  stain 
was  discovered  circa  1310 ;  that  these  paintings  were  made  soon 
after  the  discovery  seems  certain  from  the  character  of  the  outline 
and  shading.  There  is  good  reason,  therefore,  for  thinking  that 
these  windows  were  painted  circa  1315  and  that  the  chancel  was 
built  at  that  time.  It  seems  the  more  likely  that  the  glass  was 
coeval  with  the  church,  since  the  subjects  appear  to  relate  to  the 
"  Assumption  of  the  B.  V.  M.,"  to  which  the  church  is  dedicated. 
Of  the  four  medallions,  one  is  a  modern  imitation  of  the  old,  one 
is  original,  of  the  other  two  the  head  of  one  and  the  base  of 
another  are  modern,  and  so  is  the  border. 

The  glass  of  the  east  window  has  a  history.  In  September, 
1845,  a  meeting  of  the  Koyal  Archaeological  Institute  was  held  at 
"Winchester,  and  a  short  notice  of  the  painted  glass  in  Winchester 
and  the  neighbourhood  was  read  by  C.  Winston,  an  expert  in 
stained  glass.  In  the  cloisters  of  Winchester  College  were  two 
boxes  of  ancient  glass  which  had  been  removed — Mr.  Winston  was 
informed — from  the  west  wind^v  of  New  College  Chapel,  Oxford,* 

*  The  Warden  of  New  College  states  that  the  contents  of  these  chests 
were  given  to  Winchester  College,  the  glass  to  be  employed  in  the 
reparation  of  the  chapel  windows,  and  that  subsequently  the  glass  was 
granted  for  the  decoration  of  Bradford  Peverell  Church, 

CHURCHES    IN    THE    RURAL    DEANERY    Ofr    DORCHESTER.       69 

when  the  window  designed  by  Sir  Joshua  Reynolds  was  put  up. 
The  contents  of  the  boxes  were  examined  by  Mr.  Winston,  who 
found  that  they  contained  fragments  of  13th  and  14th  century 
glass.  On  May  25th,  1850,  five  years  later,  Mr.  H.  K  Middleton, 
during  the  rebuilding  of  Bradford  Peverell  Church,  went  to  Oxford 
to  see  some  glass  which  had  been  offered  to  him  for  the  church  by 
the  Warden  of  New  College,  and  was  said  to  have  been  removed 
from  the  top  of  the  west  window  of  the  chapel.*  The  cases  were 
sent  to  Mr.  Nockalls  J.  Cottingham,  an  eminent  glass  painter,  who 
reported  that  they  contained  124  feet  of  ancient  glass.  There  was 
little  figure  work  amongst  it,  but  a  large  quantity  of  rich  plain 
colour  and  diaper  work,  which  he  thought  could  be  worked  into 
draperies  of  figures,  &c.  The  ornament,  he  said,  was  exceedingly 
good.  Amongst  it  was  the  sacred  monogram  I.H.S.,  each  letter 
on  a  separate  piece  of  glass  and  surmounted  by  a  crown — a  very 
unusual  arrangement.  There  was  also  much  beautiful  canopy 
work.  The  present  east  window,  which  is  in  the  Early  English 
(13th  century)  style,  was  designed  with  the  intention  of  utilising 
as  much  of  the  Early  English  glass  as  possible.  The  draperies  of 
the  angels,  of  our  Lord  in  the  vesica  piscis  supported  by  them,  and 
much  of  the  dark  background,  is  original  Early  English  glass. 
The  sanctus,  the  outer  border,  and  some  of  the  plain  glass  in  the 
grounds  is  14th  century;  the  remainder  and  the  design  are  modern. 
Some  of  the  ancient  glass  has  been  retouched.  Mr.  Cottingham 
proposed  to  use  the  14th  century  glass,  including  some  of  the 
canopy  work,  in  a  second  window,  but  this  suggestion  was  not 
carried  out,  and,  with  the  exception  of  some  fragments  still  in  Mr. 
Middleton's  possession,  the  remainder  of  the  glass  was  lost. 

In  a  window  on  the  north  side  of  the  nave  are  the  arms  of 
William  of  Wykeham,  surrounded  by  the  ribbon  of  the  Garter. 

*  From  the  description  of  the  contents  of  the  cases  given  by  Mr. 
Cottingham,  from  what  we  see  of  the  Early  English  glass,  from  what  we 
know  the  canopy  work  of  the  14th  century  would  be  like,  it  seems  veiy 
improbable  that  the  glass  came  from  the  west  window  only,  or  that  such 
glass  as  was  found  in  the  cases  would  have  been  combined  in  one  window 


The  Garter  and  motto  and  some  of  the  grounds  are  original ; 
the  remainder  is  modern  work  by  the  painter  of  the  east  window. 
"With  respect  to  the  date  of  this  ancient  glass,  Mr.  T.  F. 
Kirby,  Bursar*  of  Winchester  College,  writes  :  "  The  church 
of  Bradford  Peverell  was  one  of  the  churches  belonging  to 
Winchester  College  which  they  had  to  repair,  if  not  to  rebuild, 
soon  after  they  came  into  possession  of  it,  and  the  coat  of 

arms  of  their  founder,  William  of  Wykeham 

now  in  the  north  window  of  the  nave,  was  no  doubt  put  in  to 
commemorate  the  fact  of  this  restoration  or  rebuilding."  The 
window,  according  to  Hutchins,  originally  had  the  words  "  William 
Wykham,  Churche  Patron,"  beneath  the  Wykeham  arms,  which 
seems  to  imply  that  the  glass  was  inserted  by  Wykeham  himself 
before  he  presented  the  tithes  of  the  church  to  his  new 
College  of  S.  Mary,  at  Winchester,  in  1395.  This  is  the  more 
likely  because  he  was  a  patron  of  the  glass  painter,  and  took  such 
special  interest  in  that  kind  of  decoration  that  he  bequeathed  a 
sum  of  money  for  the  glazing  of  windows  in  Winchester  Cathedral ; 
but,  as  Mr.  Kirby  points  out  that  the  church  was  repaired  (the 
chancel,  from  the  style  of  the  architecture,  could  not  have  been 
rebuilt  at  this  time)  shortly  after  Winchester  College  came  into 
possession  of  it,  it  is  possible  that  the  glass  was  put  in  at  that  time ; 
the  difference  in  the  dates  would  be  trifling. 

on  *owe  of  the  jlater  Jforms  of 
lately  foxtail)  m  Dorset 

By  the  Rev.  E.  P.  MURRAY,  M.A., 

KNOW  of  no  problem  presented  by  British  Botany 
more  difficult,  yet  more  fascinating,  than  that 
which  meets  us  in  the  study  of  the  fruticose 
Rubi.  Most  of  the  plants  we  meet  with  are  well 
separated  from  the  forms  most  nearly  related  to 
them  by  characters  wrhich  are  sufficiently  obvious 
to  the  botanist,  nor  do  they  show  any  great  tendency  to  run  into 
one  another.  But  in  some  few  genera  this  is  far  from  being  the 
case.  We  shall  find  no  better  illustration  of  these  unstable  groups 
than  is  to  be  found  in  the  familiar  bramble  of  our  roadsides, 
heaths,  and  woodlands. 

The  older  botanists  were  content  to  combine  the  innumerable 
forms  of  European  shrubby  brambles  into  two  or  three  species — 
viz.,  R.  idceus,  L.  (raspberry),  R.  fruticosus,  L.  (blackberry),  and 
R.  coesius,  L.  (dewberry).  With  R.  idceus  we  have  no  further 
concern  to-day ;  it  is  a  form  of  great  antiquity,  and  is  well 
separated  from  its  allied  forms.  There  can  be  no  doubt,  on  the 
other  hand,  that  R.  fruticosus  and  R.  coesius  are  very  nearly  allied. 
Their  combined  distribution  is  given  in  Hooker's  "Student's  Flora" 


as  "  Europe  (Arctic),  N.  Africa,  N.  and  W.  Asia,  Himalaya."     It 
has,  however,  long  been  apparent  that  the  plants  grouped  together 
under  these  two  names  exhibit  an  amount  of   difference   among 
themselves  enormously  greater  than  do  the  majority  of  plants  in 
other   genera.     Nothing   is   easier   than   to   make   a   selection  of 
extreme  forms.      If  we  could  rest  there  the  problem  would  be  an 
easy  one ;  the  extreme  forms  are  abundantly  distinct.     But  they 
are  connected  together  by  so  many  other  forms  which  pass  so 
gradually  into  one  another  that  it  becomes  in  many  cases  almost 
impossible   to   assign   limits   to   the   forms  which  so  long  as  we 
confined  our  attention  to  the  extremes  appeared  so  distinct.     What 
is  to  be  done  ?      Men  have  been  working  at  the  problem  for  many 
years  in  Britain,  in  France,  in  Germany,  in  Scandinavia,  and  we 
have  not  yet  reached  any  definite  conclusions.      But  I  believe  that 
there  are  conclusions  to  be  reached,  and  I  believe  also  that  no 
botanists  in  the  world  are  in  a  better  position  for  continuing  the 
investigation  than  are  the  botanists  of  England.      Clearly,  the  first 
thing  to  do  is  to  endeavour  to  differentiate  and  define  our  bramble- 
forms,   and  to  collate   them  with  those  of   other  countries.     At 
present  we  have,  I  believe,  just  100  such  forms  in  Britain,  and 
this  number,  large  as  it  is,  will  probably  be  considerably  increased. 
In  1869  Genevier  described  over  200  species  from  the  Valley  of 
the  Loire,  while  Focke  gives  72  more  or  less  aggregate  species  as 
found  in  Germany,  under  which  are  grouped  a  considerable  number 
of   other  less  distinct   forms.      These   figures   shew   considerable 
differences  ;  but  I  suppose  that  in  all  these  countries  the  number  of 
separable  forms  is  about  the  same.     I  think  it  is  necessary  that 
these  forms  should  be  worked  out,  because,  till  that  is  done,  the 
task  of  re-combining  them  into  groups  which  shall  be  more  or  less 
equivalent  in  value  to  the  species  met  with  in  other  genera  can 
hardly  be  successfully  attempted.     Such  an  attempt  has  been  made 
by  Mr.  Baker  in  the  "  Student's  Flora,"  but  seems  to  have  met 
with  little  favour.      In  the  meantime  we  should,  in  my  opinion, 
regard  the  forms  of  bramble  with  which  we  meet  as  forms  rather 
than  species,  yet  forms  with  a  decided  tendency  to  fix  themselves. 


Probably,  in  the  lapse  of  time,  many  of  them  will  die  out,  others 
will  remain — the  species  of  the  future.  Our  work  should  be  (at 
least  in  part)  to  determine,  as  far  as  possible,  which  forms  are 
likely  to  survive,  and  then  to  group  the  other  forms  round  them. 

One  important  point  is  this  :  How  do  the  different  forms  arise  1 
Have  all  the  individuals  now  assignable  to  any  given  form  neces- 
sarily a.  closer  genealogical  connexion  among  themselves  than  with 
the  parent  form  1  In  other  words,  may  the  forms  with  which  we 
are  dealing  arise  independently  at  different  times  and  in  different 
places ;  or  do  all  the  individuals  of  each  form  trace  back  to  one 
common  ancestor,  the  founder  of  the  race  1  If  we  adopt  the  latter 
view,  we  must  be  prepared  to  accept  a  very  high  antiquity  for 
many  even  of  our  less  distinct  forms,  for  in  a  very  large  number  of 
instances  these  forms  are  common  to  England  and  France,  to 
England  and  Germany,  to  England  and  Scandinavia.  No  doubt, 
some  forms  have  come  to  us  by  immigration  from  these  countries 
in  those  long  past  days  when  Britain  was  still  a  part  of  continental 
Europe,  and  have  remained  practically  unchanged  since  their 
arrival.  So,  I  should  suppose,  has  JRubus  suberectus  come  to 
us  from  the  north,  and  R.  rusticanus  (the  commonest  of  all  our 
brambles  in  southern  England)  from  France.  But  in  many  cases  I 
am  inclined  to  think  that  a  similar  environment  will  tend  to 
produce  a  similar  variation,  and  as  bramble  forms,  even  those  most 
nearly  allied,  seein  to  be  very  generally  sterile  (or  nearly  so)  except 
among  themselves,  these  variations  will  tend  to  become  permanent. 
But  they  may  be  quite  young  forms  in  one  place,  very  old  ones  in 
another.  I  have  thought  it  well  to  lay  before  you  these  few 
remarks,  because  it  is  most  important  that  you  should  understand 
in  some  degree  what  the  object  is  which  we  have  before  us.  It  is 
not  to  multiply  names,  nor  to  burden  the  human  memory  with  an 
indefinite  number  of  minute  and  almost  unintelligible  distinctions, 
but  step  by  step  to  investigate  the  facts  which  lie  before  us,  till  we 
reach  some  explanation  of  them.  Nature  is  surely  doing  something 
in  such  a  case  as  this  which  it  is  well  worth  our  while  to  study  ; 
but  of  course  we  must  begin  by  learning  thoroughly  to  know  our 


bramble  forms.  I  believe  Dorset  to  be  almost  exceptionally  rich 
in  these,  but  that  may  only  be  because  it  has  lately  been  (in  its 
south-eastern  portion)  pretty  closely  studied  by  several  specialists, 
chiefly  by  the  Revs.  W.  Moyle  Rogers  and  E.  F.  Linton,  of 
Bournemouth,  while  we  have  had  the  great  advantage  of  visits 
from  Mr.  T.  R.  Archer  Briggs,  whose  recent  death  we  mourn,  than 
whom  none  had  a  greater  acquaintance  with  the  Rubi  of  the  south- 
west of  England,  and  from  Dr.  Focke,  the  great  German  specialist. 
I  myself  have  also  tried  to  do  some  little  work  in  this  direction. 
In  consequence  of  these  investigations  I  am  now  enabled  to  lay 
before  you  descriptions  of  several  Rubi  which  have  either  been 
very  lately  added  to  the  British  lists  or  are  of  great  rarity  in 
England.  They  are  all  from  the  valley  of  the  Stour,  or  the  country 
within  a  very  few  miles  of  it. 

Rubus  sulcatus,  Vest.  Dullar  Wood,  one  mile  from  Bailey  Gate 
Station.  I  had  the  good  fortune  to  find  this  species  for  the  first 
time  in  July  last  (1890),  but  the  bushes  which  I  then  saw  had 
been  much  cut  about,  so  that  I  passed  the  plant  as  probably  a  form 
of  Rubus  suberectus,  Anders.  A  few  days  later  I  showed  it  to  Mr. 
Rogers,  who  at  once  suggested  sulcatus.  Mr.  Briggs  accompanied 
me  further  into  the  wood,  and  soon  all  doubts  were  dispelled  by 
the  discovery  of  further  specimens  in  fine  condition.  Several 
plants  threw  their  flowering  panicles  full  ten  feet  into  the  air. 
This  species  can  hardly  be  confused  with  any  other  except  suberectus, 
and  perhaps  plicafus.  From  R.  suberectus  it  differs  by  its  sulcate 
stems,  with  strong  prickles,  dilated  and  compressed  at  base,  stalked 
lower  leaflets  and  sepals  reflexed  after  flowering.  R.  sulcatus  has 
a  wide  distribution  in  western  Europe,  being  found  in  Scandinavia, 
Germany,  Austria,  Switzerland,  and  France.  It  also  occurs,  but 
very  rarely,  both  in  England  and  Scotland.  In  all  probability  it  is 
a  form  of  considerable  antiquity.  Areschoug  suggests  that  it 
appeared  originally  as  a  modification  of  R.  plicatus.  It  was  first 
recorded  as  British  by  Professor  Babington  in  1886,  having  been 
found  (probably  in  the  previous  year)  in  Perthshire  by  the  late  Mr. 
A.  Sturrock.  Since  then  it  has  been  reported  from  a  few  English 


counties,  but  I  suspect  that  states  of  R.  plicatus  have  been  generally 
mistaken  for  it.  Judging  from  its  situation  in  Dullar  Wood,  this 
plant  should  be  looked  for  in  damp  woods.  In  this  county  it  can 
hardly  be  confined  to  the  tiny  wood  where  alone  I  have  yet  seen  it. 
In  the  adjoining  larger  Foxholes  Wood  I  did  not  see  a  trace  of  it. 
I  possess  in  my  herbarium  specimens  from  England  (Dorset), 
Brunswick,  Hanover,  and  Scandinavia,  besides  a  somewhat  doubtful 
plant  from  Switzerland  (Ticino). 

Rubus  erytlirinus,  Genev.  So  long  ago  as  1880  the  late  Mr.  T. 
K.  A.  Briggs  wrote,  in  the  "Flora  of  Plymouth,"  "we  have  a 
bramble  very  common  about  Plymouth,  certainly  of  the  Khamni- 
folii  group,  and  allied  to  Lindleianus,  which  will,  I  believe,  have 
to  be  described  as  a  new  species,  should  it  not  be  found  to  be 
identical  with  some  continental  one."  Dr.  Focke  has  since  told  us 
that  it  is  the  Rubus  erytlirinus  of  Genevier,  a  plant  of  western 
France.  I  believe  it  will  be  found  somewhat  commonly  in  southern 
England.  Messrs.  Briggs  and  Focke  have  collected  it  at  Arne,  at 
Branksome  Chine,  and  at  Daggons,  in  this  county.  I  am  inclined 
to  refer  here  also  a  bramble  which  is  exceedingly  abundant  in 
Dullar  Wood  and  in  parts  of  Foxholes,  though  neither  Mr.  Briggs 
nor  the  Kev.  Moyle  Rogers  would  accept  it  as  absolutely  identical 
with  the  Plymouth  plant.  It  requires  further  study.  R.  erytliri- 
nus has  been  recorded  from  Cornwall,  Devon,  Somerset,  Hants, 
Gloucestershire,  Herefordshire,  and  Suffolk.  According  to  Mr. 
Briggs  it  may  be  distinguished  from  R.  Lindleianus  by  being  much 
less  prickly,  by  having  larger  and  broader  flat  or  convex  leaves 
with  dentate,  or  obscurely  dentate  serrate,  divisions ;  when  any 
waving  is  present  it  is  only  close  to  the  edges.  Also  by  having 
the  panicle  more  pyramidal  and  less  cylindrical,  with  distant 
branches  below,  and  by  far  the  larger  number  separate  from  one 
another,  "by  having  flowers  with  pink  or  tinted,  not  milk-white 
petals,  and  by  producing  large  fruit.  The  dentition  of  the  leaves  is 
much  coarser  and  more  irregular  than  in  R.  rhamnifoUus,  and  the 
under  surface  is  less  frequently  felted.  R.  rhamnifoUus  also  has 
white  flowers.  See  "Journal  of  Botany,"  1890,  p.  204. 


Rubus  dumnoniensis,  Bab.  This  species  was  founded  by  Professor 
Babington  in  the  "Journal  of  Botany"  for  November  last  (1890) 
in  order  to  receive  a  plant  from  the  neighbourhood  of  Plymouth, 
which  had  previously  been  assigned  to  R.  incurvatus.  Focke 
thinks  that  it  may  be  the  same  as  the  R.  rotundatus  of  P.  J.  Miiller, 
but  will  not  speak  decisively.  He  says  :  "  It  is  near  R.  incurvatus, 
which  may  be,  however,  distinguished  by  its  shorter  prickles, 
smaller  pink  flowers,  and  long  narrow  panicle."  R.  dumnoniensis 
has  large  white  petals  and  long  slender  prickles,  reminding  one  of 
those  of  R.  affinis.  It  has  been  recorded  from  near  the  Lizard, 
Cornwall  (Focke) ;  about  Plymouth  (Briggs  and  Focke) ;  S.  Hants 
(Briggs) ;  Derbyshire  (Rev.  "W.  R.  Linton).  I  have  myself  seen  it 
about  Bournemouth  (Hants)  and  between  Sturminster  Newton  and 
Fifehead  Neville  (Dorset),  in  both  which  places  it  was  pointed  out 
to  me  by  the  Rev.  W.  R.  Moyle  Rogers. 

Rubus  leucandrus,  Focke.  For  such  knowledge  as  I  possess  of 
this  form  I  am  indebted  to  Mr.  Rogers.  The  species  was  described 
by  Focke  in  1875  from  N.W.  German  specimens.  It  is  nearly 
related  to  R.  villicauUs,  from  which  it  differs  by  its  smaller 
prickles,  its  leaflets  strongly  acuminate,  and  its  panicle  leafless  in 
the  upper  part.  The  last  character  does  not,  I  think,  always 
hold  good.  Dr.  Focke  saw  the  plant  near  West  Moors  and  Daggons 
in  this  county,  and  I  have  myself  seen  it  in  Piddle  Wood,  Stur- 
minster Newton ;  in  a  rough  field  near  Dullar  Wood,  both  in  this 
county  ;  and  in  Bournemouth  (Hants). 

Rubus  Mrtifolius,  Kalt.  This  grows  abundantly  in  Bere  Wood, 
where  I  gathered  it  for  the  first  time  in  August,  1885.  It  is  a 
striking  plant,  and  when  well  developed  can  hardly  be  mistaken. 
But  it  is  apt  to  shade  off  in  the  direction  of  R.  leucandrus,  and 
possibly  these  two  may  prove  eventually  to  be  the  extremes  of  one 
species.  This  idea  has  been  suggested  to  me  partly  by  the 
examination  of  specimens  in  Mr.  Rogers'  herbarium,  and  partly  by 
the  fact  that  Dr.  Focke,  who  named  the  Bere  Wood  plant  R> 
hirtifolius,  remarked  that  it  was  the  same  as  another  which  I  had 
sent  to  him  under  that  name.  This  referred  to  a  Plymouth  plant 


received  from  Mr.  Briggs,  which  is,  I  think,  essentially  the  same  as 
our  plant.  Yet  across  that  plant  Dr.  Focke  had  written  u  R. 
leucandrus,  var.  T  It  is  a  point  which  can  only  be  decided  by  further 
study.  The  R.  liirtifolius  of  Bere  "Wood  is  an  exceedingly  hairy,  but 
quite  eglandular  plant,  with  a  very  soft  under  surface  to  the  leaves. 

Rulus  pyramidalis.  Kalt.  A  very  beautiful  bramble,  long 
confused  •  with  R.  liirtifolius,  from  which,  however,  it  seems  to  be 
abundantly  distinct.  The  panicle  is  truly  pyramidal  (whence  the 
name)  and  is  plentifully  furnished  with  glands.  But  I  find  no 
glands  on  the  barren  stem  in  the  only  specimens  to  which  I  have 
access.  The  stems  seem  also  to  be  much  less  hairy  than  in  ./£. 
liirtifolius  (at  least  as  it  is  found  in  Bere  Wood). 

R.  pyramidalis  occurs  by  a  bushy  roadside  just  to  the  south  of 
Bere  Wood,  where  it  was  found  by  Mr.  Briggs  and  myself  in  July 
last.  It  must  not  be  confused  with  R.  pyramidalis,  Bab. 
(=  R.  longitliyrsiger,  Lees),  a  very  different  plant,  belonging  to  the 
glandulose  division  of  the  brambles,  and  as  yet  unknown  as  a 
Dorset  plant. 

Rubus  anglosaxonicus,  Gelert.  This  plant  seems  to  me  to  require 
further  study.  It  is  said  by  Focke  to  be  intermediate  between 
It.  mucronatus  and  R.  Radula,  but  I  think  that  its  affinities  are 
more  with  R.  macropliyllus  than  with  the  former  of  these  two. 
Indeed,  I  suspect  that  it  is  often  confused  with  R.  macropltyllus, 
from  which,  however,  its  glandular  stem  and  panicle  should  easily 
distinguish  it.  Focke  tells  us  that  the  stems  of  R.  Radula  are  much 
rougher,  from  numerous  equal  aciculi ;  its  leaflets  are  narrow  and 
acuminate  and  its  sepals  are  usually  reflexed.  R.  mucronatus  will 
be  easily  distinguished  by  the  shape  and  serrature  of  its  leaflets. 
Very  curiously  R.  anglpsaxonicus  seems  to  have  first  been  recognised 
as  distinct  at  Copenhagen,  where  it  was  grown  from  seeds  sent 
from  Plymouth  under  the  name  of  R.  macropltyllus.  Focke 
records  it  from  Hampshire.  I  have  it  from  Wells,  Somerset ;  from 
Xorth  Devon  (Rogers) ;  and  from  the  neighbourhood  of  Bailie 
Gate,  in  Dorset.  It  is  said  to  occur  also  in  N.W.  Germany,  where 
it  is  local,  and  in  France. 


Riibus  melanodermis,  Focke.  In  1886  the  Rev.  W.  M.  Rogers 
observed  a  bramble  new  to  him  growing  abundantly  on  Puddletown 
Heath,  and  between  Rampisham  and  Evershot,  in  this  county. 
This  was  subsequently  determined  by  Prof.  Babington 
to  be  R.  melanoxylon,  Miill  et  Wirtg.  Dr.  Focke  has  since  pointed 
out  that  this  is  not  the  case,  and  in  May,  1890,  he  described  it  as 
a  new  species  under  the  name  of  R.  melanodermis.  He  adds, 
however,  that  it  may  possibly  be  a  variety  of  the  species  to  which 
Babington  has  ascribed  it.  However  this  may  be,  it  is  one  of  our 
most  marked  brambles  in  South  Dorset,  extending  from  its  original 
station  westwards  to  Bournemouth,  and  for  some  distance  into  Hants. 
It  is  often  abundant.  I  have  it  from  near  Wool,  Wareham, 
Bailie  Gate,  Studland,  and  Branksome.  Babington  places  it  under 
the  Koelileriani  ;  but  this  hardly  seems  to  be  its  right  place.  I 
think  it  has  affinities  with  several  other  species — e.g.,  R.  Bloxamii, 
and  perhaps  R.  infestus.  One  of  its  most  marked  features  consists 
in  the  shape  of  the  terminal  leaflet,  which  ends  in  an  abrupt 
cuspidate  point.  I  have  seen  nothing  quite  like  this  in  any  other 
bramble  with  which  I  am  acquainted. 

Rubus  plintliostylus,  Genev.  This  form  was  added  to  the  British 
lists  in  1887  by  Prof.  Babington  on  the  strength  of  specimens 
collected  by  the  Rev.  W.  Moyle  Rogers  in  Minster  Valley,  E. 
Cornwall,  in  June,  1886.  These  specimens  (some  of  which  I  have 
seen  in  Mr.  Rogers'  herbarium)  are  very  immature,  but  Prof. 
Babington  seems  to  have  had  no  hesitation  in  assigning  them  to 
Genevier's  plant.  Since  then  nothing  more  had  been  heard  of 
the  plant  in  Britain  until  in  November  last  I  submitted  to  Prof. 
Babington  a  bramble  which  I  had  collected  in  the  previous  August 
in  Foxholes  Wood,  near  Bailie  Gate,  and  in  hedges  by  the  side  of 
the  road  from  Bailie  Gate  to  Hamworthy.  I  had  supposed  it  to 
belong  to  R.  Koehleri,  though  not  quite  agreeing  with  any  of  the 
named  forms.  The  Professor,  after  a  careful  comparison  with 
Genevier's  original  specimens  (now  in  the  Cambridge  Herbarium) 
referred  it  to  R.  plintliostylus — a  determination  with  which  M. 
Rogers,  to  whom  I  afterwards  showed  the  plant,  is  disposed  to 

RARER    FORMS    OF   RUBUS    LATELY    FOUND    IN    DORSET.         79 

concur.  If  these  gentlemen  are  correct  I  think  that  R.  plintlwstylus 
must  be  placed  as  a  sub-species  under  R.  Koehleri.  The  characters 
on  which  Genevier  lays  most  stress  are  the  leaflets  wedge-shaped  at 
the  base,  stems  very  pricldy,  sepals  very  spreading.  In  the  Dorset 
plant  the  armature  is  weaker  than  I  should  have  expected  from  his 
description.  Writing  of  the  Cornish  plant  Prof.  Babington  says 
"panicle  short,  few  flowered."  In  our  plant  the  panicle  is 
elongated  (18  inches  cr  more)  and  crowded  with  flowers. 

©n  Jfcto   mib   flat*  <§pikr0  founb   in 

1889  anb  1890. 

By  the  Rev.  O.  PICKARD-CAMBRIDGE,  M.A.,  F.R.S., 
C.M.Z.S.,  &c.,  &c. 


WO  years  have  passed  since  my  last  report :  Of  the 
first  of  these  years  (1889)  I  have  nothing  new  to 
science  to  record,  though  the  season  was  fairly 
favourable,  and  some  rare  species  were  found,  some 
of  which  will  be  noted  presently.  The  past  year 
(1890)  has  been  a  tolerably  successful  one  in  respect 
to  spiders,  though  the  generally  cold,  damp,  and  sunless  character  of 
the  season  made  it  anything  but  a  good  one  in  regard  to  entomology 
in  its  wider  sense.  Seasons  of  this  kind  have  often  proved  to  be  by 
no  means  so  inimical  to  spiders  as  to  insects.  Dry,  hot  summers, 
though  they  may  favour  the  development  of  some  species,  are,  on 
the  whole,  hurtful  to  the  majority  of  spiders.  Considering,  therefore, 
that  our  leisure  time  has  been  very  much  engrossed  by  other 
matters  of  greater  or  less  importance,  we  have  reason  to  be  well 
satisfied  with  what  I  have  now  to  record  of  the  past  two  years' 
researches.  To  summarise  these  I  may  shortly  say  that  besides  a 
large  number  of  rare  and  interesting  species  met  with,  two  are  new 
to  Britain  and  three  new  to  science ;  one  of  the  former  and  one  of 
the  latter  having  been  found  in.  Dorsetshire.  I  propose  only  to 

Proc  Dorset  X.II&-A  l'i-ld  (It I,  ],'/  A/7 








OPCamVilge  ^ 

~MmtemBr  08 .  vrop . 

NEW    AND    RARE    SPIDERS.  81 

make  here  a  few  general  remarks  on  these  various  captures ;  the  rest 
of  the  paper  will  .be  occupied  by  systematic  and  technical  details. 
Among  the  species  captured  or  brought  to  my  notice  in  1889,  the 
most  noteworthy  were  Segestria  perfida  Walck,  from  Bristol  ; 
Liocranum  celere  Cambr.,  under  pieces  of  rock  at  Portland  on 
the  26th  of  April ;  Oxyptila  Blackwallii  Sim.  (remarkable  from 
the  clubbed  hairs  with  which  it  is  clothed),  in  a  similar  situa- 
tion on  the  10th  of  May.  Marpessa  pomatia  Walck,  one 
of  our  largest  and  rarest  jumping  spiders,  together  with 
Walckendera  pratensis  Bl.,  were  found  in  Wicken  Fen,  Cam- 
bridgeshire, by  my  nephew  ;  Agroeca  inopina  Cambr.,  on 
Bloxworth  Heath,  and  Cluliona  coerulescens  L.  Koch,  in  Bere 
Wood,  by  one  of  my  sons,  who  also  met  with  adult  males  of 
Hahnia  elegans  BL,  among  water  weeds  on  the  25th  of  August 
in  a  pond  on  the  heath.  I  had  for  many  years  past  found  females 
of  this  spider,  but  had  not  before  succeeded  in  finding  the  males. 
Among  dead  leaves  in  Bere  Wood  in  October  I  met  with  a  second 
example  of  Neriene  nefaria  Camb.,  the  first  (and  only  other,  as  yet 
known)  example  having  been  found  among  grass  on  the  cliff  near 
Smallinouth  Sands,  Weymouth,  during  an  excursion  of  our  Field 
Club  on  the  2nd  of  July,  1879.  Epeiria  sdopetaria  Clk.,  occurred 
near  Chickerell  on  the  20th  of  May.  This  is  a  fine  species,  locally 
abundant  in  some  parts  of  England,  but  very  rarely  met  with  in 
this  county.  An  adult  male  of  the  rare  and  curiously-formed 
Walckendera  jucundissima  Cambr.,  is  the  only  other  capture  of 
1889  which  I  shall  note  here. 

Coming  now  to  1890,  a  long  day  in  the  Isle  of  Portland,  May  31st, 
yielded  us  a  number  of  local  species,  among  them  being  young 
examples  of  Neon  levis  Sim.,  a  pretty  little  salticid,  or  jumping  spider, 
not  before  met  with  in  England  ;  its  habitat  is  under  fragments  of 
rock  near  Pennsylvania  Castle,  where  also  in  similar  situations  we 
found  several  examples  of  both  sexes  of  Walckenaera  saxicola 
Cambr.  This  very  distinct  spider  is  of  great  rarity  ;  it  was  first 
found  near  the  same  spot  by  myself  in  July,  1860,  and,  excepting 
oiice,  on  Bloxworth  Heath,  has  not  been  taken  since,  until  this 

82  NEW    AND    RARE    SPIDERS. 

past  year ;  a  subsequent  day  at  Portland,  when  the  Dorset  Field 
Club  met  there  (July  16),  produced  another  specimen  of  Neon 
levis.  On  the  30th  of  May  we  found  in  a  small  glen  running  up 
through  the  iron-sandstone  rock  at  Abbotsbury  spiders  unusually 
abundant  among  the  coarse  grass  and  herbage,  and  among  them 
many  examples  of  Oxyptila  simplex  Cambr.,  hitherto  only  found,  and 
that  very  rarely  for  some  years  past,  on  or  near  the  Kectory  lawn 
at  Bloxworth.  Drassus  pubescens  C.  Koch,  was  also  found  at 
Abbotsbury,  as  well  as  (in  great  abundance)  the  pretty  little 
Theridion  bimaculatum  Linn,  in  all  stages  of  growth,  many  of 
both  sexes  being  adult.  Two  rare  species  of  Liocranum  (L.  celans 
BL,  and  L.  celere  Cambr.),  were  also  found  in  1890,  the  former  in 
January  among  moss,  near  Bloxworth,  the  latter  among  heather. 
Another  spider  of  greater  popular  interest  has  turned  up, 
new  to  Dorset,  Argyroneta  aquatica  Clk.  (though  I  have  always 
suspected  its  existence  there) ;  it  was  found  abundantly  among 
water  weeds  on  the  banks  of  the  river  in  the  Stoborough  meadows, 
near  Wareham,  and,  later  on,  in  a  pond  on  Bloxworth  heath  by 
C.  0.  P.  Cambridge  while  hunting  for  shells.  I  have  abo  received 
from  Mr.  T.  W.  Stoddart,  of  Bristol,  specimens  of  Teutana  grossa 
C.  L.  Koch,  a  fine  species  of  the  family  Tlieridiidte :  these  were  found 
by  him  in  a  cellar,  where  they  appear  to  be  not  unfrequent ;  hitherto 
it  has  only  been  met  with  once  in  England,  by  Mr.  Black  wall, 
many  years  ago  near  Winchester.  A  fine  example  of  Epeira 
angulata  Clerck,  a  rare  and  local  species,  was  also  sent  to  me 
from  near  Bovey  Tracey,  in  Devonshire,  by  Miss  Lilian  Gould, 
who  found  it  towards  the  end  of  August,  1890,  in  its  large 
orbicular  snare  woven  in  a  furze  bush.  On  the  25th  of  June 
we  found  specimens  of  a  rare  and  curious  species  in  a  swamp 
near  Hyde — only  a  second  British  locality  for  it — Tlieridiosoma 
argenteolum  Cambr.  This  little  spider,  or  one  very  nearly 
allied,  has  had  a  good  deal  written  about  it  lately  by  an  American 
author,  Dr.  .  McCook,  who  attributes  to  it,  from  his  own 
observations,  a  very  singular  habit.  The  American  spider  spins 
an  imperfect  orbicular  snare  ;  this  it  holds  taut  by  a  kind 

NEW    AND    RARE    SPIDERS.  83 

of  trap-line,  which,  immediately  on  the  striking  of  the  snare  by  an 
insect,  the  spider  lets  go  with  a  jerk,  and  thus  more  effectually 
secures  the  insect.  Dr.  McCook  appears  to  be  convinced  that  the 
American  and  English  spider  are  of  the  same  species,  a  point  on 
which  I  have  some  doubts,  as  I  have  never  yet  been  able  to  detect 
any  such  snare  where  I  have  found  the  English  spider  in  some 
abundance.  It  is  possible,  however,  that  I  may  have  overlooked 
the  snare.  One  of  the  additions  to  our  British  list  was  made  by  my 
nephew  (Rev.  Fredk.  0.  P.  Cambridge),  on  the  summit  of  Helvellyn, 
Tmeticus  niger  (F.  0.  P.  Cambr.),  a  fine  distinct  species  new  to 
science  :  this  was  found  under  stones,  in  company  with  Tmeticus 
sublimis  Cambr.,  another  rare  species  (only  found  before  on  the 
Grampians),  and  Leptypliantes  pinicola  Sim.,  new  to  Britain. 
These  three  rarities  were  obtained  during  a  hasty  visit  one  day  in 
September  last,  and  augur  well  for  the  existence  of  other  yet 
unknown  spiders  in  the  same  regions.  Nearer  home  in  our  own 
neighbourhood  I  have  met  with  in  the  past  year  (only  for  the 
second  time)  Walckendera  ignobilis  Cambr.,  one  of  the  smallest 
known  spiders  ;  as  well  as  a  female  of  Hilaira  uncata  Cambr.' 
with  its  white  lenticular  eggsac,  concealed  in  the  crevice  of  a 
decayed  stump.  This  was  the  first  time  I  had  ever  found  the 
cocoon  of  this  species,  though  the  spider  itself  is  fairly  abundant  in 
our  swamps.  In  the  month  of  January  I  found  among  moss  near 
Bloxwrorth  a  spider  new  to  science,  of  the  genus  Opistoxys  Sim. — a 
genus  separated  from  Neriene  by  the  peculiar  form  of  the  sternum. 
From  Ireland  an  example  of  a  fine  species  of  Tegenaria  was  sent  to 
me  by  Mr.  G.  H.  Carpenter,  of  the  Science  and  Art  Museum, 
Dublin.  It  was  found  at  Glenalough  in  a  crevice  of  a  wall  of  loose 
stones,  and  is  allied  to  T.  atrica  C.  Koch,  but  is  smaller  and  more 
nearly  allied  to  T.  nervosa  Sim.,  but  I  think  it  is  distinct ;  and 
hitherto  undescribed.  The  last  spider  on  which  I  shall  remark 
here  is  the  fine  species  of  Tarantula — T.  fabrilis  Koch  (discovered 
some  years  ago  on  Bloxworth  heath,  and,  as  yet,  apparently  confined 
to  that  locality).  It  is  a  very  variable  species  in  its  appearance, 
not  being  found  at  all  in  some  seasons  ;  but  on  the  (18th  of 

84  NEW   AND    RARE    SPIDERS. 

September  last  we  obtained  several  adults  of  both  sexes   in  the 
course  of  an  hour's  work. 


OP     NEW    AND     BABE     SPIDEBS     FOUND     IN     1889 
AND    1890. 



GEN:    SEGESTRIA    (Latr.) 


Segestria  perfida,  Walck.  Cambr.,  Spid.  Dors.  p.  459. 
An  adult  male  of  this  fine  species  taken  near  Bristol  in  1889 
by  Mr.  T.  W.  Stoddart,  is  the  only  example  recorded  in  Britain 
since  its  notice  by  Dr.  Leach,  many  years  ago  (in  the  supplement 
to  the  4th  edition  of  the  Encyclop.  Brit.,  Art.  Annulosa),  as  having 
occurred  at  Plymouth.  Mr.  Stoddart  has  kindly  submitted  this 
example  for  my  inspection.  The  glossy  green  hue  of  the  falces 
seems  to  be  confined  to  the  female.  Its  much  larger  size,  however, 
and  other  specific  characters  will  easily  distinguish  it  from 
S.  senoculaca  Linn,  or  S.  Bavarita  C.  L.  Koch,  the  only  two  other 
known  British  species. 

GEN  :  DRASSUS  (Walck.) 

Drassus  pubescens  Thorell.     Rec.,  Grit,  Aran,  p.  110. 

„  „  Cambridge,  Spid.  Dors.  p.  20. 

An  adult  male  of  this  rare  spider  was  found  under  a  stone  at 
Abbotsbury  in  June,  1890,  by  C.  0.  P.  Cambridge. 



Clubiona  ccerulescens  L.  Koch.      Cambr.,  Spid.  Dors.  p.  29,  and 
Proc.  Dors.  N.H.  and  A.F.  Club,  vol.  iv.,  p.  151,  and  vol.  vi.,  p.  3. 

NEW   AND    RARE    SPIDERS.  85 

An  adult  female  of  this  rare  spider  was  found  by  C.  0.  P. 
Cambridge  among  herbage  in  Bere  Wood,  on  the  17th  of 
September,  1889. 

GEN  :  AGKOECA  (Westr.) 


Agroeca  inopina  Cambr.  Proc.  Dors.  N.H.  and  A.F.  Club,  vol. 
vii.,  p.  71,  pi.  iv.,  fig.  i. 

An  adult  female  was  found  among  heather  on  Bloxworth  heath 
on  the  17th  of  August,  1889,  by  C.  0.  P.  Cambridge.  This  is  its 
second  occurrence  only  in  this  locality. 

GEN  :  LIOCRANUM  (C.  L.  Koch.) 


Liocranum  celans,  Bl.     Cambr.,  Spid.  Dors.,  p.  41. 
An  immature  female  of  this  rare  spider  was  found  among  moss  in 
Morden  Park,  January  10th,  1890. 


L.  celere  Cambr.     (Sub.,  celer  Id.),  Spid.  Dors.,  p.  40. 

Immature  specimens  were  found  under  pieces  of  stone  at 
Portland  on  the  26th  of  April,  1890.  An  immature  example  was 
also  found  under  an  old  turf  on  Bloxworth  heath,  in  September, 
1890;  and  another,  subsequently,  under  a  stone  near  Weymouth, 
by  C.  0.  P.  Cambridge. 

GEN  :  AMAUROBIUS  (C.  L.  Koch.) 


Amaurobius  fenestralis,  Stroem.  Cambr.  Spid.  Dors.,  p.  56. 
This  spider,  so  abundant  in  some  localities  in  the  north  of 
England,  is  very  rare  in  the  south.  The  occurrence  of  it,  therefore, 
at  Abbotsbury  among  loose  stones  in  an  old  wall  is  interesting.  The 
example  referred  to  was  found  by  Mr.  Nelson  M.  Richardson,  who 
kindly  sent  it  to  me  for  examination. 

86  NEW    AND    RARE    SPIDERS. 

GEN  :  TEGENARIA  (Latr.) 
TEGENARIA  HIBERNICA  sp.  n.,  fig.  4. 

Adult  male,  length  3J  lines. 

Tills  spider,  though  very  much  smaller,  resembles  T.  atrica, 
C.  L.  Koch,  and  other  nearly  allied  species  in  general  form  and 
appearance.  The  Cephalothorax  is  dark  yellow-brown,  paler  along 
the  median  line,  with  a  broadish  marginal  border  and  converging 
stripes  on  the  thorax  of  a  pale  brownish-yellow  hue. 

The  Eyes  are  small  and  in  the  ordinary  position,  those  of  the 
posterior  row  are  equi-distant  from  each  other,  but  the  two 
centrals  of  the  anterior  row  are  slightly  further  apart  than  each  is 
from  its  adjacent  lateral  eye.  The  four  central  eyes  form  nearly  a 
square,  but  its  foreside  is  shortest.  The  height  of  the  clypeus  is 
equal  to  half  that  of  the  facial  space. 

The  Legs  are  long  4,  1,  2,  3,  moderately  strong,  of  a  dull 
brownish  drab-yellow  hue,  unicolorous,  armed  with  longish  slender 
spines,  bristles,  and  hairs. 

The  falces  are  rather  long,  strong,  vertical,  slightly  divergent, 
and  darker  in  colour  than  the  legs. 

Sternum  dark  brown,  apparently  with  a  pale  border  and  central 
stripe,  but  the  specimen  being  in  a  dry  state  and  this  part 
being  much  concealed  by  the  legs,  its  pattern  could  not  be 
satisfactorily  seen. 

The  Abdomen  was  too  shrivelled  to  allow  of  its  true  colours  and 
pattern  to  be  observed,  but  Mr.  Carpenter  tells  me  that  when 
captured  it  very  nearly  resembled  that  of  T.  atrica  C.  L.  Koch. 

The  Palpi  are  moderately  long ;  the  cubital  joint  is  slightly 
shorter  than  the  radial  and  has,  besides  lesser  ones,  two  long 
strongish  tapering  black  bristles  in  front,  one  at  each  extremity ; 
the  radial  joint  has  a  large  obtuse  subconical  prominence  near  its 
anterior  extremity  on  the  outer  side,  terminating  in  a  tapering 
somewhat  spine-like  apophysis  which  ends  in  a  very  slightly  hooked 
point ;  the  length  of  this  apophysis  exceeds  that  of  the  prominence 
of  which  it  is  the  continuance.  The  radial  joint  is  furnished  with 
hairs  and  bristles,  of  which  last  one  near  the  middle  of  the  foreside 

NEW   AND    RARE    SPIDERS.  87 

is  long  and  stronger  than  the  rest.  The  digital  joint  is  of  the 
usual  form,  long,  rather  narrow,  being  produced  into  a  long  point ; 
it  is  equal  in  length  to  the  radial  and  cubital  joints  together.  The 
palpal  organs  have  a  strong  prominent  pointed  corneous  process  near 
the  middle,  and  a  long  prominent  circularly-curved  tapering  filiform- 
pointed  spine  is  connected  with  them. 

This  spider,  which  is  certainly  new  to  Great  Britain  and  Ireland, 
is,  I  think,  new  to  science.  It  is  nearly  allied  to  T.  nervosa  Sim., 
and  T.  larva  Id.,  from  the  Eastern  Pyrenees,  but  on  a  careful 
comparison  with  the  descriptions  of  those  species  I  believe  it  to  be 
distinct.  From  our  other  British  and  Irish  species  it  may  easily 
be  distinguished ;  from  T.  Derlmmi  (which  it  resembles  nearly 
in  size)  by  the  form  of  tho  radial  prominence  and  apophysis, 
and  from  T.  atrica  C.  L.  Koch  and  T.  Guyonii  Guer.  by  its 
small  size,  unicolorous  legs,  and  the  structure  of  the  palpi.  From 
T.  campestris  it  may  be  distinguished  by  the  smaller  size  of  this 
latter  species,  its  more  distinct  abdominal  pattern  and  annulated 
legs,  as  well  as  by  the  much  larger  digital  joints  of  the  palpi. 

A  single  adult  male  was  kindly  sent  to  me  by  Mr.  G.  H. 
Carpenter,  of  the  Museum  of  Science  and  Art,  Dublin,  by  whom  it 
was  found  among  loose  stones  in  an  old  wall  at  Glendalough, 
Ireland,  in  September,  1889. 


Argyroneta  aquatica  Clk.     Camb.  Spid.  Dors.,  p.  471. 

On  April  28th,  1890,  C.  0.  P.  Cambridge  met  with  this  spider 
in  abundance  among  water  weeds  while  dredging  for  shells  in  the 
Stoborough  Meadows,  near  Wareham.  Subsequently,  September, 
1890,  it  was  also  found  at  Oak  o'mire  Pond,  Bloxworth  Heath. 
This  is  its  first  record  as  a  Dorset  Spider. 

In  the  description  "  Spid.  Dors."  I.e.  supra  it  was  omitted  to 
mention  that  on  the  underside  of  the  abdomen,  a  little  way  in 
front  of  the  spinners,  is  a  transverse  slit  or  opening  leading  to  a 
spiracular  organ.  Whether  this  is  or  is  not  of  importance  for 
the  purpose  of  classification  appears  as  yet  to  be  uncertain. 

88  NEW    AND    RARE    SPIDERS. 

GEN.  :  HAHNIA  (C.  L.  Koch). 


Hdhnia  elegans  Bl.  Cambr.,  Spid.  Dors.,  p.  69,  and  Proc.  Dors. 
N.H.  and  A.F.  Club,  vol.  x.,  p.  130. 

Although  I  had  met  with  females  of  this  species  in  spring  and 
early  summer  on  Bloxworth  Heath,  on  the  margins  of  ponds,  and 
in  other  localities  in  the  neighbourhood,  the  first  adult  males  I  had 
seen  were  several  found  here  on  the  26th  of  August,  1889,  by 
C.  0.  P.  Cambridge. 


Halinia  montana  Bl.     Cambr.  Spid.  Dorset,  p.  70. 
Abundant  in  one  spot  on  Bloxworth  Heath,  both  males   and 
females  adult,  on  August  6th,  1890. 


GEN.  :  TEUTANA  (Sim.)     (Theridion  Auctt.  ad  partem.) 
TEUTANA  GROSSA,  fig.  1. 

Theridion  versutum  Blackw.     Cambr.  "  Spid.  Dors.,"  p.  479. 

Theridium  grossum  C.  Koch.  Die  Arachn.  Bd.  iv.,  p.  112, 
pi.  cxl.,  fig.  321. 

Adult  females  of  this  spider  were  kindly  sent  to  me  in 
December,  1890,  by  Mr.  J.  W.  Stoddard,  by  whom  they  were  found 
in  cellars  at  Bristol.  The  only  previous  occurrence  in  Great 
Britain  is  that  recorded  by  Mr.  Black  wall  (near  Winchester)  in 
Spid.  Great  Brit,  and  Ireland,  p.  193,  pi.  xiv.,  fig.  124,  the 
specimen  there  described  being  a  male.  Mr.  Stoddard  tells  me 
that  it  spins  a  coarse  sheet  of  web  usually  across  a  corner  between 
the  ceiling  and  wall.  The  cocoon  is  a  loose  woolly  bag  about 
half-an-inch  in  diameter,  containing  40 — 50  eggs. 

GEN.  :  THERIDION  (Walck.) 


Theridion  limaculatum,  Linn.     Cambridge  Spid.  Dors.,  p.  91. 
This  pretty  spider  was  found  (both  sexes)  in  abundance  at  the 
roots  and  among  the  stems  of  mixed  herbage  at  Abbotsbury  in 


June,   1890;  some  were  adult,  but  for  the  most  part  they  were 


Tlieridiosoma  argenteolum  Cambr.  Spid.  Dors,,  pp.  428,  572. 

On  the  25th  of  June,  1890,  I  met  with  an  adult  male  and 
females  of  this  rare  and  curious  spider  in  a  swamp  at  Hyde,  near 
Bloxworth.  Among  the  females  was  an  entirely  black  one; 
excepting  in  colour  it  did  not  differ  from  the  others. 

Dr.  McCook  in  his  work  on  "  American  Spiders  and  their 
Spinning  Work,"  vol.  i.,  pp.  195,  207,  has  a  chapter  on  a  spider 
which  he  believes  to  be  of  this  genus,  and,  if  not  identical 
it  seems  to  be  of  a  nearly  allied  species.  The  American 
spider  spins  a  somewhat  irregular  geometric  web,  which  it 
keeps  taut  by  a  central  line  held  in  its  claws,  with  the  slack 
line  gathered  between  its  feet.  The  spider,  when  an  insect  comes 
upon  its  snare,  springs  it  by  suddenly  releasing  the  line,  when,  as 
the  author  describes  it,  the  slack  line  sharply  uncoils,  the  spider 
shoots  forward,  the  whole  web  relaxes,  and  the  spiral  lines  are 
thrown  round  the  insect.  This  is  repeated  several  times  before  the 
prey  is  seized.  I  have  not  yet  succeeded  in  finding  T.  argenteolum 
in  any  snare  whatever.  The  localities  it  inhabits  make  it  peculiarly 
difficult  to  carry  out  any  observations  on  the  subject.  Examples 
kept  some  time  in  confinement  by  my  nephew,  Rev.  F.  0.  P. 
Cambridge,  showed  no  disposition  to  spin  any  snare  at  all. 


Leptypliantes  pinicola  Sim.     Aran.  de  France  Tom.  v.,  p.  312, 

fig.  76,  77. 

„  „          F.    0.    P.  Cambridge.      Ann   and  Mag. 

N.  H.,  ser.  6,  vol.  vii.,  p.  78,  pi.  ii., 
fig.  iii. 

Several  examples  of  this  very  distinct  little  spider  (both  male 
and  female)  were  found  by  my  nephew,  Rev.  F.  0.  P.  Cambridge, 


under  stones  near  the  top  of  Helvellyn  on  September  18th,  1890. 
This  was  its  first  occurrence  as  a  British  species. 


Linyphia  terricola  C.  L.  Koch.     Die  Arachn.  xii.,  p.  125,  pi. 
425,  fig.  1,047, 1,048,  and  Blackwall  Spid. 
Gt.  Brit,  and  Ireland  ii.,  p.  231,  pi.  xii., 
fig.  163. 
„          zebrina,  Menge.     Cambr.  Spid.  Dors.,  p.  182. 

Bathypliantes  zebrinus,  Menge.  Preuss.  Spinn.  i.,  p.  113,  pi.  20, 
Tab.  39. 

Many  years  ago  (towards  the  end  of  Mr.  Blackwall's  life,  and 
when  his  eyesight  had  greatly  failed),  I  repeatedly  received  from 
him.  examples  of  a  Linyphia  sent  to  him  for  determination 
labelled  Linyphia  terricola  Bl.  These  I  could  not  distinguish, 
except  by  a  sometimes  smaller  size  and  paler  colouring,  from  his 
Linyphia  tennis.  I  submitted  these  examples  to  Dr.  L.  Koch,  who 
agreed  with  me  that  they  were  specifically  identical  with  L.  tennis, 
and,  not  possessing  any  of  Mr.  Blackwall's  earlier  types  of  L. 
terricola,  we  concluded  that  his  L.  tennis  and  L.  terricola  were 
only  varieties  of  the  same  species.  Subsequently,  Dr.  Thorell, 
when  preparing  his  work  on  "  Synonyms  of  European  Spiders," 
examined  some  of  these  examples  of  L.  terricola  and  came  to 
the  same  conclusion ;  his  remarks  and  determinations,  Syn.  Eur. 
Spid.,  pp.  65-66,  1870,  are,  therefore,  based  on  the  supposition  of 
the  identity  of  Blackwall's  two  species,  L.  tennis  and  L.  terricola. 
M.  Simon's  synonymic  determination,  Ar.  de  Fr.  v.,  p.  317,  are 
also  based  on  the  same  supposition,  as  likewise  are  those  in  Spid. 
Dorset,  p.  185.  Last  autumn,  however,  while  hunting  over  some 
hitherto  overlooked  bottles  of  spiders  received  after  his  decease 
from  Mr.  Blackwall's  collection,  I  found  one  containing  specimens 
in  good  condition  labelled  "  Linyphia  terricola"  Bl.  "  types." 
They  had  been  set  apart  by  Mr.  Blackwall  from  his  earlier 
captures  for  the  artist's  use  in  illustrating  his  "  Spid.  Gt.  Brit,  and 
Ireland."  On  examining  these  I  found  them  to  be  quite  distinct 

NEW   AND    RARE    SPIDERS.  91 

from  those  Mr.  Blackwall  (as  above  mentioned)  had  returned  to  me 
as  his  L.  terricola,  and  in  fact  to  be  identical  with  a  species  I  had 
(Spid.  Dors.,  p.  182)  described  and  recorded  as  Linypliia  zebrina 
Menge.  Whether  this  is  really  the  L.  (Bathypliantes)  zebrina  of 
Menge  is  another  question,  but  that  it  is  the  true  L.  terricola  of 
Koch  I  feel  pretty  sure,  and  that  it  is  at  any  rate  Blackwall's  L. 
terricola  admits  of  no  doubt.  My  L.  zebrina,  therefore,  now 
becomes  a  synonym  of  L.  terricola  BL,  and  this  last  name  (including 
also,  as  I  believe,  L.  terricola  C.  Koch,  L.  zebrina  Menge  —  Camb., 
and  possibly  Batliyphantes  zebrinus  Menge),  will  resume  its  place  as 
a  substantive  species,  distinct  from  L.  tennis,  Bl.  (i.e.\  L.  tenebricola 
Wid.).  The  Rev.  F.  0.  P.  Cambridge  in  distinguishing,  as  he  does 
most  accurately,  these  two  species  —  L.  tennis  BL,  and  L.  terricola 
Ann.  and  Mag.  N.  H.  1891,  ser.  6,  vol.  vii.,  pp.  74,  77,  pi.  ii., 
fig.  i.,  ii.  —  gives  the  latter  as  a  synonym  of  Bathypliantes  zebrinus 
Menge.  This  can  hardly  be  correct,  as,  on  the  supposition  that 
Blackwall's  and  Koch's  L.  terricola  are  identical,  the  name  terricola 
has  many  years  priority  over  zebrinus  Menge. 

A  great  confusion  has  necessarily  arisen  out  of  the  above 
mentioned  supposed  identity  of  Blackwall's  L.  terricola  and  L.  tennis, 
owing  to  Dr.  Thorell  (followed  by  M.  Simon)  having  based  his 
synonymic  conclusions  as  to  these  and  other  allied  species  on  that 
supposition.  At  the  present  moment  I  have  not  the  leisure  to 
unravel  the  questions  involved. 

GEN  :  MICRONETA  (Menge,  Neriene  BL,  ad  partem.) 


Neriene  sublimis  Cambr.  Spid.  Dors.,  p.  491,  and  "List  of 
Areneidea  and  Phalangidea  of  Berwickshire  and  Northumberland," 
Proc.  Berwickshire  Nat.  Hist.  Club.,  vol  vii.,  p.  314. 

Microneta  sublimis  Cambr.  F.  0.  P.  Cambr.,  Ann.  and  Mag. 
N.  H.,  1891,  ser.  and  vol.  vii.,  p.  83.,  pi.  ii.,  fig.  vii. 

Examples  of  this  species  were  found  by  the  Rev.  F.  0.  P. 
Cambridge  under  stones  on  the  ascent  of  Mount  Helvellyn,  in 
September,  1890.  It  had  previously  only  been  found  on  the 
Cheviot  Hills. 

92  NEW   AND    RARE    SPIDERS. 

GEN  :  PORRHOMMA  (Sim.,  Neriene  Bl.,  ad  partem.) 


Tmeticus  niger  Rev.  F.  0.  P.  Cambridge.  Ann.  and  Mag.  N.H., 
1891,  ser.  and  vol.  vii.,  p.  80,  pi.  ii.,  fig.  iv. 

Examples  of  this  fine  species,  new  to  science,  were  found  by  Rev. 
F.  0.  P.  Cambridge,  under  stones  on  the  top  of  Helvellyn,  in 
September,  1890.  It  is  closely  allied  to  PorrJwmma  montigena 
(C.  Koch),  but  is,  I  think,  distinct.  The  minute  description  given 
by  my  nephew  (I.e.  supra),  and  his  exceedingly  accurate  figures 
leave  little  to  be  desired,  excepting  that  the  form  of  the  sternum 
(which  is  the  leading  character  in  the  genus  Porrlwmma  Sim.), 
does  not  terminate  behind  "  in  a  broad  truncate  prolongation,"  but 
in  a  rather  sharp  conical  point.  This  point,  however,  bends 
upwards  towards  the  pedicle,  which  unites  the  thorax  and  abdomen, 
and  might  easily  be  overlooked. 

GEN  :  OPISTOXYS  (Sim.,  Neriene  Bl.,  ad  partem.) 
OPISTOXYS  SUBACUTA,  sp.  n.,  fig.  3. 

Adult  male,  length  If  lines. 

The  whole  of  the  anterior  part  of  this  spider  is  yellow,  the  femora 
and  tibiae  of  the  legs  tinged  with  orange.  The  profile  of  the  caput 
and  thorax  forms  a  slight  curve  with  a  very  small  depression  just 
behind  the  occiput.  The  cephalothorax  is  glossy,  and  appears 
to  be  destitute  of  hairs.  The  height  of  the  clypeus  equals  half 
that  of  the  facial  space. 

The  Eyes  are  small  and  rather  closely  grouped  together  in  two 
nearly  concentric  curved  rows,  all  are  pearl-white,  excepting  the 
fore-centrals  which  are  dark,  they  are  seated  on  black  spots,  the  two 
lateral  pairs  on  tubercles,  and  the  eyes  of  each  of  these  two  pairs 
are  contiguous  to  each  other.  The  eyes  of  the  fore-central  pair  are 
smallest  and  contiguous  to  each  other,  and  each  is  separated  from 
the  hind-central  eye  nearest  to  it  by  a  diameter's  interval.  The 
eyes  of  the  hind-central  pair  are  slightly  nearer  together  than  each 
is  to  its  adjacent  lateral  eye,  the  interval  being  rather  less  than  a 
diameter.  The  four  central  eyes  form  a  small  trapezoid,  whose 
anterior  side  is  shortest,  and  its  posterior  side  longest. 


The  Legs,  1,  2,  4,  3,  are  moderately  long,  slender ;  the  spines, 
short  and  very  slender,  scarcely  more  than  bristles,  one  on  each  of 
the  femora,  except  those  of  the  first  pair,  which  have  two,  and 
two  on  the  tibiae ;  the  metatarsi  have  none. 

The  Palpi  are  of  moderate  length,  and  similar  in  colour  to  the 
legs,  the  cubital  joint  is  short,  and  has  a  tolerably  long  and  strong 
black  tapering  bristle  near  the  middle  of  its  anterior  margin,  the 
radial  joint  is  about  equal  in  length  to  the  cubital,  its  anterior 
extremity  is  rather  broad  or  angular,  and  near  the  middle  of  its 
upper  side  is  furnished  with  some  bristly  hairs,  mostly  in  a  kind  of 
fringe  near  its  fore  extremity ;  the  digital  joint  is  large,  and  has  a 
strong  lobe  on  the  outer  side  of  a  darker  yellow  brown  hue  than 
the  rest,  its  extremity  is  obtuse  and  bluff.  The  palpal  organs  are 
prominent  and  complex,  with  various  corneous  lobes,  spines, 
and  processes. 

The  Maxillce  are  strong  and  much  inclined  to  the  Labium,  which 
is  very  short,  broad,  and  somewhat  hollow  truncate. 

The  Falces  are  rather  long,  not  very  strong,  rather  projecting,  and 
slightly  divergent  at  their  extremities. 

The  Sternum  is  heart-shaped,  and  its  hinder  extremity  is 
produced  into  an  elongated  sharp  point  between  the  coxae  of  the 
fourth  pair  of  legs. 

The  Abdomen  is  oval,  glossy,  moderately  convex  above,  of  a 
pale  luteous  colour,  thinly  clothed  with  coarse  hairs. 

A  single  example  of  this  very  distinct  spider  was  found  among 
moss  in  Morden  Park,  on  the  7th  of  April,  1890.  It  appears  to 
belong  to  M.  Simon's  genus  Opistoxys,  whose  chief  distinguishing 
character  is  the  sharp  pointed  prolongation  of  the  posterior  end  of 
the  sternum. 

GEN  :  HILAIRA  (Sim.,  Neriene  BL,  ad  partem). 


Hilaira  uncata  Cambr.  Spid.  Dors.,  p.  433,  and  Proc.,  Dors. 
N.H.  and  A.F.  Club,  1882,  vol.  iv.,  p.  151,  and  1889,  vol.  x., 
p.  132. 

94  NEW   AND    RARE    SPIDERS. 

On  the  16th  of  April,  1890,  I  found  an  adult  female  with  its 
white  lenticular  cocoon,  in  a  crevice  of  an  old  log,  in  a  swamp  on 
Bloxworth  Heath. 


Neriene  nefaria  Cambr.  Spid.  Dors.,  p,  439. 

An  adult  female  occurred  among  dead  leaves  and  grass  in 
Bere  Wood,  on  the  2nd  of  October,  1889.  The  only  previously 
recorded  example  was  one  of  the  same  sex,  found  near  Weymouth, 
July  2nd,  1879  (I.e.  supra,  but  there  given  by  mistake  as  a  male). 



Walckenaera  prat ensis  Bl.,  Cambr.  Spid.  Dors.,  p.  202,  and  Proc. 
Dors.  N  H.  and  A.  F.  Club,  1889,  vol.  x.,  p.  119. 

An  adult  male  of  this  spider  was  taken  in  Wicken  Fen, 
Cambridgeshire,  by  the  Rev.  F.  0.  P.  Cambridge,  in  1889. 


Walckeniiera  saxicola  Cambr.,  Spid.  Dors.,  pp.  145 — 578. 

Adults  of  both  sexes  of  this  local  and  rare  spider  were  found 
under  pieces  of  rock  and  stone,  near  Pennsylvannia  Castle,  Port- 
land, on  the  31st  of  May,  1890. 


Walckenaera  ignobilis  Cambr.,  Spid.  Dors.,  p.  155. 

This,  which  is  one  of  the  smallest  known  spiders,  seems  also  to 
be  among  the  rarest.  One  (an  adult  male)  was  found  at  the  roots 
of  coarse  grasses  in  a  swamp,  near  Bloxworth,  on  the  3rd  of 
April,  1890.  In  this  locality  I  had  found  several  just  after  the 
publication  of  "Spid.  Dors.,"  about  1882,  but,  though  frequently 
working  the  same  spot,  have  not  seen  it  since  until  April,  1890. 

Walckenderajucundissima  Cauibr.,  Spid.  Dors.,  p.  449, 

NEW    AND    RARE    SPIDERS.  95 

On  the  9th  of  November,  1889,  I  found  again  examples  of  this 
rare  spider  (an  adult  male  and  females)  in  the  original  locality, 
near  Bloxworth,  among  moss. 


GEN:    EPEIRA  (Walck). 

EPEIRA  ANGULATA,  fig.  2. 

Epeira  angulata  Clerck,  Cambr.,  Spid.  Dors.  270. 
A  fine  example  of  the  adult  female  of  this  spider  was  sent  to  me 
from  Bovey  Tracy,  Devonshire,  by  Miss  Lilian  Gould,  by  whom  it 
was  found  in  its  geometric  snare  in  a  furze  bush  in  August,  1890 
The  only  previously  recorded  localities  for  this  species  were 
Bloxworth  and  Morden  Heaths,  Dorset,  and  near  Ringwood,  Hants. 
The  adult  male  has  not  yet  been  found  in  Britain. 


Epeira  sclopetaria  Clk.     Cambr.  Spiders  of  Dorset,  p.  277. 

An  example  of  this  very  local  species  was  found  near  Chickerell 
in  May,  1890,  by  Mr.  Nelson  M.  Richardson,  of  Monte  Video,  near 
Wey mouth.  It  appears  to  be  very  scarce  in  this  county  •  I  have 
only  met  with  it  myself  on  one  occasion  (near  Bloxworth)  many 
years  ago.  It  is  abundant  near  Hoddesdon,  Hertfordshire,  and  in 
some  other  parts  of  England. 


Epeira  patagiata  C.  L.  Koch.     Cambr.  Spid.  Dors.,  p.  277. 

During  the  past  year  (1890)  this  spider  has  been  found  in  some 
abundance  by  my  nephew  (Rev.  Fredk.  0.  P.  Cambridge)  in 
the  neighbourhood  of  Carlisle. 

GEN  :  OXYPTILA    (Sim.) 


Oxyptila  simplex  Cambr.  Spid.  Dors.,  p.  324,  and  Proc.  Dors. 
N.  H.  and  A.  F.  Club,  vol.  vi.,  p.  11. 

96  NEW   AND    RARE    SPIDERS. 

Up  to  May,  1890,  the  only  known  British  locality  for  this 
spider  has  been  the  lawn  of  Bloxworth  Kectory,  but  in  May  and 
June,  1890,  it  was  found  in  some  abundance,  both  sexes  in  a  state 
of  maturity,  at  the  roots  of  herbage  at  Abbotsbury,  near  Weymouth. 


Oxyptila  Blackioallii  Sim.     Cambr.  Spid.  Dors.,  p.  318. 

On  the  10th  of  May,  1890,  I  found  several  adult  females  under 
pieces  of  rock  below  the  Convict  Prison  at  Portland  (where  the 
original  specimens  occurred  many  years  ago).  Also  on  the  5th  of 
September,  1890,  a  single  example  of  the  adult  female  occurred  in 
a  similar  position  near  the  caves  at  Tilly  Whim,  Swanage. 

GEN:  TAKENTULA    (Smel.) 


Tarentula  fabrilis  Clerck.  Cambr.  Spid.  Dors.,  p.  368. 
This  fine  but  very  local  and  rare  spider  occurs  in  several  parts  of 
Bloxworth  and  other  heaths  in  the  neighbourhood,  though  in  some 
seasons  it  is  difficult  to  find  a  single  example.  The  close  adaptation 
of  its  black  and  hoary  colouring  to  the  surface  of  the  heath  soil  and 
lichens,  renders  it  almost  impossible  to  see  it  until  it  moves.  On 
the  18th  of  September,  1890,  in  company  with  Mr.  Cecil 
Warburton  (of  Christ's  Coll.,  Cambridge),  we  found  several  adults 
of  both  sexes  in  the  course  of  an  hour's  work. 

GEN  :    NEON  (Sim.) 


Neon  levis  Sim.  Aran.  de  France  torn,  iii.,  p.  211. 
Two  immature  females  of  this  spider — new  to  Britain — were 
found  under  pieces  of  rock  near  Pennsylvania  Castle  on  the  31st  of 
May,  1890,  and  a  male,  also  immature,  in  the  same  locality  on  the 
16th  of  July.  It  is  very  nearly  allied  to  Neon  reticulatus  Bl. 
(Spid.  Dors.,  p.  404),  which  it  resembles  in  size.  In  its  general 

NEW   AND    RARE    SPIDERS.  97 

aspect,  however,  it  wants  the  distinctly  reticulated  appearance  so 
characteristic  of  N.  reticulatus,  and  the  thorax  is  marked  by  some 
distinct  radiating  black  lines.  The  legs  also  are  distinctly 
annulated  with  black,  while  those  of  N.  reticulatus  scarcely  show 
any  signs  of  annulation.  According  to  M.  Simon  the  male  is 
unknown,  but  I  refrain  from  giving  a  more  minute  description  of 
the  one  above  referred  to,  as  the  exact  colours  and  markings  are 
scarcely  to  be  relied  upon,  excepting  in  the  adult  state,  in  which  I 
hope  to  find  it  during  the  ensuing  season. 

GEN  :  MARPESSA  (Thor.) 

Marpessa  pomatia  Walck.     Cambr.  Spid.  Dors.,  p.  555. 

An  example  of  this  fine  and  rare  spider  was  found  in  Wicken 
Fen  (near  Cambridge),  by  the  Eev.  F.  0.  P.  Cambridge  in  1889. 
This  is  probably  a  fen  species,  and,  if  so,  that  will  account  for  its 
not  having  been  more  frequently  met  with.  Few  localities  have 
perhaps  been  less  systematically  searched  for  spiders  than  the  fen 
district,  in  which,  however,  many  new  and  rare  species  might  be 
confidently  expected  to  reward  the  collector. 



Segestria  Florentina,  Rossi.  p.  84. 

Drassus  pubescens,  Thor.  p.  84. 

Clubiona  caerulescens,  L.  Koch  p.  84. 

Agroeca  inopina,  Cambr.  p.  85. 

Liocranum  celans,  Bl.  p.  85. 

„          celere,  Cambr.  p.  85. 

Amaurobius  fenestralis,  Stroem.  p.  85. 

Tegenaria  Hibernica,  Cambr.  sp.  n.  p.  86,   fig.  4. 

Argyroneta  aquatica,  Clerck.  p.  87. 

Hahnia  elegans,  Bl.  p.  88. 

„        montana,  Bl.  p.  88. 

98  NEW    AND    RARE    SPIDERS. 

Teutana  grossa,  C.  L.  Koch  p.  88,   fig.  1. 

Theridion  bimaculatum,  Linn.  p.  88. 

Theridiosoma  argenteolum,  Cambr.  p.  89. 

Leptyphantes  pinicola,  Sim.  p.  89. 

„  terricola,  Blackw.-C.  L.  Koch     p.  90. 

Microneta  sublimis,  Cambr.  p.  91. 

Porrhomma  nigrum,  F.  0.  P.  Cambr.  p.  92. 

Opistoxys  subacuta,  Cambr.,  sp.  n.  p.  92,   fig.  3. 

Hilaira  uncata,  Cambr.  p.  93. 

Neriene  nefaria,  Cambr.  p.  94. 

Walckenaera  pratensis,  Bl.  p.  94. 

„            saxicola,  Cambr.  p.  94. 

„            ignobilis,  Cambr.  p.  94. 

„            jucundissima,  Cambr.  p.  94. 

Epeira  angulata  Clerck.  p.  95,  fig.  2. 

„      sclopetaria,  Clk.  p.  95. 

„      patagiata,  C.  L.  Koch  p.  95, 

Oxyptila  simplex,  Cambr.  p.  95. 

„        Blackwallii,  Sim.  p.  96. 

Tarentula  fabrilis,  Clk.  p.  96. 

Neon  levis,  Sim.  p.  96. 

Marpessa  pomatia,  Walck.  p.  97. 


Fig.  1.  Teutana  Grossa  C.  L.  Koch.  la.,  spider  natural  size  ; 
15.,  eyes,  from  above  and  behind  ;  lc.,  genital  aperture. 

Fig.  2.  Epeira  angulata  Clk.  2a.,  spider  enlarged  ;  25.,  ditto 
in  pofile  ;  2c.,  profile  of  lower  side  of  abdomen  more 
enlarged ;  c',  tubercle  near  epigyne  ;  2d.,  genital  aperture 
with  its'  process  and  characteristic  tubercles  d',  d". 

Fig.  3.  Opistoxys  subacuta  sp.  n.  3d.,  eyes  from  above  and 
behind ;  35.,  maxillae,  labium,  and  sternum ;  3c., 
portion  of  palpus  showing  form  of  radial  joint. 

Fig.  4.  Tegenaria  Hilernica  sp.  n-.  4a.,  portion  of  palpus, 
showing  form  of  radial  joint;  45.,  radial  joint  in 
another  position. 

|Uto  anb  fUr*  $0r**t  f  anb 

By   C.    O.    P.    CAMBRIDGE. 

HE  following  brief  paper  is  a  notice  of  a  few  rare 
land  shells  which  have  been  found  in  this  county 
since  the  publication  of  Mr.  Mansel-Pley dell's 
paper,  in  volume  vi.  of  The  Dorset  Field  Club 
Proceedings.  I  have  merely  mentioned  their 
localities  and  the  dates  of  their  capture,  with  a 
few  notes  on  habitat  and  habits;  full  descriptions  of  the  species  can 
be  found  in  any  of  the  numerous  works  published  on  "  British  Land 
and  Fresh- water  Shells." 

The  first  species  I  have  to  notice  is  Helix  Pisana,  two  specimens 
of  which  I  found  on  the  borders  of  Muston  Down,  between  the 
village  of  Winterbourne  Kingston  and  Blandford.  I  was  exceedingly 
surprised  to  find  this  species  in  such  a  locality,  as  I  believe  it  is 
generally  confined  to  sandbanks  on  the  sea  shore.  These  two 
specimens  were  found  on  a  chalk  bank  in  January,  1889  ;  one  was 
alive  and  the  other  dead.  They  were  rather  small  and  resembled 
the  Tenby  type,  though  with  thinner  bands  and  less  distinct 
markings.  The  Tenby  examples  (where  the  species  is  abundant), 
differ  considerably  from  those  taken  in  Jersey,  the  latter  being  much 
larger,  thinner,  paler,  and  of  a  browner  hue.  I  sent  the  two 
specimens  to  the  meeting  of  the  Conchological  Society  of  Great 
Britain,  held  at  Leeds,  in  January,  1890,  and  they  were  then  named 


Helix  Pisana.  I  have  never  been  able  since  to  obtain  any  more 
specimens,  though  a  variety  of  H.  virgata  occurs  there  which 
somewhat  resembles  them.  Mr.  Mansel-Pleydell  mentions  (on 
Pulteney's  authority)  the  capture  of  this  species  on  sandbanks 
between  Lulworth  and  Weymouth.  The  next  species  of  note  is 
Vertigo  Moulinsiana.  I  found  a  few  specimens  of  this  rare  shell 
on  the  stem  of  bulrushes  and  other  water  plants  in  a  swampy 
piece  of  ground  near  a  large  stream  in  the  village  of  Morden,  about 
four  miles  from  Wareham.  This  was  in  August,  1889,  and  at  the 
time  I  supposed  them  to  be  a  variety  of  V.  antivertigo,  but  at  the 
meeting  of  the  Conchological  Society,  in  January,  1890,  they  were 
named  as  V.  Moulinsiana.  During  the  months  of  August  and 
September,  1890,  I  searched  carefully  at  the  same  spot,  and  in  its 
immediate  neighbourhood  and  took  in  all  about  200  specimens, 
nearly  all  full  grown.  They  were  sitting  on  the  stems  of  the 
water  sedges  and  rushes,  which  in  many  places  grew  in  six  inches  of 
water.  I  noticed  then  they  did  not  appear  to  move  about  much. 
In  winter  the  place  is  often  quite  flooded  with  water  and  the  plants 
all  die,  and  what  becomes  of  the  shells  I  do  not  quite  know.  I  have 
been  unable  to  find  any  trace  of  them  either  in  winter  or  spring, 
and  the  only  time  when  I  can  observe  them  is  when  the  plants  are 
all  up  and  flourishing. 

Mr.  R.  Standen,  of  Manchester,  has  kindly  furnished  me  with 
the  following  information  about  F.  Moulinsiana: — "  F.  Moulinsiana 
was  first  discovered  in  England,  about  1876,  by  Mr.  Groves,  who 
found  it  in  two  localities — one  in  Hampshire,  and  the  other  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  Hitchin,  in  Herefordshire,  and  Dr.  Gwyn 
Jeffreys  found  it  at  Ware  Priory,  Herts.  It  has  also  occurred  in 
Ireland,  and  was  described  in  Annals  and  Mag.  Nat.  Hist.  1878, 
as  Vertigo  Lilljeborjii  (Westerlund),  but  Eimmer,  who  saw  and 
compared  the  specimens,  seems  to  think  they  are  all  identical  with 
F.  Moulinsiana.  These  are  all  the  British  localities  recorded 
before,  and  the  habitats  are  the  same,  viz.,  marshes  on  reeds,  &c., 
except  that  of  the  Irish  specimen,  which  occurred  "  under  stones  in 
a  damp  place." 


Most  conchologists  seem  to  agree  in  thinking  that  F.  Lilljeljorjii 
and  V.  Moulinsiana  are  the  same,  though  I  have  never  myself  had 
an  opportunity  of  comparing  them. 

Mr.  Standen  remarks  that  the  specimens  I  sent  him  from  Morden 
differ  from  those  he  has  seen,  resembling  rather  V.  Lilljeborjii. 

I  have  noticed  that  the  number  of  denticles  in  the  mouths  of  my 
specimens  varies  from  four  to  five.  During  August,  1890, 1  found 
the  species  in  two  other  localities,  though  only  one  specimen  at 
each,  the  first  at  Chamberlayne's  Bridges,  Bere  Regis,  on  a  reed  in 
the  adjoining  water-meadows,  the  second  in  the  parish  of  Bloxworth, 
in  a  locality  very  similar  to  that  at  Morden,  being  in  fact  on  the 
banks  of  the  same  stream  at  a  different  part.  This  latter  specimen 
I  found  in  company  with  F.  edentula,  of  which  I  took  several  speci" 
rnens  on  the  grasses  which  grow  there  in  the  month  of  May,  1890. 
I  found  a  few  specimens  of  F.  edentula  under  sticks  and  pieces  of 
wood  in  marshy  soil  at  Morden.  And  in  August  of  the  same  year, 
besides  those  found  on  reeds,  I  took  three  specimens  by  means  of  a 
sweeping  net  on  the  leaves  of  hazel  and  sallow  bushes  in  Bere 
wood,  parish  of  Bere  Regis.  Three  other  species  of  Vertigo  have 
been  taken  in  Dorsetshire  (1),  F.  pygmaea ;  (2),  F.  antivertigo  ; 
(3),  F.  minutissima.  Of  F.  antivertigo  I  have  myself  taken  a  few 
specimens  under  logs  and  sticks  in  a  heath  marsh  at  Bloxworth, 
during  the  past  year  (1890).  Mr.  E.  R.  Sykes,  of  Weymouth,  took 
F.  minutissima  in  some  abundance  at  Portland,  in  the  autumn  of 
1889,  and  I  found  a  few  specimens  under  stones  there  in  the 
month  of  June,  1890.  I  also  took  one  specimen  on  the  opposite 
side  of  Weymouth  bay,  not  far  from  Osmington  Mills.  Dr.  Gwyn 
Jeffreys  has  taken  this  very  local  shell  at  Lulworth,  and  Mr.  J.  C. 
Mansel-Pleydell  records  it  from  Hough  ton  Wood.  F.  pygmaea 
appears  to  be  rare  at  Bloxworth,  and  in  the  neighbourhood, 
since  during  the  past  three  years  I  have  only  found  about  six 
specimens,  though  I  have  searched  carefully.  All  these  were 
found  either  at  the  roots  of  grass  or  under  stones  in  fields. 
At  Weymouth,  near  the  two-mile  copse  (on  the  Dorchester 
Road),  I  found  in  September,  1890,  a  small  colony  of  this  shell 


under  a  heap  of  stones  in  a  field,  where  I  turned  up  about  thirty 

Besides  these  I  have  taken  at  Bloxworth  Rectory  Balia  perversa, 
on  a  rubble  wall  of  an  outhouse  facing  north,  and  Clausilia  laminata 
under  logs,  together  with  one  or  two  specimens  of  the  variety  albida, 
which  is  a  very  beautiful  object. 

At  the  beginning  of  September,  1890,  I  found  one  specimen  of 
Acme  lineata,  which  has  never  yet  been  recorded  as  taken  in 
Dorset.  It  was  under  a  tuft  of  grass  in  a  marsh  at  Bloxworth,  and 
I  have  been  unable  to  find  another,  though,  owing  to  the  red  colour 
of  the  mud,  exactly  resembling  the  shell,  it  might  easily  be  over- 
looked. It  is  not  usually  a  gregarious  shell,  and  Mr.  J.  W. 
"Williams  in  his  "  Shell  Collector's  Hand-book,"  gives  as  its  habitat 
"  among  decaying  leaves  and  moss  in  damp  situations."  It  is  very 
local  and  is  never  found  anywhere  in  abundance. 

I  append  a  list  of  land  and  fresh-water  shells  which  I  have  myself 
taken  in  this  county  during  the  short  time  in  which  I  have  been 
collecting  : — 

Sphaerium  corneuni,  Bere  Regis. 

„          lacustre,  Aimer ;  Weymouth. 
„          rivicola,  Morden. 

Pisidium  amnicum,  one  or  two  specimens  Bere  Regis. 
„         fontinale,  Bloxworth. 
„         pusillum,  Bloxworth. 
„         nitidum,  one  or  two  specimens  Bere  Regis. 
„         roseum,  ditto  Bloxworth. 

Unio  pictorum,  Morden. 
Anodonta  cygnea,  Morden. 
Neritina  fluviatilis,  Bere  Regis. 

Bythinia  tentaculata,  Bere  Regis  ;  Morden  ;  Weymouth. 
Valvata  piscinalis,  Bere  Regis  ;  Morden  ;  Weymouth ;  Winter- 
bourne  Zelston. 

„         cristata,  one  specimen,  Morden. 
Hydrobia  ventrosa,  Lodmoor,  Weymouth. 
Planorbis  nautileus,  Bloxworth  ;  Weymouth. 


»Planorbis  albus,  Bloxworth  ;  Bere  Regis, 

„          spirorbis,  generally  distributed. 

„  vortex,  Bere  Regis,  Wareham. 

„  carinatus,       \  Morden. 

„  complanatus,-'  Wareham ;  Bere  Regis. 

„  corneus,  Weymouth. 

„  contortus,  Morden  ;  Bere  Regis  ;  Weymouth. 

Physa  fontinalis,  Bloxworth  ;  Morden  ;  Bere  Regis  ;  Weymouth; 

Winterbourne  Zelston. 
Linmea  peregra,  generally  distributed. 

„        auricularia,  Morden. 

„        stagnalis,  Wareham  (one  specimen) ;  Aimer. 

„        palustris,  Winterbourne  Zelston  ;  Bere  Regis  ;  Morden. 

„        truncatula,     Bloxworth  ;     Winterbourne  ;    Chicjverell 
(near  Weymouth) ;  Morden  ;  Bere  Regis. 

„        glabra,  Bloxworth. 
Ancylus  fluviatilis,  Bere  Regis. 

„         lacustris,  Bloxworth  ;  Morden. 
Testacella  Maugei,  Corfe. 

Succinea  putris,     ^  .      ,,r    . 

V  Bere  Regis;  Wool. 
„        elegans,  J 

Yitrina  pellucida,  generally  distributed. 
Zonites  cellarius,  generally  distributed. 

„        alliarius,  Bloxworth  ;  Morden. 

„        nitidulus,  generally  distributed. 

,,        purus,  Bloxworth. 

„        radiatulus,  Bloxworth. 

„        nitidus,  Morden  ;  Bere  Regis. 

,,        glaber  ?  Bloxworth. 

„        crystallinus,  generally  distributed. 

,,        fulvus,  ditto,  though  not  so  common. 
Helix  aculeata,  Bloxworth  ;  Weymouth. 

„     nemoralis,  generally  distributed. 

,,     arbustorum,  one  specimen  Bere  Regis. 

„     aspersa,  generally  distributed. 

,,     rufescens,  ditto. 


Helix  concinna,  Bloxworth. 

„     hispida,  generally  distributed. 

„     sericea,  Bloxworth. 

,,  fusca,  Bloxworth  ;  Bere  Regis.  I  took  by  means  of  a 
sweeping  net  on  underwood  in  Bere  Wood  in 
August  and  September,  1889  and  1890  ;  also  a 
few  specimens  on  hazel  in  a  marsh  at  Bloxworth. 

„     Pisana,  Winterbourne  Kingston. 

„     virgata,  on  downs  everywhere. 

„     caperata,  ditto. 

„     ericetorum,  Blandford  ;  Portland. 

„     rotundata,,  generally  distributed. 

„     rupestris,  Portland  ;  Isle  of  Purbeck. 

„     pulchella,  Bloxworth;  Weymouth. 

„     lapicida,  Bloxworth  ;  Portland. 
Bulimus  acutus,  "Weymouth  ;  Portland. 

„       obscurus,  Bloxworth ;  Weymouth  ;  Portland. 
Pupa  secale,  Lulworth  ;  Portland. 

„    umbilicata,  on  walls  everywhere. 

„    marginata,  Weymouth  ;  Portland. 
Vertigo  antivertigo,  Bloxworth. 

„        Moulinsiana,  Morden  ;  Bloxworth  ;  Bere  Eegis. 

„        pygmaea,  Bloxworth  ;  Weymouth. 

„        edentula,  Bloxworth  ;  Morden. 

„        minutissima,  Weymouth  ;  Portland. 
Clausilia  rugosa,  generally  distributed. 

„         laminata,  Bloxworth. 
Balia  perversa,  Bloxworth. 
Cochlicopa  lubrica,  Bloxworth. 
Achatina  acicula,  Portland  (one  specimen). 
Carychium  minimum,  generally  distributed. 
Cyclostoma     eiegans,     Bloxworth ;    Winterbourne    Kingston  ; 

Portland ;  Bere  Regis. 
Acme  lineata,  Bloxworth  (one  specimen). 
Total— 80  species. 

(External  (Srototh  of  <§Iurborne 

A  Paper  read  before  the  Dorset  Natural  History  and  Antiquarian 
Field  Club,  August  28th,  1890. 

By  the  Rev.  Canon  B.  M.  YOUNG,  Head-Master 
of  Sherborne  School. 

HERBORNE  School,  as  the  Free  Grammar  School 
of  King  Edward  Vlth  is  styled  in  the  earliest 
documents  we  possess — the  "King's  School"  being 
an  appellation  of  comparatively  recent  times — 
was  the  first-born  child  of  that  goodly  family 
of  Grammar  Schools,  which  sprang  out  of  the 
religious  convulsion  of  the  16th  century,  commonly  known  as  the 
Reformation.  Hence  it  may  fairly  claim  to  have  been  the  earliest 
Protestant  School  established  in  the  Kingdom.  Whether  the 
initiation  of  the  great  educational  movement  which  has  shed  lustre 
upon  the  reign  of  the  sixth  Edward  can  be  attributed  in  any 
degree  to  the  prescience  of  the  boy-king  himself  may  fairly  be 
questioned.  In  the  case  of  Sherborne  School  it  is  more  than 
probable  that  the  Protector  Somerset,  who  in  1550  was  actually  in 
possession  of  Sherborne  Castle,  furthered  the  petition  of  the 
inhabitants  of  the  town  and  of  the  country  round  to  the  Crown,  for 
the  grant  of  the  disused  Chantries,  from  which  its  endowments  are 


derived ;  and  in  the  window  which  we  placed  in  our  Library  in 
1887,  as  a  memorial  of  Her  Majesty's  Jubilee,  we  have  ventured 
to  presume  upon  this  strong  probability,  as  though  it  were  actual 
history.  Our  Charter,  owing  to  the  care  with  which  for  more  than 
300  years  it  was  stowed  away  among  the  muniments  of  the  Alms- 
house,  is  in  singularly  good  preservation,  and  bears  date  May  13th, 
1550.  This  gives  us  precedence  over  the  School  founded  by 
Edward  Vlth  at  Bury  St.  Edmunds,  which  obtained  its  Charter  in 
August  of  the  same  year,  and  that  of  Bruton,  which  was  founded  a 
few  months  later.  We  speak  of  the  School  as  re-founded  by 
Edward  VI.  The  acts  of  the  preceding  reign  had  swept  away 
the  free  schools  of  the  Monasteries,  together  with  the  wealthy 
foundations  which  supported  them ;  and  to  the  serious  evil,  which 
had  resulted  from  the  destruction  of  the  Abbey  School  at  Slier- 
borne,  may  be  traced,  if  not  the  plan,  at  least  the  first  step  in 
carrying  out  the  plan,  for  utilizing  the  endowments  of  such  religious 
houses  and  Chantries  as  still  survived  the  general  wreck,  for  the 
establishment  of  Grammar  Schools,  where  the  principles  of  the 
reformed  faith  might  be  engrafted  upon  young  minds,  which  as  yet 
had  no  prejudice  of  their  own  against  them,  and  loyalty  to  the 
Throne  might  be  inculcated  untrammelled  by  monastic  influence. 
But  of  the  School  of  pre-Edwardian  times  we  have  no  records 
beyond  the  mention  of  a  ruined  "  Schole-house,"  which,  at  the 
date  when  the  letters  patent  were  granted  constituting  the  new 
School,  was  in  the  possession  of  Sir  John  Horsey,  Kt.,  the  lay 
impropriator  of  the  dissolved  Monastery,  and  the  grotesquely 
carved  miserere  in  the  Choir  of  the  Abbey  Church,  which  proves 
that,  whatever  may  have  been  the  quality  of  the  education  im- 
parted, the  method  of  its  inculcation  was  at  least  drastic.  It  is  a 
common  error  to  suppose  that  the  Monastery  Schools  suppressed  at 
the  dissolution  were  conducted  by  the  Monks  themselves.  The 
garb  of  the  Scholemaster  represented  in  the  miserere  is  that  of  a 
secular,  and,  as  a  matter  of  fact,  the  relation  of  the  Monasteries  to 
the  Schools  supported  by  them  was  at  this  time,  and  had  been  for  a 
considerable  period,  that  of  beneficent  landlords  employing  seculars 


to  teach  gratuitously  in  the  Schools  maintained  at  their  cost. 
Indeed,  it  is  more  than  probable  that,  at  the  time  when  the  Abbey 
was  dissolved,  none  of  its  members  possessed  sufficient  learning 
even  for  the  moderate  requirements  of  the  secular  education  of  the 

In  letters  patent,  then,  bearing  date  May  13th,  1550,  the 
Chantries  of  Martock,  St.  Katherine  in  Gillingham,  St.  Katherine 
in  Ilminster  and  Lytchett  Matravers,  together  with  the  free  Chapel 
of  Thornton  in  the  parish  of  Marnhull,  all  of  them  newly  sup- 
pressed by  a  supplementary  act  in  the  first  year  of  Edward's  reign, 
or  they  would  hardly  have  escaped  the  rapacity  of  Henry's 
favourites,  were  appointed  "  by  the  King's  Majesty "  for  the 
establishment  of  a  Free  Grammar  School  (Libera  Schola  Gram- 
maticalis)  in  the  town  of  Sherborne  ;  the  income  from  which 
sources  amounted  at  the  time  to  31  marks,  or  ,£20  13s.  4d.  One 
mark  was  to  be  paid  annually  to  the  Crown  as  quit-rent,  and 
continued  to  be  paid  for  several  years  by  the  Governors,  as  feoffees 
of  the  King's  Manor  of  Stalbridge.  It  was  left  to  the  trustees, 
twenty  "  discreet  and  honest  inhabitants "  of  the  Town,  who  are 
constituted  a  Corporation,  with  a  common  seal,  "  able  to  sue  and  be 
sued,"  to  dispose  as  they  thought  fit  of  the  rents  and  profits  of  the 
estates,  to  elect  masters,  and  to  frame  orders,  or  statutes,  according 
to  the  changes  of  time  and  circumstance,  with  the  advice  of  the 
Bishop  of  Bristol ;  and  the  first  care  of  the  "  Companie,"  as  they 
style  themselves  in  the  first  extant  Minute-book,  which  dates  back 
to  1591,  must  have  been  to  give  a  local  habitation  to  the  School, 
which  so  far  existed  only  in  endowment  and  in  name. 

This  they  appear  to  have  done  by  obtaining  permission  of 
Sir  John  Horsey  to  use  the  old  "  Schole-house,"  then  in  ruins,  at  a 
nominal  rent  of  4d.  per  annum,  which  is  duly  accounted  for  in  the 
earliest  account  we  possess,  that  of  the  3rd  year  after  the  granting 
of  the  letters  patent.  In  the  following  year,  however,  we  discover 
from  the  curious  "  accompte  "  of  Jarvis  Ayshelee,  "  Warden  and 
Receptor  of  the  rents  and  revenues  of  the  said  Schole,  from  the 
ffeaste  of  St.  Mychell  the  Archangell,  in  the  ffirste  yere  of  the 


reygne  of  our  Soverayn  Ladye  Qn  Marye,  until  the  said  ffeaste  of 
St.  Mychell  the  Archangell  in  the  ffirste  and  seconde  yere  of  the 
reygne  of  Phillippe  and  Marye,  by  the  grace  of  God,  of  Englonde, 
Ffraunce,  Napilis,  Jerusaluni,  and  Irelonde  Kynge  and  Queue," 
that  they  gave  ,£40  to  Sir  John  Horsey  in  part  payment  for  this 
old  "  Schole-house  and  the  Plumbe  House,  with  two  gardens, 
11  whereof  one  is  called  the  Abbey  Lytten,  with  all  the  void  ground 
"  coming  of  the  late  Chappell  called  the  Bow,  and  the  Ladye 
"  Chappell,  and  all  the  ground  belonging  to  the  said  Schole-house 
"  for  the  space  of  99  yeres."  In  the  next  year  they  pay 
,£10  more,  and  smaller  sums  in  succeeding  years,  apparently  as 
quit-rents;  until  in  1629  the  property  is  acquired  absolutely,  in 
consideration  of  the  payment  of  .£12  to  the  trustees  of  one  Coker, 
who  possessed  the  reversion. 

From  an  entry  in  the  Minute-Book,  bearing  date  June  12,  1596, 
it  appears  that  this  old  "Schole-house,"  of  which  no  trace  now 
remains,  was  on  the  North  side  of  the  Church,  probably  adjoining 
Bishop  Roger's  Chapel,  now  the  Vestry ;  a  committee  of  the 
Governors  having  been  appointed  in  that  summer  "  to  make 
convenient  seats  for  the  schollers  in  the  rome  adjoining  Sir  John 
Horsey 's  yle,"  which  must  have  been  a  smaller  room  connected 
with,  or  in  close  proximity  to  it. 

The  premises  thus  acquired  of  Sir  John  Horsey  formed  the 
nucleus  out  of  which  the  School,  as  we  now  see  it,  has  been 
developed.  Originally  they  included  the  two  ruined  Chapels  of 
our  Ladye  and  our  Ladye  of  Bow;  the  grave-yard  of  the  Monastery, 
which  covered  the  ground  occupied  by  the  present  entrance  court 
to  the  East  of  the  Church,  and  a  portion  of  what  is  now  the  Head- 
Master's  lawn ;  a  ruined  Dortoir,  or  Dormitory,  of  which  a  trace 
still  remains  in  the  marks  of  the  pitch  of  its  roof  visible  upon 
the  wall  of  the  North  transept  ;  the  Schole-house  already 
mentioned ;  the  Plumbe-house,  and  the  Conduit-house,  then 
standing  in  the  centre  of  the  Monastery  quadrangle,  now  the  upper 
portion  of  the  lawn.  The  site,  on  which  the  Head-Master's  private 
dwelling  stands,  was  occupied  in  part  at  this  time  by  the  old  Priory, 


subsequently  converted  into  a  Poor-house,  but  this  was  not  acquired 
until  1749. 

Upon  the  acquisition  of  these  premises  in  1554,  the  dilapidated 
Schole-house  was  pulled  down,  as  we  discover  from  various  items 
in  the  accounts  rendered  yearly  by  the  "Wardens  on  lolls  of 
parchment,  of  which  we  possess  a  large  number,  and  a  new  room 
was  erected,  apparently  on  its  site,  at  a  cost  of  .£10  15s.  3d.,  the 
old  materials  being  no  doubt  employed  in  its  construction.  It  is 
likely  that  the  statue  of  the  King,  which  is  of  Portland  stone,  was 
then  first  set  up  in  the  School,  but  of  this  there  is  no  record.  Five 
years  later,  in  1559,  the  two  Ladye  Chapels  were  converted  into  a 
residence  for  the  Master,  with  the  co-operation  of  Jewel,  Bishop  of 
Salisbury,  to  which  See  the  Castle  and  adjoining  estates  had  been 
again  restored.  The  picturesque  ornamentation  of  the  South  front 
was  defrayed  by  subscription  of  the  Trustees  and  others,  whose 
initials  and  shields  appear  beneath  the  Arms  of  the  King,  at  a  cost 
of  £3  11s.  4d. 

And  so  things  continued  for  nearly  50  years.  But  though  there 
is  no  mention  of  any  further  building  until  the  beginning  of  the 
next  century,  the  entry  of  1596,  to  which  I  have  already  alluded, 
seems  to  indicate  that  the  number  of  scholars  had  begun  to  exceed 
the  accommodation,  and  that  a  second  room  was  adapted  for 
teaching  purposes. 

In  March,  1605,  during  the  Mastership  of  Mr.  Grove,  it  is 
ordered  that  .£100  be  employed  in  the  building  of  a  new  Schole- 
house,  bj  yearly  provision  to  be  made,  "  unless  Mr.  Anketell  shall 
be  compounded  of  his  quit-rent,"  which  last  clause  would  seem  to 
imply  the  adoption  of  a  new  site.  In  the  following  September 
paymasters  and  supervisors  of  the  new  buildings  are  appointed, 
and  in  February,  1606,  the  work  is  commenced,  Roger  Brinsmead 
being  employed  to  do  the  mason's  and  John  Beare  (?)  the 
carpenter's  work.  The  sum  of  £37  is  lent  by  certain  of  the 
Trustees,  among  whom  the  well-known  Sherborne  names  of 
Hoddynott  and  Ridout  figure  for  the  first  time,  for  the  purpose 
of  completing  it. 


This  building  was  still  prior,  however,  to  the  present  Dining- 
hall,  which  was  not  erected  until  1670,  63  years  later.  In  the 
opinion  of  Dr.  Harper,  to  whose  valuable  Tercentenary  Address  I 
am  largely  indebted,  it  consisted  of  what  is  now  the  Matron's 
Room,  still  remembered  by  Old  Shirburnians  as  the  Library  in 
which  Dr.  Lyon  taught,  and  the  panelled  Dining-room  below  it, 
now  used  as  a  Servants'  Hall.  Beyond  it  must  have  been  erected 
certain  buildings  to  serve  as  a  brew-house  and  a  wood-house,  against 
which  in  1642,  35  years  later,  "such  chambers  as  may  be 
conveniently  raised,"  were  ordered  to  be  built,  apparently  for  the 
use  of  the  "  Tablers,"  or  Boarders,  who  had  begun  to  be  received 
in  the  Master's  house.  These  were  pulled  down  in  1835,  during  Dr. 
Lyon's  Headmastership,  to  make  room  for  what  are  known  as  the 
Bell  Buildings. 

"With  all  deference  to  Dr.  Harper,  I  am  inclined  to  think  that 
the  portion  of  building  now  standing  between  the  entrance  of  the 
Bell  Buildings  and  the  Dining-hall,  was  but  an  adjunct  to  the 
School-room  itself,  which  must  have  been  of  very  imperfect 
construction  to  have  required  rebuilding  so  soon.  It  stood,  as  I 
believe,  where  the  Dining-hall  now  stands  ;  and  this  idea  is 
favoured  by  our  discovery,  four  years  ago,  of  the  traces  of  a  dial, 
with  the  date  1635  painted  upon  the  surface  of  stones,  which  must 
have  been  used  in  its  construction,  and  were  subsequently  built  into 
the  south  Wt%ll  of  the  new  room.  The  soil  here  is  spongy  to  a 
degree,  and  seems  to  have  been  in  ancient  times  the  bed  of  a  water- 
course. Isror  is  it  surprising  that  the  building  of  1607  should  have 
collapsed  in  60  years,  if  its  outer  wall,  like  that  of  the  building  of 
1670,  which  we  have  recently  restored,  was  given  a  foundation  of 
only  18  inches.  It  was  found  necessary  to  underpin  this  wall  in 
1887  to  a  depth  of  11  or  12  feet,  before  we  could  obtain  a  secure 

We  have  now  traced  the  material  development  of  the  School 
through  the  first  century  of  its  existence — through  the  age  of 
Shakespeare  and  Bacon,  of  Cecil  and  Raleigh.  Little  indication, 
as  is  natural,  of  political  events  is  recorded  in  the  matter-of-fact 


records  of  the  "  Companie."  Now  and  tlien  the  proximity  of  the 
School  to  the  aristocratic  domain  of  Sherborne  Castle  brings  the 
name  of  Sir  W.  Raleigh  upon  their  minutes.  Once,  in  1601,  they 
address  a  letter  to  Sir  R.  Cecil,  acquainting  him  with  the  removal  of 
one  Master,  and  the  appointment  of  another  in  his  place,  whose 
election  they  hope  will  prove  satisfactory  to  the  powers  that  be. 
The  star  of  Catholic  Spain  pales  as  that  of  Protestant  England  rises, 
but  there  is  no  mention  of  an  extra  week's  holiday  for  the  defeat  of 
the  Armada.  Raleigh  is  attainted  and  executed,  and  Sherborne 
Castle  passes  into  the  possession  of  the  Digbys,  but  the  School  minds 
its  own  business,  and  betrays  no  consciousness  of  the  change  of 
patron.  It  is  the  golden  age  of  English  letters,  but  no  culture  is  con- 
ceived of  outside  the  dead  languages.  Science  is  new-born  in  the 
Instauratio  and  the  ISTovum  Organum,  but  not  yet  has  it  entered  into 
the  heart  of  schoolmasters  that  Laboratories  and  Museums,  such  as 
that  in  which  we  are  now  met,  shall  ere  long  contend  with  Homer 
and  Maro  for  precedence  in  stimulating  the  young  idea  to  shoot. 

But  with  the  close  of  the  Elizabethan  era  a  change  comes  over 
the  scene.  The  reign  of  the  pedant-king  has  prepared  the  way  for 
a  new  attempt  at  despotism  on  the  part  of  the  Crown,  and  we  are  in 
the  vortex  of  a  new  revolution.  Even  the  honest  and  discreet 
"  companie,"  who  regulate  the  affairs  of  King  Edward's  School  in 
Sherborne,  in  spite  of  their  unquestionable  loyalty,  are  forced  to 
recognise  the  political  exigencies  of  the  time.  Singularly  enough 
it  is  the  year  1650,  the  centenary  year  of  the  School's  founding. 
Sherborne  Old  Castle  is  in  the  hands  of  the  Parliamentary  Forces, 
to  which,  after  a  gallant  struggle  of  fourteen  days,  it  had  yielded  five 
years  before.  It  is  a  sore  time  for  loyal  Sherborne  :  but  Hugh 
Hodges,  Warden  of  the  School,  is  true  to  King  Charles  and  to  his  oath, 
and  undergoes  arrest  rather  than  remove  the  bauble  of  the  Royal 
Scutcheon  over  the  School  door,  which  had  provoked  the  ire  of  the 
Parliament  men.  After  this  show  of  resistance  a  compromise  is 
effected,  audit  is  agreed  on  the  10th  of  August  that  the  "Companie 
doe  consent  to  get  the  Warden  to  take  down  the  King's  Arms  over 
the  School  door,  and  at  the  south  end  of  the  School-house,  it  being 


commanded  and  required  by  Captain  Helyar,  a  captaine  for  the 
Parliament,  to  be  done."  The  statue  of  the  King  within  the 
schoolroom  itself  is  allowed,  it  would  seem,  to  remain.  The 
reticence  of  the  Minute-book  during  this  eventful  crisis  is  provoking, 
but  discretion  was  doubtless  held  to  be  the  better  part  of  valour. 
Upon  the  restoration,  ten  years  later,  all  danger  to  demonstrations 
of  loyalty  is  over,  and  in  1670  steps  are  taken  for  re-building  the 
School-room,  which  is  in  a  state  of  decay.  But  the  records  of  this 
work  are  so  meagre,  except  in  the  bare  account  of  moneys  spent, 
that  it  does  not  even  appear  whether  the  present  Dining-Hall, 
which  dates  from  this  time,  was  a  restoration  and  improvement 
upon  the  old  building  merely,  or  whether  it  was  an  entirely  new 
departure.  I  have  before  stated  that  my  own  belief  inclines  to  the 
former  view.  At  any  rate  it  was  ordered  that  the  Statue  of  King 
Edward  VI. — our  Palladium — the  oldest  solid  relic  of  the  past, 
which  we  possess — should  be  again  set  up,  with  the  same  four  Latin 
verses  beneath  its  feet  as  in  the  former  room.  The  fear  of  Captain 
Helyar  being  now  removed,  it  was  also  resolved  that  the  King's 
Arms  be  replaced  over  the  School  door,  and  "  washed  over  with 
oyle  only,  or  some  sad  colour,"  as  though  the  trustees  were 
mindful  of  the  Horatian  precept,  to  preserve  a  temper  as  far 
removed  from  overweening  joy  in  prosperity  as  from  undue 
depression  in  adversity.  At  the  same  time  the  Head-Master,  Mr. 
Goodenough,  is  directed  to  make  a  pair  of  Latin  verses  to  set 
beneath  them,  which  is  the  origin  of  the  clever  rebus  still  existing. 
This  gives  the  date  both  of  the  founding  of  the  School,  1550,  and 
of  the  new  building,  1670,  according  as  the  numerals  are  added 
together  in  pairs  or  singly. 

Tecta  ZJraco  Gustos  Leo  VinDe X  FZos  Z)ecus  Auctor 
KeX  pius  haec  servat  protegit  ornat  aLit. 

Six  years  later,  Dr.  Highmore,  Warden,  is  empowered  to  finish  the 
Library,  now  mentioned  for  the  first  time,  but  whether  the  date 
1670,  upon  the  wall  of  this  room,  is  to  be  taken  as  an  indication 

THE    EXTERNAL    GROWTH    OF    SHERBORNE    SCHOOL.          113 

that  this  and  the  room  below  it  were  constructed  at  the  same  time 
as  the  present  Dining-hall,  or  whether,  as  Dr.  Harper  "believes,  the 
older  School-room  was  now  converted  into  these  two  rooms,  and  a 
new  room  built  to  the  south  of  them,  there  is  not  sufficient 
evidence  to  show. 

In  1697  another  addition  was  made  for  the  benefit  of  the 
Tablers  ;  the  sum  of  .£320  9s.  6d.  being  expended  in  erecting  a 
house  at  the  west  end  of  the  School  garden,  at  right  angles  to 
what  is  now  the  vestry,  "  containing  a  parlour  and  a  wood-house, 
with  several  chambers  over  it  for  sick  boys."  An  outbreak  of 
small-pox,  which  had  carried  off  several  of  the  boarders,  was 
probably  the  cause  of  this  new  measure.  The  demolition  of  this 
building  is  within  the  memory  of  some  here  present,  to  whom  the 
erection  of  the  present  School-house  and  the  extension  of  the  lawn 
must  seem  a  matter  of  yesterday. 

No^further  alteration  was  effected  for  nearly  50  years,  when,  in 
1749,  the  Old  Priory  and  adjoining  garden  were  annexed,  only  so 
much  of  the  masonry  being  reserved  from  the  hammer  as  was 
required  for  the  wall  which  now  extends  from  the  boys'  door  to 
the  Study  Buildings. 

The  Bell  Buildings  were  erected  in  1835,  at  a  cost  of  £1,400 
odd,  about  a  third  of  which  sum  was  defrayed  by  Dr.  Lyon 

The  Digby  Buildings  date  from  1851,  and  are  due  to  the 
munificence  of  Edward,  Earl  Digby,  and  the  surrender  of  a  portion 
of  his  income  by  Dr.  Harper,  for  the  construction  of  the  Chapel,  as 
originally  designed. 

The  new  School-house  was  built  in  1860,  in  large  measure 
through  the  liberality  of  the  late  Squire,  Mr.  George  Wingfield  Digby. 

In  1865  the  Chapel  and  Crypt  were  extended,  and  in  1870  the 
new  block  of  Class  Rooms  was  added,  forming  the  west  side  of 
the  third  Court,  and  running  parallel  to  the  School-room,  which 
was  converted  into  a  Library  between  the  years  1880-1884. 

The  Lavatories,  West  Cloister,  School-room,  Modern  Schools, 
Gymnasium,  and  Sanatorium  are  among  the  moie  recent  additions 


to  the  School,  and  outside  the  scope  of  the  present  paper.  The 
block  of  buildings,  in  which  we  are  now  assembled,  was  for  many 
years  a  silk  factory,  occupying  the  site  of  wrhat  were  once  the 
Abbey  Mills.  These  were  purchased  in  1873  of  Earl  Digby,  and 
adapted  for  the  teaching  of  Science,  Music,  Drawing,  and 
Carpentry.  Our  excellent  Swimming-bath  dates  from  the  same 
year.  The  actual  room,  in  which  we  sit,  was  our  Music  Room  until 
1880,  when  it  was  fitted  up  for  its  present  purpose  as  a  Museum. 

And  now,  ladies  and  gentlemen,  having  briefly  sketched  the 
history  of  the  School  Buildings  to  the  present  time,  my  task  is 
done.  The  internal  history  of  Sherborne  School  forms  a  different 
chapter,  'even  more  obscure,  during  the  first  two  centuries  of  its 
existence,  than  that  which  I  have  endeavoured  to  lay  before  you. 
The  present  is  scarcely  a  time  to  dwell  upon  the  singularly 
chequered  story  ;  but  it  is  a  chapter  full  of  interest  for  those  who 
would  study  the  conditions  of  the  development  and  prosperity  of 
what  I  trust  I  may  still  call  a  great  Public  School.  The  public 
Schools  of  England  are  native  to  our  soil.  They  have  grown,  some 
of  the  most  famous  of  them,  like  the  proverbial  mustard  seed,  from 
small  beginnings  into  great  trees.  The  secret  of  this  growth  has 
not  lain  in  great  endowments,  but  in  faith,  and  patience,  and  in  the 
subordination  of  the  individual  to  the  general  interest.  Institutions 
are  greater  than  men,  and  every  man  who  is  privileged  to  belong  to 
an  historic  institution  owes  far  more  to  it  than  he  can  ever  hope  to 
confer  upon  it.  Not  for  individuals,  not  for  parties,  not  for  one 
generation  more  than  for  another  do  the  Public  Schools  of  England 
exist.  They  belong  to  the  nation.  As  national  trusts  must  they 
be  administered,  if  they  are  to  live  and  flourish.  As  nurseries  of 
national  life,  pure  from  all  self-seeking,  and  devoted  to  the  highest 
moral,  religious,  and  intellectual  as  well  as  physical  interests  of 
youth,  must  they  be  maintained,  or  the  roots  wither,  and  the 
curse  of  sterility  falls  at  last  upon  the  fairest  growth. 


HISTORICAL     NOTES  :    DESCENT     OF     MANOR,     &c. 

By   J.   MBRRICK   HEAD,   Esq. 

S  a  member  of  this  club  I  have  been  asked  to  make 
a  few  remarks  upon  the  objects  of  interest  visited 
by  them  to-day  in  this  immediate  neighbourhood  ; 
but  first  allow  me  to  express  on  behalf  of  Portland 
the  great  honour  you  have  done  us  by  your  visit 
to  this  Island,  so  full  of  historical  and  antiquarian 

Before  proceeding  to  remark  upon  Rufus  Castle  and  the  Old 
Church,  I  may  mention  that  the  earliest  historical  records  point  to 
Portland  as  having  been  a  place  of  great  importance. 
Hoveden,  vol.  I.,  page  31,  states  : — 

"  Adelwlf  igitur  primo  anno  regni  sui  cum  ipse  adversus 
"  predictos  hostes  in  una  parte  regni  sui  persisteret  undique 
"  confluente  paganorum  multitudine  misit  Alfhard 
"  consulem  cum  parte  exercitus  ad  debellandum  Dacos  qui 
"cum  triginta  tribus  navibus  apud  Hamtonan  appulerant 
"  ubi  magna  strage  hostium  patrata  clarissime  triumphavit. 
"  Misit  etiam  rex  Adelwlf  Edelhelm  consulem  nt  pugnaret 
"  contra  alium  exercitum  apud  Port  cum  exercitu  Westsexiae. 
"  Cumque  dui  comflexissent,  occiso  predicto  consule,  Daci 
"Victores  exteterunt." 


A.D.  837  or  839. 

"  Therefore  Adelwlf  in  the  first  year  of  his  reign  when  he 
"  himself  stood  firmly  against  the  aforesaid  enemy  in  one 
"  part  of  his  Kingdom  whither  from  all  sides  there  was 
"a  massing  together  of  the  pagan  hosts,  sent  the  Consul 
"  Alfhard  with  part  of  his  army  that  he  might  overthrow 
"  the  Dacians  who  with  33  ships  had  effected  a  landing 
"  near  Hamton  where  a  great  slaughter  of  the  enemy 
"  having  taken  place  he  triumphed  brilliantly.  The  King 
"Adelwlf  also  sent  the  Consul  Edelhelm  to  fight  against 
"  another  army  near  Port  with  the  army  of  Wessex.  And 
"  when  the  two  met  together  in  battle,  the  aforesaid  Consul 
"  having  been  slain,  the  Dacians  stood  forth  victors." 
Previous  to  this  it  has  been  stated  that  in  the  reign  of  King 

Brethric,  A.D.   787,    Haretha  came  over  in   three  ships  and  is 

supposed  to  have  landed  at  Portland. 

Again  A.D.  982,  page  66,  it  is  further  recorded  that — 

"Anno  DCCCCLXXXII.     Ad   provincias  Dorsetsensium 
"tres      naves      piratarum      applicuerunt      et      Portland 
"  devastaverunt.     Civitas  Lundonia  igne  cremata  est." 
"  In  the  year  982.     To  the  provinces  of  Dorset  steered  three 
"ships  of  the  pirates  to  land  and  ravaged  Portland.     The 
"  city  of  London  was  also  destroyed  by  fire." 
The   Anglo   Saxon    Chronicle,    page    103,    confirms   this   A.D. 


"  Anno  DCCCCLXXXII.     In  this  year  arrived  in  Dorset- 
"  shire  three  ships  of  Vikings  and  ravaged  in  Portland." 
The  same  authority,  page  150,  records — 

"Anno  MLII.  (10e52).  In  this  year  died  Alfgyfu  Sunna, 
"the  mother  of  King  Edward  and  King  Harthcnut  Earl 
"  Godwin  together  with  his  fleet  hoisted  his  sails  and  they 
"at  once  betook  themselves  to  Wight  and  there  landed 
" .  .  .  and  then  they  went  westward  until  they  came  to 
"  Portland  and  then  they  landed  and  did  whatever  harm 
"  they  could  do." 


These  matters  are  referred  to  as  probably  giving  the  reasons  and 
showing  the  necessity  for  building  the  Castle  which  tradition  has 
assigned  to  William  Rufus.  The  circumstances  point  to  this 
tradition  as  being  probably  correct,  for  in  Anno  1142,  only  about 
40  years  later,  it  is  recorded  that  Robert,  Earl  of  Gloucester,  took 
this  Castle  from  King  Stephen  for  the  Empress  Maud. 

The  Castle  may  have  been  one  of  those,  having  regard  to 
Portland's  history  and  particularly  to  turbulent  times,  so  well 
described  by  the  Monk  of  Peterborough  in  the  Old  English 
Chronicle.  He  says  of  the  English  Lords — 

"They  foreswore  themselves  and  broke  their  troth,  for  every 
"Nobleman  made  him  a  Castle  and  held  it  against  the 
"  King  and  filled  the  land  full  of  Castles.  They  put  the 
"wretched  Countryfolk  to  sore  toil  with  their  Castle 
"  building,  and  when  the  Castles  were  made  they  filled  them 
"  "  with  devils  and  evil  men.  Then  they  took  all  those  that 
"  they  deemed  had  any  goods,  both  by  night  and  day,  men 
"  arid  women  alike,  and  put  them  in  prison  to  get  their  gold 
"  and  silver  and  tortured  them  with  tortures  unspeakable, 
"  for  never  were  martyrs  so  tortured  as  they  were.  And 
"  this  lasted  nineteen  winters  while  Stephen  was  King  and 
"  ever  it  was  worse  and  worse." 

I  can  find  no  other  direct  record  of  it  later  than  that  of  1142.  It 
most  likely  devolved  with  the  Royal  Manor  of  Portland,  of  which 
Her  Gracious  Majesty  is  now  the  Lady. 

King  George  III.  gave  Rufus  Castle  to  Governor  Penn. 

The  following  extracts  from  the  Public  Records  may  be  here 
introduced  in  connection  with  the  History  of  the  Island  and  the 
Castle  :— 

DOMESDAY  BOOK.— Dorset.  Land  of  the  King.  The  King  holds  the 
island  which  is  called  Portland.  King  Edward  held  it  in 
his  lifetime,  &c. 


TESTA  DE  NEVILL. — Dorset.  Hundred  of  Sherburn.  "  The  Prior  and 
"Convent  of  Winchester  hold  Portland,  &c.,  in  free  alms 
"  of  the  old  feoff ment  of  the  Kings  of  England." 

ABBREVIATIO  PLACITORUM. — Pleas  before  the  King  at  Westminster,  &c., 
Mich.  7-8  Edw.  I.  "In  a  plea  between  the  Lord  King  pltf 
"  and  Gilbert  de  Clare  deft  are  set  out  several  heads  of  the 
"  law  touching  the  custody  of  the  manor  of  Portland  which 
"  belongs  to  the  Bishop  of  Winchester." 

CHARTER  ROLLS.— 42  Hen.  Ill  pars  innea  mem.  2.    Grant  to 

of    inter    alia.    Portland    Manor    and  Wyke    Manor  near 
Portland  in  Co.  Dorset. 

Do.  43  Hen.  Ill  pars  innea  mem.  5.  Grant  to  Richard  de  Clare 
Earl  of  Gloucester  and  Hertford  of  Portland  Isle  with 
members,  viz.,  Wyke,  Weymouth,  and  Helewell  in  Co.  Dorset. 

CHARTER  ROLLS. — Miscellaneous  Charters  and  confirmations  of  liberties 
temp.  Edw.  III.  From  the  Roll  made  21  Edw.  Ill  while  the 
King  was  at  Calais  Edmund  de  Rupe  Edwardi  and  Matilda 
his  Wife,  &c.,  claim  liberties  on  behalf  of  the  Earl  of 
Gloucester  in  inter  alia  Wyke,  Portland, 

Weymouth  market,  and  Heselwell  in  Co.  Dorset. 

Dorset  to  seize  into  the  hands  of  the  King  the  manors  of 
Wyke  and  Portland,  &c.,  17  Edw.  I. 

Do.         Grant    restoring    to    Johanna    Countess    of    Gloucester   & 
Hertford  All  lands  lately  seized  into  the  King's  Hands  except 
lands  and  tenements  in  the  Isle  of  Portland.     25  Edw.  I. 
Do.          Grant  of  custody  of  Manors  of  Portland  and  Wyke,  &c. ,  to 

Richard  Lovell,  8  Edw.  II. 
Do.          Mandate  to  Richard  Lovell  regarding  the  Manors  of  Portland 

&  Wyke,  &c.,  10  Edw.  II. 

Do.  Mandate  to  Richard  Lovell  concerning  same  Manors. 
10  Edw.  II. 

INQUISITION  POST  MORTEM.— 24   Edw.   I.     Gilbert  de   Clare  Earl   of 
Gloucester  &  Hertford  seized 
of  Wyke  Manor  surveyed      "| 

Portland  Manor  survey  ed.lin  Co.  Dorset. 
&c.        &c.  J 

INQUISITION  POST  MORTEM.— 35  Edw.   I.    Johanna  wife  of  Gilbert  de 
Clare  Earl  of  Gloucester,  &c.,  seized  of 
Portland  Manor  surveyed ^ 
Wyke  Manor      surveyed  Un  Co.  Dorset. 
&c.      &c. 


INQUISITION   POST   MOPtTEM.— 8  Edw.   II.      Gilbert  de  Clare  Earl  of 

Gloucester  &  Hertford  seised  of 

Portland  Manor  surveyed  ^ 

Wyke  Manor      surveyed  j-in  Co.  Dorset. 

&c.      &c. 
INQUISITION  POST  MORTEM. — 34  Edw.  III.    Elizabeth  de  Burgo  wife  of 

Theobald  de  Verdon  seised  of 

Wyke  Manor     A 

Portland  Manor  Un  Co.  Dorset. 

&c.         &c.    J 
INQUISITION  POST  MORTEM. — 43  Edw.  III.    Lionel  Duke  of  Clarence  & 

Elizabeth  his  Wife  seized  of 

Wyke  Manor     ^ 

Portland  Manor  1-in  Co.  Dorset. 

&c.         &c.    J 
INQUISITION  POST  MORTEM. — 22  Ric.  II.     Roger  de  Morton  Mari  Earl 

of  March  seized  of 

Wyke  Manor     -v 

Portland  Manor  j-in  Co.  Dorset. 

&c.         &c.    J  * 
INQUISITION  POST  MORTEM.— 3  Hen.   VI.      Edmund  de  Morton   Mari 

Earl  of  March  seized  of 

Wyke  Manor  1  •   •*•     T^ 

.  j-m  Co.  Dorset. 

Portland  Isle,  messuages,  lands,  &c.  J 

INQUISITION  POST  MORTEM. — Inquisitions  of  various  years  of  the  reign 

of  King   Henry  VI.   substitute   a  Henry   Russell,    for   the 

Guild  of  St  George  in  Weymouth 

Messuages,  lands,  &c.,  in  ) 

Portland  and  Wyke  Regis,  &c.    i 
INQUISITION  POST  MORTEM. — Inquisitions  temp.  Edw.  I.,  7  Edw  I.,  For 

the  Bishop  of  Winchester 

Portland  Manor   )  -. 

Co.  Dorset. 
Wyke  Manor'       > 

INQUISITION  AD  QUOD  DAMNUM.— 27-33  Hen.  VI.  Henry  Russell  of 
Weymouth  Grant  to  Guild  of  St.  George,  Weymouth,  of 
Messuages,  lands,  &c.,  in 

Portland  and  ^  ... 

.„  .     „     .     >Co.  Dorset. 

Wyke  Regis  I 

ROLLS  OF  PARLIAMENT. — 11  Henry  VII.  Manor  of  Portland  confirmed 
to  the  Queen  though  expressed  in  a  former  Grant  as  being 
in  Co.  of  Somerset. 


PROCEEDINGS  IN  CHANCERY.—  Temp.  Elizabeth.  Wm.  Gardine  pltf 
v  Robert  Well  and  Thomas  Benvile  clefts.  To  obtain 
possession  of  divers  land  and  tenements  within  the  Manor  or 
Isle  of  Portland  which  descends  to  pltf  from  his  late  father. 
Custom  stated  respecting  the  determining  suits  arising  in 
the  said  island  within  the  court  there  and  not  elsewhere. 

IBID. — Bennett  Jackman  (single  woman)  pltf  v  Richard  Knight  and 
Roger  Knight  defts.  Claim  as  heir.  Eight  acres  of  land 
in  the  Isle  of  Portland  late  the  estate  of  John  Jackman 
deceased  being  of  the  tenure  of  gavelkind.  * 

EXCHEQUER  DEPOSITIONS. — Dorset  15  and  16  Eliz.  Mich.  The  Queen 
pltf  (Deft  not  named)  concerning  Manor  of  Portland  and 
the  demesnes  of  same. 

EXCHEQUER  DEPOSITIONS.— Dorset.  Hil.  21  Eliz.  The  Queen  by 
Hen.  Howman  Pltf  v  Robert  Gardner  Knt.  and  Wm. 
Gonynges  Defts.  As  to  Manor  of  Portland  and  customs  of 
the  Manor. 

EXCHEQUER  DEPOSITIONS.— Dors.  Trin.  5  and  6  Geo  I.  Robert 
Andrews  and  Agnes  his  wife  pltfs  v  Augustin  White  and 
others  defts.  Manor  of  Portland  (Dorset)  and  closes  of  land 
in  the  village  of  Weston  in  the  Isle  of  Portland.  Custom  or 
usage  in  said  manor  of  making  a  church  or  free-church-gift 
of  customary  lands,  &c.t 

EXCHEQUER  COMMISSIONS. — Book  of  Commissions.  Hilary  21  Eliz. 
Portland  Isle,  Dorset.  Commission  to  enquire  of  certain 
articles  touching  lands  in  the  aforesaid  Isle. 

MEMORANDA  ROLL. — Lord  Treasurer's  Remembrances.  Inquisition 
touching  certain  lands  in  the  Isle  of  Portland  in  the  County 
of  Dorset.  Hilary  Commissions  of  Charles  I. 


No.  12.  The  Manor  of  Portland  with  the  rights,  members, 

and  appurtenances.     Oct.  1650. 

No.  13.  Escheated  lands  in  the  Parish  of  Portland  with  the 
rights,  members,  and  appurtenances.     October  1650. 


*  This  shows  that  the  custom  of  gavelkind  prevails  in  this  Island,  as 
in  Kent. 

t  This  peculiar  custom  exists  as  follows — viz,,  that  the  Vendor  or 
Transferror  of  property  attends  at  the  parish  church  and  in  the  presence 
of  two  witnesses  signs  the  document. 


Nov.  29,  1708      \  Confirmation  of  a  Warrant  of  Nov.  3  granting  to 

MSS.  Harl  :  73,  48  £  inhabitants  of  Isle  of  Portland  12d.  for  every  ton  of 

7  Anne  '  stone  dug  in  the  Commons  in  the  Island  (excepting 

stone  taken  for  King's  use  by  Warrant  of  Surveyor, 

Works).    Power  to  inhabitants  to  dig  stone  according 

to  ancient  custom.     Out  of  every  12d.  9d.  to  be  held 

by  Trustees  for  inhabitants  during  Queen's  life,  the 

3d.    remaining  to    be    accounted    for    in    manner 


"With  reference  to  the  general  Historical  matters  connected  with 
Portland — Eufus  Castle  and  the  Old  Church — I  may  quote  the 
following  extract  from  Lelaud's  Itinerary,  temp.  Queen  Elizabeth 
(vol.  3,  2nd  edition,  66-7)— 

"  Portland  hath  bene  of  anncient  tyme  be  al  likelihood 
"  environed  with  the  se  and  yet  berith  the  name  of  an  isle. 
"  It  is  eminent  and  hilly  ground  on  the  shore  of  it  and  a 
*  "great  plain  yn  the  middle  of  it.  The  cumpace  of  it  is 
"  counted  to  be  about  7  miles.  .  .  .  There  is  a  castelet 
"  or  pile  not  far  from  the  streate  and  is  set  on  a  high  roche 
"  hard  by  the  se  clitfes  a  little  above  the  est  end  of  the 
"  Chirch.  The  Paroche  Chirch  that  is  but  one  at  this 
"  tyme  in  the  isle  is  large  and  some  whet  low  builded  in  the 
"  hangging  rootes  of  an  hille  by  the  shore.  The  Chirch 
"  and  Paroche  is  about  a  mile  dem.  to  go  the  next  way  to  it 
"  from  the  Kinges  Xew  Castelle  in  the  Isle.  .  .  sum 
"  say  that  in  tymes  past  ther  was  a  nother  Paroche  Chirch 
"  in  the  Isle  but  I  there  lerned  no  certente  of  it.  There  be 
"  very  few  or  utterly  no  trees  in  the  isle  saving  the  elmes 
"  about  the  Chirch.  Ther  wold  grow  more  if  they  were 
"  ther  planted  yet  the  isle  is  very  bleak.  .  .  The 
"  personage  sette  in  the  High  Streat  is  the  best  building  in 
"  the  Isle.  The  Bishop  of  Winchester  is  the  Patrone  of  the 
"  Chirch.  The  isle  is  the  Kynges. 

Coker,  in  his  particular  account  of  the  Historic  of  Dorset 
published  1732,  gives  the  following  : — 

"  On  the  south  point  stands  the  onlie  Church  soe  near  the 
"  sea,  that  for  safetie  of  it  they  have  beene  forced  to  wall 

1 22  PORTLAND. 

"  the  Church  Yarde  Banks  almost  of  an  incredible  height, 
"  soe  that  it  even  afrighte  one  to  look  downe.  ISTeare  the 
"  Church  but  at  least  fiftie  steppes  of  stone  above  it  stands 
"  the  walls  of  the  olde  Castelle,  for  scite  before  the 
"  invention  of  Ordnance,  in  man's  judgment  impregnable  ; 
"  yet  was  it  both  forced  and  wonne  by  Robert  Earle  of 
"  Gloucester,  base  brother  to  Maude  the  Empress  and  in 
"  her  behalfe,  what  time  shee  waged  Warre  with  King 
"  Stephen  for  her  right.  At  this  place  in  the  year  1588 
"  the  Spaniards  with  there  supposed  invincible  Arnrie 
"  shewed  to  land  ;  but  being  prevented  by  the  English 
"  between  them  there  begun  in  the  sight  of  a!l  the  Coast 
"  such  a  fight  that  they  were  forced  to  acknowledge  their 
"  Arniie  vincible  and  to  shift  for  themselves,  though  many 
"  hundreds  of  them  came  short  home  and  two  of  their  great 
"  shippes  brought  into  Weymouth. 

"  Portland  hath  plentie  of  excellent  Quarries  of  stone  that 
"for  solidnesse  and  durablenesse  it  is  transported  into 
"  London  and  that  in  great  plentie.  Sithence  it  pleased  the 
"King  Anno  1610  by  the  advice  of  his  Architecturers  to 
"  make  choice  of  Portland  stone  for  the  re-edifieing  of  his 
"  Banquetting  House  at  Whitehall. 

"  Concerning  the  name  controversie  hath  arisen,  some 
"  thinkeing  it  took  name  by  reasons  of  the  scite  opposite 
"  to  the  Port  of  Weymouth,  which  opinion  I  cannot  but 
'•  reject.  In  that  I  believe  it  had  to  name  Portland  before 
"  the  other  had  anie  being.  And  therefore  I  will  content 
"my  selfe  with  the  opinion  of  the  judicious  Cambden, 
"  which  is  that  it  took  name  from  one  Port,  a  noble  Saxon 
"  who  in  the  yeare  of  our  Salvation  703  arriveing  there, 
"  much  infested  and  annoyed  these  Coasts.  After  in  the 
"  declineing  age  of  Saxon's  Empire,  Portland  felt  often  the 
"  violent  and  furious  rage  of  the  Danes,  who  when  they 
"  came  as  Scoutes  Anno  783  to  discover  the  goodeness  of 


"  the  land  and  good  places  for  landeing  as  also  what 
"  resistance  the  Inhabitants  could  make  haveing  then  but 
"  onlie  3  shippes  in  their  companie  touched  first  of  all  at 
"  this  Island  whence  (either  for  want  of  good  landeing 
"  which  is  most  likelie  for  there  is  none,  or  beeing  driven 
"  by  the  inhabitants)  they  retired  to  Tingmouth  in  Devon." 
Hutchins,  in  his  History  of  Dorset,  states  : — 


"  But  little  mortar  or  cement  has  been  used  in  the 
"  construction  of  the  walls  which  are  roughly  built  of  native 
"  Ashlar.  Three  of  the  sides  are  considerably  larger  than 
"  the  two  others.  On  that  next  the  Cliff  are  no  openings, 
"  which  shew  that  it  was  originally  constructed  on  the  edge 
"  of  the  Cliff.  On  the  opposite  side  are  two  openings  of 
"  about  10  feet  in  height  from  the  cills  to  the  apex  of  the 
"  pointed  arches  which  are  splayed  internally  to  a  width  of 
"  about  8  feet  narrowing  to  about  eighteen  inches,  but  there 
"  is  no  slit  externally  to  represent  the  splay  but  about  5 
"feet  from  the  cill  a  square  stone  is  inserted  with  a  hole 
"  about  8  inches  in  diameter  in  the  centre.  There  are  four 
*'  other  openings  in  the  face  towards  the  East  and  a  smaller 
"  one  over  a  gateway  in  the  narrow  north-east  face. 
"  Exteriorly  at  the  angles  and  in  the  middle  of  each  of  the 
"  two  principal  faces  exposed  to  assault  are  large  Corbels* 
"  formed  of  three  stones  projecting  outwardly  beyond  each 
"  other  which  probably  formed  the  support  of  an  over- 
"  hanging  gallery  from  which  an  enemy  approaching  the 
"  walls  could  be  advantageously  annoyed  with  missiles. 
"  These  Corbels*  are  in  groups  of  three  close  together." 
In  Grose's  Antiquities  it  is  mentioned — 


"  This  building  which  stands  a  little  to  the  Eastward  of 
"  the  Old  Church  and  fifty  steps  of  stone  above  it  appears 
*  Query,   Machicolations. 


"  to  have  been  the  keep  of  the  Castle — it  seems  very 
"  ancient — its  figure  a  Pentagon — on  its  top  are  several 
"  Machicolations  and  loop  holes.  The  foundation  of  it  was 
"  much  above  the  top  of  the  tower  of  the  Church  and  it 
"  must  have  been  almost  impregnable  before  the  Invention 
"  of  Ordnance.  It  is  vulgarly  called  Bowe  and  Arrow 
"  Castle  and  the  Castle  of  Kufus  probably  from  a  supposition 
"  or  some  tradition  that  it  was  built  by  that  King.  Anno 
"1142  it  was  taken  by  Eobert  Earl  of  Gloucester  from  King 
"  Stephen  for  the  Empress  Maud." 

Referring  to  the  description  of  the  Castle  given  by  the  authorities, 

the  wall   on  the  south  side  has  now  disappeared,  and  the  entrance 

which  formerly  existed  is  now  represented  by  the  present  archway. 

No  trace  remains  of  the  "  steppes  of  stone  "  referred  to  in  Grose's 

Antiquities  and  Coker's  Dorset. 

As  to  the  extent  of  the  Castle  we  have  no  evidence,  but  I  may 
here  refer  to  the  name  of  the  field  adjoining  the  Castle  known  as 
Castle  "Hays."  The  word  "Hays"  probably  means  an  enclosure, 
and  is  identical  with  the  Haha  fence.  A  view  of  the  Castle  as  it 
existed  in  1756  is  still  extant  (see  Grose's  Antiquities). 


Hutchins,  in  his  History  of  Dorset,  gives  the  following  description 
of  the  Church  : — 

"Dedicated  to  St.  Andrew  1475  was  a  large,  ancient,  but 
"rude  fabric  situated  at  the  southern  extremity  of  the 
"  Island,  so  near  that,  to  preserve  encroachments,  the 
"  Islanders  were  obliged  to  wall  the  banks  to  an  incredible 
"  height.  At  the  time  of  taking  the  Nona  Inquisitiones  in 
"  the  Reign  of  Edward  III.  it  appears  to  have  been  burnt 
"  and  destroyed  by  the  enemy.  It  consisted  of  a  Chancel 
"  and  body  very  low  and  tiled  which  seemed  to  have  been 
"  built  at  different  times.  The  tower  was  plain  and 
"  moderately  high,  but  had  no  bell  in  it  and  was  detached 
"  near  a  yard  from  the  body.  The  inconveniency  of  its 


"situation    was   owing    to   a    pretended    want   of    depth 
"  elsewhere.     The  Churchyard  being  made  ground  gave  rise 
"to  a  tradition  that  it  was  anciently  in  the  centre  of  the 
"  Island  which  extended  to  '  The  Shambles.' " 
An  examination  of  the  ruins  appears  to  disclose  the  existence  of 
the  earlier  Church,  and  that  the  present  ruined  Church  was  built 
within  the  scite  of  the  older  building.* 

That  the  former  Church  existed  on  the  same  spot  is  most 
probable,  and  for  obvious  reasons,  and  the  gravestones  in  the 
churchyard  tend  to  confirm  this  view.  From  the  shape  and  general 
description,  some  of  them  appear  to  be  of  the  12th  century.  On 
close  examination  one  of  them  shows  traces  of  a  floriated  cross 
upon  the  face  of  it,  and  on  another  there  is  a  plain  cross. 

The  Rectors  of  the  Church  of  St.  Andrew  date  from  A.D.  1302, 
of  whom  a  List  is  appended  down  to  the  induction  of  Dr. 
Henchman,  in  1641,  who  is  the  person  referred  to  in  Grose's 

Patrons.  Rectors. 

The  Bishop  of  Winton  John  Golde  de  Warham  pbr  non  May 

The  King;    the  Bishopric  1302  instituted  by  Henry,  Rector  of 

of  "Winton  being  vacant  Swanich  his  Proxy 

The  Bishop  of  Winton  William  le  Blound  clerk,  on  the  death 

of  Golde,  instituted  19th  July  1324 

Nicholas  de  Keinvent  presented  to 
this  Parochial  Church  of  St.  Andrew, 
instituted  4  non  February  1324 

William  de  Herwyton  clerk  on  the 
resignation  of  Keinvent,  instituted  30 
November  1336 

John     Petit      clerk,    instituted     35 
November  1339 
*  I  have  made  a  ground  plan  which  accompanies  this  paper. 


Peter  de  Inkpene  pbr  on  cesser  or 
resignation  of  Petyt,  instituted  15 
February  1340 

Philip  AVeston  rector  of  Churchton  on 
the  resignation  of  Inkpenne  Canon  of 
Whorwel  and  prebend  of  Middleton 
Diocese  Winton,  instituted  5  August 

Exchanged  with 

Edward  Chamberlyn  rector  of  Drax- 
thorp,  Diocese  Lincoln,  instituted  3 
February  1346 

Exchanged  with 

John  Fordinghey  rector  of  Berlee, 
Diocess  London,  instituted  20  May 

John  Stynkele,instituted20  July,  1392 

John  Bernard  Chaplain  on  the 
resignation  of  Stynkele,  instituted  29 
January  1396 

Walter  Lambarde  rector  of  Hurst- 
Monceaux,instituted6  ^November  1400 

Exchanged  with 

John  Roland  Rector  of  Crekelade, 
instituted  14  November  1402. 

Thomas  Morton  Clerk  on  Resignation 
of  Roland,  instituted  19  November 


William     Whithing     or     Whillying 
Chaplain,     instituted    20    December 

Thomas  Salthowe,  pbr.  on  the 
dismission  of  Whilying,  instituted 
16  January  1441. 

Robert  Alston,  Chaplain,  instituted 
18  December  1473. 

Exchanged  with 

William  Osgodby,  rector  of  Castleford, 
Diocese  York,  instituted  to  the 
Church  St.  Andrew  13  February 

Exchanged  with 

Richard  Jeffray,  rector  of  Codford  St. 
Peter,  instituted  14  February  1476. 

Owen  Watson 

John  Newman,  pbr.  M.A.  on  the 
death  of  Watson,  instituted  27  August 

Thomas  Go  wide,  instituted  1550. 

Evan  Green,  instituted  1570,  died 

Thomas  Stoodleigh,  instituted  9 
January  1598. 

Humphrey  Henchman  D.D.  in  1641. 
He  was  sequestered  and  paid  .£200  for 
his  composition. 


I  have  left  off  here,  as  it  did  not  appear  interesting  to  continue 
the  list  to  a  later  date. 

An  old  drawing  of  the  Church  is  shown  in  the  "  Gentleman's 
Magazine"  of  1799,  vol.  69,  part  I. 


The  Churchyard,  which  adjoins  the  Church  on  the  south  and 
east  sides,  contains  the  following  Gravestones  and  Tombstones. 
The  inscriptions  are  given  so  far  as  they  can  be  deciphered  : — 

Three  Gravestones  before  referred  to  apparently  of  the  XII. 

Tombstones  to 

Attwooll  who  died  llth  of  August  Anno  Domino 

To  Abel  Flew  who  was  buried  October  25  A.D.  1676. 

In  life  I  wroath  in  stone 
Now  life  is  gone  I  know 
I  shal  be  raised 
By  a  stone  and  B 
Shuch  a  stone  as  giveth 
Living  Breath  and  Saveth 
The  Righteous  from  the 
Second  death. 

To  Agnes  Attwooll  who  was  buried  December  18  A.D.  1674. 
To  Eobert  Mitchell  who  departed  this  life  ye  9th  day  of  May, 

1680.     Etatis  suge  63. 

To  Robert  Pitt  who  deceased  the  20th  day  of  January  A.I).  1690. 
To  Julan  the  wife  of  Robert  Biett  who  departed  this  life  the 

2nd  May  1691. 
To  Mary  Ferly  who  departed  this  life  ye  10  day  of  March  1692 

aged  24  years. 
To  John  Flew  who  died  August  ye  15th  1698  also  of  Grace  his 

wife  who  died  July  llth,  1740.     Aged  89  years. 
To  Elizabeth  Gilbert  who  died  16  August  1720, 
To  M.  P.  1729, 


To  Robert  Chiles  who  died  15  June  1733. 

To  B.  S.  1741. 

To  John  Stone  who  died  in  the  year  1744. 

To  Henry  Hellar. 

To  Andrew  Stone  who  died  30  July  1764. 

To  M.  M.  1760. 

To  Edward  Pearce,  Superintendent  of  His  Majesty's  Quarries  in 

Portland  who  died  12  June  1745.     Aged  58  years. 
To  Lucretia  wife  of  William  Andrews  who  departed  this  life  ye 

5  April  A.D.  1710. 
To  Abell  son  of  Kobert  and  Alese  Pearce  who  died  July  25 

A.D.  1737. 

"  Grieve  not  for  me  nor-be  sad, 
The  shorter  time  I  lived  the  fewer  sins  I  had." 

To  Susannah  the  daughter  of  Silas  and  Elizabeth  Comben  who 
died  ye  25  June  1737.     Aged  31  years. 

"  My  friends  and  lover  left  behind 
"  I  pray  for  me  no  longer  weep 
"  I  am  espoused  to  Christ  in 
"  Heaven  with  God  my 
"  Marriage  day  to  keep. 

To  William  Attwooll  died  1717. 

To  Sarah  Flew  died  December  A.D.  1729. 

To  Philip  Durenth  A.D.  1713. 

To  John  Ayles  who  died  3  June  1723. 

To  M.  M.  1760. 

It  would  appear  that  no  burials  have  taken  place  in  this  Church- 
yard for  upwards  of  120  years. 

The  names  of  Attwooll,  Flew,  Pitt,  Stone,  Pearce,  Andrews,  and 
Comben  are  still  common  in  the  Island. 

It  may  not  be  out  of  place  to  refer  to  the  ancient  Vicar's  House, 
Portland,     Grose  in  his  Antiquities  states  ; — 

1 30  PORTLAND. 

"It  is  pretended  to  have  been  the  Parsonage  House  and 
"although  the  living  is  a  Rectory,  is  vulgarly  called  the 
"  Vicarage  House.  The  Inhabitants  know  little  about  it 
"  but  have  a  tradition  that  it  was  a  fine  place  demolished  in 
"the  last  Civil  Wars.  It  appears  that  Humphrey 
"  Henchman  who  was  inducted  into  the  Rectory  1641  A.D. 
"  was  sequestered  and  paid  £200  for  his  composition  and 
"that  in  1643  one  Henry  Way  was  appointed  to  succeed 

"  From  the  form  of  what  remains  of  this  Edifice  it  is 
"  more  than  probable  it  was  an  Oratory  or  small  Chapel  and 
"  as  such  might  be  a  particular  object  of  the  rage  of  the 
"  Puritans  among  whom  the  demolishing  a  building  of  that 
"  kind  was  held  a  work  extremely  .meritorious." 
The  following  is  an  extract  from  the  Parish  Book  "  Portland 

Island  Ancient  Records  "  : — 

"  To    say    one  Personage  House   in  the   villidge   of    Wakem. 

Demolished  and  burnt  down  by  the  usurper  Oliver  Cromwell,  and 

hant  been  rebuilded  every  since." 


9  Edward  VI.  Eight  acres  of  land  in  Brochhampton,  in 
Portland,  were  held  by  Humphrey,  Earl  of  Devon,  of  the  Abbot  of 

Anno  incerto,  Henry  VI.  lands  here  were  given  to  the  Guild  of 
St.  George  in  Waymouth,  which  seem  2  Edward  VI.  to  be  granted 
to  Richard  Randal. 

37  Henry  VII.  lands  here  belonging  to  Abbotsbury  Abbey 
were  granted  to  John  Broxholm,  &c. 


The  following  is  an  extract  from  the  Parish  Book  of  Portland  : — 
The  Hay  put  up  in  small  Cocks,  the  person  or  proctor  take  the 

Tenth  Cock.      The  Wheat  are  put  in  strait  lines  and  the  person 

or  proctor  take  the  Tenth  Shive, 


Barley  and  other  Grain  put  up  in  Cocks  or  Sliives  takes  the 
Tiths  in  the  same  manner. 

Calfs  sold,  the  person  or  procter  take  the  Tenth  penny  soe  sold. 

Calfs  killed  by  the  owner,  the  person  or  procter  has  the  left 
shoulder  of  the  same. 

Lambs  are  always  Tithed.  The  owner  first  makes  choice  of  two 
Lambs,  if  they  have  seven  Lambs,  the  person  or  procter  takes  the 
Tenth  Lambs,  and  if  it  soe  happen  there  should  be  any  odd  lambs, 
the  owner  thereof  is  to  pay  the  person  or  procter  one  half-penny 

As  to  Henns — The  person  or  persons  that  keep  the  same.  The 
person  or  procter  takes  a  egg  for  every  henn  and  two  for  a  cock,  and 
collected  on  Good  Friday. 

As  to  Cows — The  person  or  procter  receive  for  every  Cow  one 
penny,  what  is  called  Cow  wit,  and  yearly  collected. 

As  to  Fish — The  person  has  the  tithe  of  Fish  drawn  on  Shoare. 

As  to  Gardens — Every  one  pays.  Each  if  larger,  more,  and  this 
is  generly  collected  on  Good  Friday  yearly. 

Easter  offerings  and  other  oblations  paid  by  every  parishioner, 
this  allsoe  is  a  ancient  costume  and  collected  yearly. 

As  to  Wool  of  the  Sheep  the  person  or  procter  has  the  Tenth 

Lambs  Wool  never  Tithable. 

If  Sheep  are  sold  with  the  Wooll  on  there  backs  before  shorn  to 
pay  the  person  or  procter  twopence  each  sheep  soe  sold. 

In  submitting  these  observations  for  the  consideration  of  the 
Society,  it  may  be  mentioned  that  they  are  principally  based  upon 
well  known  authorities ;  and  however  imperfectly  they  may  have 
been  presented  to  you,  it  is  hoped  that  it  has  been  clearly  shown 
that  Portland  has  an  ancient  history,  and  that  it  is  not  unworthy 
of  the  County  of  Dorset. 


By  the  Rev.  O.  PICKARD-CAMBRIDGE,  M.A.,  P.R.S., 
C.M.Z.S.,  &c.,  &c. 

T  will  be  in  the  recollection  of  some  now  present 
that  I  read  some  notes  at  a  former  meeting  of  our 
Club  upon  *  Squirrels  burying  acorns  in  Autumn, 
and  I  observed  that  one  season,  subsequently, 
there  sprung  up  numerous  young  oak  trees  where 
the  burying  had  taken- place.  Talking  over  this 
afterwards  with  my  friend,  Mr.  Harting  (Secretary  of  the  Linnsean 
Society  and  well  known  as  an  ornithologist  and  general  Naturalist), 
he  mentioned  to  me  a  paper  he  had  come  across,  written  nearly  two 
centuries  ago,  in  which  a  very  similar  account  was  given  of  an 
extensive  sepulture  of  acorns  by  Roolcs.  Mr.  Harting  has  since 
very  kindly  sent  me  a  copy  of  that  much  of  the  paper  referred  to 
which  relates  to  this  subject.  The  paper  is  entitled  "An  Essay 
"  towards  a  Natural  History  of  Westmoreland  and  Cumberland,  by 
"  Thomas  Robinson,  Rector  of  Ouseby,  8vo.,  London,  1709." 

It  is  as  follows  : — 

"  About  25  years  ago  coming  home  from  Rose  Castle,  early  in  the 
"  morning,  I  observed  a  great  number  of  crows  [Rooks]  very  busy 
"  at  their  work  upon  a  declining  ground  of  a  mossy  surface.  I 
"  went  out  of  my  way  on  purpose  to  view  their  labour,  and  I  found 
*  See  Vol.  xi.,  p.  27. 


"they  were  planting  a  grove  of  oaks.  The  manner  of  their 
"  planting  was  thus  :  They  first  made  little  holes  in  the  earth  with 
"  their  bills,  going  about  and  about  until  the  hole  was  deep  enough, 
"  and  then  they  dropped  in  the  acorn  and  covered  it  with  earth  and 
"moss.  This  young  plantation  is  now  (1709)  growing  up  to  a 
"  thick  grove  of  oaks  fit  for  use,  and  of  height  for  the  crows  to 
"  build  their  nests  in.  I  told  it  to  the  owner  of  the  ground,  who 
"  observed  them  spring  up  and  took  care  to  secure  their  growth 
"  and  rising.  The  season  was  the  latter  end  of  Autumn  when  all 
"  seeds  were  full  ripe."  I  have  never  seen  the  work  from  which 
this  extract  was  made,  and  consequently  do  not  know  anything  of 
the  Author's  general  ideas  on  Natural  History  or  his  tendency  of 
thought,  but  Mr.  Harting,  who  is  well  acquainted  with  it,  appears 
to  assume  that  the  Author  considered  that  the  Rooks  were  moved 
by  a  conscious  intention  to  provide  a  future  grove  for  building  their 
nests  on  that  barren  spot.  I  suppose  that  this  "  post  hoc,  propter 
hoc  "  argument  will  scarcely  need  remark  or  refutation  in  these 
days.  But  it  would  probably  have  appeared  to  be  the  height  of 
absurdity  to  the  18th  century  observer  to  have  suggested  the  simple 
idea  that  the  Rooks  were  only  following  the  very  ordinary  instinct 
of  concealing  the  superabundant  food  which  their  immediate 
necessities  did  not  require.  This,  however  (just  as  in  the  case  of  the 
Squirrels),  was,  it  appears  to  me,  no  doubt  the  fact.  I  have  not  my- 
self actually  seen  Rooks  burying  acorns,  but  along  side  of  our  oak 
woods  at  Bloxworth  the  heath  district  extends  ;  and  over  this  heath 
district,  to  the  extent  of  half-a-mile,  at  least,  in  width,  there  spring 
up  annually  numerous  young  seedling  oaks  among  the  short  stunted 
furze  and  heather.  This  has  been  so  for  generations  past,  so  much 
so  that  a  bare  heather  hill  (on  which  may  now  often  be  seen  many 
little  seedling  oaks  from  the  previous  year's  acorns)  has  borne,  from 
time  immemorial,  and  still  bears,  the  name  of  Oak-hill.  The  soil 
here,  and  generally  along  this  heath  district,  is  such  as  to  give  no 
chance  of  the  oak  seedling  ever  growing  up  to  anything  larger  than 
a  mere  bush,  even  supposing  they  escaped,  which  they  seldom  do, 
for  even  one  year,  the  nibbling  off  by  cattle,  and  especially  by 



the  numerous  rabbits  infesting  the  locality.  Once  now  and  then, 
however,  a  plant  does  escape,  being  encouraged,  perhaps,  by  an 
isolated  spot  of  more  fertile  soil,  or  the  generous  protection  of  a 
furze  or  bramble  bush,  and  grows  up  to  a  tree.  These,  however, 
are  not  numerous.  Only  one  such  exists  in  the  district  I  have 
mentioned,  and  it  has  also  from  time  immemorial  gone  by  the  name 
of  "  the  "  Oak  Tree.  This  tree  is  now  in  a  state  of  rapid  decay 
owing  to  the  gradual  encroachment  of  the  bog  close  by,  which  has 
turned  its  site  into  a  swamp.  The  log  also  has  always  been  called 
"  The  Oak  Tree  Bog,"  but  has  lately,  among  ourselves,  obtained  the 
name  of  the  Paludwn  bog,  owing  to  its  having  been  the  spot  where 
an  exceedingly  rare  lepidopterous  insect,  Pteropliems  paludum,  was 
rediscovered  a  few  years  ago  by  one  of  my  sons.  (See  Proc. 
D.KH.  &  A.F.  Club,  vol.  viii.,  p.  57.) 

I  have  above  observed  that  I  have  never  seen  Rooks  actually 
burying  acorns  in  this  locality,  but  I  have  constantly  seen  them 
flying  to  fro  there,  both  in  Autumn  and  during  winter,  and  I  feel 
no  doubt  whatever  but  that  they  are  the  agents  in  the  planting  of 
those  acorns  which  spring  up  thus  yearly  so  far  from  the  trees 
bearing  them.  It  is  too  far  for  the  agency  of  Squirrels,  and  still 
more  so  for  that  of  Mice.  Doubtless  the  Rooks  do  find  and  regale 
themselves  in  winter  time,  when  hard  pressed  by  frost  binding  up 
the  fallows,  on  the  acorns  buried  in  the  more  sandy  soil  protected 
from  freezing  by  the  furze  and  short  heather  ;  but  I  imagine  that 
nearly  always  the  larger  proportion  escape,  and  if  the  soil  were 
suitable  and  protection  given  from  cattle  and  rabbits,  oak  groves 
would  be  found  in  after  years  just  as  our  friend,  the  Rev.  Thos. 
Robinson,  found  one  growing  up  200  years  ago  in  Cumberland. 

floman  Jf0rlifkftti0n,  foith 
to  the  fUmran  l^ftmas  of 


By  the  Rev.  W.   MILES  BARNES. 

studying  Roman  fortification  two  books  will  be 
found  of  infinite  value  ;  the  first  the  "  Arch- 
itectura"  of  Yitruvius,  the  second  the  "  Epitoma 
rei  militaris"  of  Flavins  Yegetius  Renatus. 
Neither  of  these  works  is  printed  in  England,  and 
the  second  seems  to  be  very  little  known.  When 
Yegetius  wrote  events  were  foreshadowing  the  fall  of  Rome,  the 
Roman  army  and  the  Roman  military  institutions  were  already 
becoming  disorganised,  and  the  object  of  his  book  was  to  urge 
their  reconstruction  and  the  restoration  of  the  ancient  discipline. 
To  such  an  extent  had  discipline  been  relaxed  that  the 
Romans  had  ceased  even  to  entrench  their  standing  camps, 
and  they  had  met  with  disaster  in  consequence.*  Even  en- 
quiries were  no  longer  made  after  the  customs  which  had 
formerly  prevailed,  and  had  been  so  long  neglected.  Yet  though 
the  ancient  discipline  was  no  longer  maintained,  it  was  by  no  means 
impossible  to  recover  it ;  in  former  ages  the  art  of  war,  often 

*  Dicat  aliquis  :  Multi  anni  sunt,  qulbus  nullus  fossa  aggere  valloque 
mansurum  circumdat  exercitum.  Respondebitur  :  Si  fuisset  ista  cautela, 
nihil  nocturni  ant  diurni  superventus  hostium  nocere  potuissent  (Lib. 
iii.  c.  10.) 


neglected  and  forgotten,  had  been  as  often  recovered  from  books.* 
Vegetius  hoped  his  treatise  on  military  institutions  might  be  means 
of  reviving  it  again.  He  evidently  wrote  with  that  object  in  view ; 
he  proposed  no  novelties ;  he  explained  and  urged  the  adoption  of 
the  ancient  methods,  which  had  been  proved  in  past  ages,  and  had 
the  recommendation  of  the  highest  military  authorities  of  those 
ages.  If  this  is  borne  in  mind,  the  peculiar  value  of  the  two  books 
to  us  in  our  investigations  about  the  walls  of  Dorchester  will  be 

Yitruvius,  who  had  been  an  engineer  officer  in  the  army  of  Julius 
Caesar,  wrote  his  book  about  B.C.  25.  Vegetius  dedicated  his 
treatise  to  the  Emperor  Valentinian ;  it  must  in  consequence  have 
been  written  about  A.D.  370.  In  points,  therefore,  on  which 
Vitruvius  and  Vegetius  are  in  accord  we  have  practically  an 
unbroken  chain  of  evidence  as  to  the  manner  in  which  the  Romans 
fortified  their  towns  between  the  years  B.C.  25  and  A.D.  370,  and 
if,  on  examining  the  Roman  works  about  Dorchester,  we  find  they 
do  not  accord  with  the  descriptions  given  by  both  these  writers,  we 
must  conclude  that  either  from  the  nature  of  the  soil,  or  from  some 
other  peculiarity,  it  was  not  advisable  to  carry  out  the  fortifications 
in  the  usual  way  ;  or  that  the  walls  here  were  originally  built  in 
accordance  with  the  general  rules  of  Roman  fortification,  but  that 
the  details,  which  do  not  now  appear,  have  been  destroyed  at  some 
subsequent  period. 

At  first  sight  it  might  be  thought  that  Dorchester  was  the  site  of 
a  camp  constructed  by  Vespasian  when  he  subdued  the  Britons  who 
lived  in  these  parts,  and  that  in  later  years  the  ditch  was  deepened 
and  a  wall  built  upon  the  rampart  in  the  place  of  the  palisade  ; 
and,  thus  strengthened,  the  spot  was  adopted  as  a  site  for  the  town 

*  Haec  ex  TISU  librisque  antea  servabantur,  sed  omissa  diu  nemo 
quaesivit,  qui  vigentibus  pacis  officiis  procul  aberat  necessitas  belli.  Sed 
ne  impossibile  videatur  reparari  disciplinam,  cujus  usus  intercidit, 
doceamur  exemplis.  Apud  veteres  ars  militaris  in  oblivionem  saepius 
venit,  sed  prius  a  libiis  repetita  est,  postea  ducum  auctoritate  firraata 
(Lib.  iii.  c.  10.) 


Now  in  the  first  place  we  do  not  know  that  Vespasian  found  it 
necessary  to  construct  a  camp  here  at  all ;  if  he  did  it  would  not  in 
all  probability  be  of  a  more  formidable  character  than  the  Roman 
camp  commonly  was.  According  to  Vegetius,  when  the  danger 
was  not  imminent  a  camp  was  entrenched  in  this  way ;  a  slight 
ditch  was  carried  round  the  whole  circuit  only  9ft.  broad  and  7ft. 
deep  ;  with  the  turf  taken  from  it  a  breastwork  3ft.  high  was 
formed  within  the  ditch  ;  when  there  was  reason  to  fear  an  attack 
by  the  enemy,  the  camp  was  surrounded  by  a  regular  ditch  12ft. 
broad  and  9ft.  deep.  A  parapet  four  feet  in  height  was  then  raised 
on  the  side  next  the  camp,  with  hurdles  and  fascines  properly 
covered  and  secured  by  the  earth  taken  out  of  the  ditch  ;  the 
height  of  the  entrenchment  was  thus  13ft.  On  the  top  of  the 
whole  strong  palisades,  which  the  soldiers  carried  with  them  for 
the  purpose,  were  planted.  Spades,  pickaxes,  wicker  baskets,  and 
tools  of  all  kinds  were  carried  by  the  army  for  the  purpose. 
(Vegetius  "  Epitoma  rei  militaris"  Lib.  I.  cap.  24). 

A  second  difficulty  is  the  irregular  form  of  the  space  included 
within -the  rampart  which  surrounded  Dorchester.  Roman  camps 
were  not  always  parallelograms,  but  they  were  generally  of  regular 
form.  "  The  form  of  the  camp,"  says  Vegetius, "  must  be  determined 
by  the  nature  of  the  country,  in  conformity  to  which  they  must  be 
rectangular,  triangular,  or  oval."  The  common  form  was  the 
rectangle,  and  there  was  no  reason,  with  the  choice  of  ground  before 
them,  that  the  Romans  (if  they  had  a  camp  on  this  spot)  should 
have  formed  it  otherwise.  One  can  scarcely  imagine  a  more  orderly 
and  symmetrical  arrangement  than  was  to  be  found  in  the  plan  of  a 
Roman  camp.  When  the  camp  was  marked  out  and  the  troops 
marched  upon  the  ground  every  centurion  could  march  his  century 
straight  to  the  spot  it  was  to  occupy  ;  but  how  could  he  do  this  in 
a  camp  with  four  unequal  sides,  in  which  the  troops  on  one  side 
of  the  pretorian  street  must  be  arranged  differently  to  the  troops 
on  the  other  side,  and  especially  if  the  form  of  the  camp  was 
changed  day  after  day  1  A  third,  and  it  seems  to  me  conclusive, 
proof  that  the  ramparts  surrounding  Dorset  did  not  previously 


encircle  a  camp  is  this — on  calculating  the  area  within  the  ramparts 
it  will  be  found  that  a  camp  of  this  size  would  accommodate  more 
than  four  legions  with  their  auxiliaries  (1)  and  Vespasian  only  had 
one.  On  the  other  hand  the  plan  of  a  Roman  town  was  rarely 
rectangular.  Yitruvius  recommends  that  it  shall  not  he  square, 
nor  formed  with  projecting  angles,  but  polygonal  (circumitionibus) 
that  the  enemy  may  be  seen  from  more  places  j  for  a  part  in  which 
angles  project  is  not  easily  defended  because  the  angle  protects  the 
enemy  more  than  the  citizen  ("  Architectura"  Lib.  I.  cap.  5.)  In 
passing  we  may  remark  that  the  plan  of  the  interesting  Roman  town 
of  Silchester,  which  is  now  being  excavated,  was  polygonal  as 
recommended  by  Yitruvius.  Yegetius  bears  similar  testimony. 

Let  us  see  what  was  the  nature  of  the  fortifications  which 
surrounded  Dorchester.  We  must,  however,  first  understand  how 
cities  were  built  at  the  time  when  Dorchester  became  a  Roman 
possession  that  we  may  have  some  standard  with  which  we  can 
compare  the  works  we  shall  find  here. 

The  first  consideration  when  a  new  town  was  to  be  laid  out  was 
the  situation,  and  next  the  convenience  and  healthiness  of  the  spot 
proposed  ;  in  these  respects  the  Romans  were  most  careful  in  the 
selection  of  their  sites  both  for  camps  and  town.  Yitruvius  devotes 
a  chapter  (Lib.  II.  cap.  4)  to  these  points  alone,  whilst  Yegetius  lays 
additional  stress  on  the  importance  of  choosing  a  site  naturally  strong 
(Lib.  IY.  cap.  1).  In  these  respects  Dorchester  conforms  to  the  old 
Roman  traditions  ;  no  stronger  position  than  the  town  occupies 
could  have  been  found  in  the  neighbourhood ;  its  healthiness  is 
proverbial,  and  it  is  conveniently  situated  for  water  just  above  the 

When  the  site  was  determined,  the  next  point  to  be  settled  was 
the  size  of  the  proposed  town  and  the  plan  of  the  walls.  The 
buildings  and  streets  were  an  after  consideration.  It  is  a  misfortune 
that  no  exact  plan  of  the  Roman  walls  exists.  It  is  said  to  have 

(1)  According  to  the  system  of  castramentation  which  was  practised 
about  this  time  it  has  been  computed  that  one  thousand  men  would  occupy 
13,027  superficial  feet  (English). 


been  ruined  for  defensive  purposes  by  the  Danes,  but  considerable 
portions  of  it,  and  we  may  assume  the  whole  of  the  foundations, 
remained  up  to  comparatively  recent  times.  On  Speed's  map, 
which  was  published  in  1610,  the  foundations  of  the  whole  of  the 
walls  are  figured,  and  I  understand  Dr.  Stukeley  to  say  that  in  his 
time  the  foundation  of  the  wall  could  be  traced.  Since  then  most 
of  the  wall  has  been  destroyed.  In  1764  85  feet  of  it  was 
pulled  down  and  only  77  feet  left  standing.  In  the  summer  of 
1802  another  portion  of  the  old  wall  was  removed,  and  now  little 
more  than  a  fragment  remains. 

As  to  the  manner  in  which  walls  of  fortified  towns  were  built  we 
have  the  clearest  evidence.  The  principal  ditch  was  first  marked, 
then  dug  out.  This  ditch  was  wide  and  deep,  the  soil  dug  out  of 
it  was  used  to  form  a  rampart  on  the  town  side  ;  the  ditch  was 
deepened  close  to  the  rampart  to  receive  the  foundation  of  the  wall. 
On  the  other  side  of  the  rampart  a  second  wall  was  built  to 
keep  the  rampart  in  position  and  to  back  it  up,  and  the  soil 
between  them  was  well  rammed  down.  Vegetius  explains  the 
construction  simply  :  "A  rampart,  to  have  sufficient  strength  and 
solidity,  should  be  thus  constructed.  Two  parallel  walls  are  built 
at  the  distance  of  20  feet  from  each  other,  and  the  earth  taken  out 
of  the  ditches  thrown  into  the  intermediate  space  and  well  rammed 
down.  The  inner  wall  should  be  lower  than  the  outer  to  allow  an 
easy  and  gradual  ascent  from  the  level  of  the  city  to  the  top  of  the 
rampart.  A  ram  cannot  destroy  a  wall  thus  supported  by  earth, 
and  in  case  the  stonework  should  by  accident  be  demolished  the 
mass  of  earth  within  would  resist  its  violence  effectually." 
Vitruvius'  plan  was  similar  but  more  elaborate.  He  advises  that 
the  main  wall  shall  be  tied  from  front  to  rear  with  olive  wood 
beams,  and  the  two  walls  united  by  cross  walls  "disposed  as 
the  teeth  of  a  comb  or  saw  usually  are,  for  when  this  has 
been  done  the  great  weight  of  earth  (between  them)  will  be 
distributed  into  small  parts,  and  so  will  not  be  able  by  the  pressure 
of  its  united  weight  to  push  out  the  substructure  of  the  walls  in  any 
degree  "  (Lib.  I.  cap.  5).  These  zigzag  cross  walls  tying  the  main 


walls  would  add  greatly  to  their  strength.  The  distance  of  the  two 
walls  from  each  other  would,  of  course,  determine  the  width  of  the 
terrace  upon  the  rampart  between  them  ;  this  was  not  always  the 
same.  Vegetius,  as  we  see,  gives  20  feet  as  a  convenient  width. 
Vitruvius,  after  describing  the  manner  of  building  the  outer  wall, 
adds  "  moreover  the  foundation  of  the  substructure  on  the  inner 
side  should  be  so  far  from  the  outer  (wall)  as  to  afford  sufficient 
space  within  that  the  cohort  may  stand  on  the  breadth  of  the 
rampart  for  defence  as  it  is  drawn  up  in  line  of  battle."  The  width 
of  the  terrace  at  Pompeii  is  about  15  feet.  Generally  the  inner 
was  much  lower  than  the  outer  wall,  though  in  some  cases  it  was 
higher,  as  at  Pompeii,  and  thicker,  as  in  the  fortified  camp  of 
Saalburg,  in  the  Taunus  mountains,  near  Homburg,  the  outer  wall 
of  which  is  only  five  feet  thick,  whilst  the  inner  is  seven  feet. 
("  Lives  of  the  Greeks  and  Romans,"  described  from  ancient 
monuments,  Guhl  and  Koner.)  The  inner  wall  at  Dorchester  may 
have  been  higher  and  thicker  than  the  outer  ;  but  high  or  low, 
thick  or  thin,  the  general  rule  was  to  make  a  rampart  for  the 
defence  of  a  town  with  a  wall  on  either  side  of  it  and  a  wide  ditch 
outside  ;  and  the  point  to  which  your  attention  is  specially  directed 
is  that  we  have  the  remains  of  one  wall  only  at  Dorchester.  Where 
was  the  other  1  The  fragment  that  remains  has  some  appearance 
of  having  been  part  of  the  inner  wall.  Many  persons  will  remember 
the  remains  of  the  ditch,  the  hollow  road  now  filled  up,  parallel  with 
the  walks  and  some  yards  from  the  wall  ;  the  outer  wall  should 
have  been  on  the  edge  of  this  ditch.  We  have  further  evidence  of 
the  masonry  now  standing  being  the  inner  wall  from  the  excavations 
made  here  by  the  Dorset  Field  Club  some  years  ago,  when  a  Roman 
paved  way  was  found  at  the  foot  of  the  wall  on  the  inside  four  feet 
below  the  surface.  It  is  a  great  pity  the  excavations  were  not 
carried  further  to  find  out  the  width  of  the  paved  way  and  to  obtain 
conclusive  proof  that  it  was  level  with  the  ancient  town,  as  we 
presume  it  was,  and  therefore  answered  to  the  broad  way  in 
stationary  camps  upon  which  large  bodies  of  troops  could  be 
manoeuvred,  and  along  which  they  could  be  sent  to  any  point  of  the 


wall  threatened  by  the  enemy.  There  must  have  been  a  second 
wall  some  15  to  25  feet  from  this  one,  for  the  Romans,  if  they  had 
found  the  chalk  so  solid  as  to  be  a  sufficient  protection  against  the 
ram  without  the  support  of  a  stone  wall,  could  not — if  we  can  trust 
Vitruvius  and  Vegetius — have  given  the  enemy  the  protection  of 
the  ditch  and  the  advantage  of  the  high  ground  of  the  rampart  in 
making  an  assault,  it  was  so  distinctly  opposed  to  their  general 
practice.  This  shows  the  importance  of  making  further  excavations, 
and  the  spot  which  appears  to  ofler  the  best  results  is  by  the  West 
Walk  Cottages.  A  trench  cut  across  the  rampart  here  should 
reveal  its  construction  and  lay  bare  the  foundations  of  both  walls, 
unless  they  have  been  completely  removed,  as  they  have  been  in  the 
South  Walk ;  but  from  the  form  of  the  rampart  here  it  does  not 
seem  likely  that  every  trace  of  the  walls  has  disappeared. 

Yitruvius  gives  the  rule  for  the  thickness  of  walls.  They  should 
be  sufficiently  thick  "  for  two  armed  to  pass  each  other  with  ease." 
The  old  walls  of  Dorchester  are  stated  by  Stukeley  to  have  been 
twelve  feet  in  width  ;  allowing  for  the  parapet  and  battlements, 
there  would  be  left  ample  room  for  two  armed  men  to  pass  each 
other.  I  would  just  add  here  that  it  is  not  clear  from  Dr.  Stukeley's 
description  whether  he  is  speaking  of  the  wall  or  of  its  foundation  ; 
if  the  latter,  the  wall  may  have  been  nine  or  ten  feet  in  thickness. 
As  to  the  original  height  of  the  wall,  the  height  to  the  top  of  the 
portion  now  standing  is  about  eleven  feet  above  the  paved  way. 
Stukeley  says  :  "  I  saw  the  foundation  of  it  (i.e.,  the  wall)  in  a 
sawpit  laid  upon  solid  chalk.  It  is  yet  twelve  feet  high,"  which 
suggests  that  there  were  indications  that  it  had  been  higher. 
Suppose  it  to  have  been  sixteen  feet  originally,  add  4*6  for  the 
parapet  and  battlements,  and  you  have  a  total  height  of  over  20  feet, 
and  this,  remember,  for  the  inner  wall,  if  it  toas  the  inner  wall, 
which  was  generally  lower  than  the  outer  one  and  less  strong. 

The  directions  of  Yitruvius  for  building  town  walls  include  the 
construction  of  towers.  "  Moreover/'  he  says,  "  turrets  must  be 
projected  outwardly,  so  that  when  the  enemy  wishes  to  storm  the 
wall  he  may  be  wounded  with  missiles  on  his  exposed  side  from  the 


towers  right  and  left."  Whether  the  walls  which  surrounded 
Dorchester  had  or  had  not  towers  could  only  be  decided  by 
uncovering  the  foundations,  if  they  still  exist ;  as  the  fortifications 
are  so  strong  in  other  respects  there  is  no  reason  for  assuming  that 
they  were  deficient  in  this.* 

"The  intervals  between  the  towers  must  be  so  contrived  that 
one  must  not  be  further  from  another  than  an  arrow's  flight,  so 
that  if  any  of  them  is  attacked  the  enemy  may  be  repelled  by 
scorpions  and  other  pieces  of  artillery  from  the  towers  to  the  right 
and  left.  .  .  .  Also  over  against  the  interior  sides  of  the 
towers  the  wall  must  be  divided  by  intervals  as  wide  as  the  towers, 
that  the  footways  bridging  them  may  be  within  the  towers,  and 
these  must  not  be  fastened  with  iron,  so  that  if  the  enemy  has 
seized  any  part  of  the  wall  the  defenders  will  cut  it  away.  If  they 
do  this  promptly  they  will  prevent  the  enemy  from  penetrating  the 
rest  of  the  towers  and  wall  without  casting  themselves  headlong 
(into  the  hollow  of  the  tower)."  These  wooden  drawbridges 
were  a  very  ingenious  way  of  isolating  the  portion  of  the  wall 
attacked.  Of  gates,  there  were  in  all  probability  four  at  least. 
We  know  the  position  of  two  of  them.  The  foundations  of  the 
west  gate  were  observed  at  the  top  of  High-street  (1)  *  where  they 
are  marked  on  the  Ordnance  Survey  map  ;  and  no  one  appears  to 
question  that  the  south  gate  was  at  the  end  of  South-street. 

There  is  a  little  difficulty  about  the  position  of  the  east  gate. 
Hutchins  says  "  In  making  the  new  road  (i.e.,  the  portion  of  the 
London-road  leading  out  of  Dorchester  to  the  east)  a  little  to  the 

*  "  There  were  probably  towers  at  the  corners  ;  the  mounds  and  the 
curves  which  the  walls  formed  there  instead  of  angles  which  can  still  be 
traced,  are  some  evidence  of  it.     It  was  a  common  practice  to  round  the 
corners  of  the  fortifications  of  Roman  camps  and   towns,  and  on  the 
mounds   within    these   rounded    curves  of  fortifications,    towers    were 
frequently  built.      The  Roman  tower  which  still  remains  in  the  fortifica- 
tions of  York  is  in  this  position  (see  Archaeological  Journal,  vol.  31, 
p.  226). 

*  (1)  Dr.  Stuckeley,  in  his  map  of  Durnovaria,  dated  August  22nd,  1723, 
represents  the  Durngate-street  as  continued  through  the  town,  with  the 
west  gate  at  the  end  of  it,  on  a  supposed  road  to  Ischalis, 


east  of  Seager's  orchard  at  the  entrance  into  Dorchester — the 
Icknield-street  was  discovered  and  crossed.  If  this  Eoman  road 
was  crossed  there,  its  probable  course  would  be  towards  the  left 
of  the  east  gate ;  and  it  is  very  improbable,  if  the  gate  was 
at  the  end  of  the  High  East-street,  that  the  road  would  have 
been  constructed  in  this  way.  The  custom  was  to  turn  the  road 
to  the  right  of  the  gate  "  so  that  the  right  sides  of  the  attacking 
troops  which  are  not  covered  by  their  shields  may  be  open  to  the 
weapons  of  the  besieged"  (Vitruvius,  Lib.  I.,  cap.  5).  If  the  gate  was 
at  the  end  of  Durngate-street  it  would  be  in  the  right  position  both 
for  this  road  and  for  the  road  which  apparently  passed  through  the 
Roman  Cemetery  at  Fordington,  from  which  a  branch  may  have 
passed  over  the  ford.  The  Cornhill  was  for  centuries  a  market. 
"Was  it  in  Roman  times  a  Forum  Venale  ?  and  did  the  road  from  the 
east  gate  run  into  it  at  one  end,  and  the  road  from  the  west  gate  at 
the  other  ?  if  so,  it  was  not  an  arrangement  for  which  there  is  no 
precedent.  But  to  my  mind  the  position  of  the  east  gate  will  not 
have  been  conclusively  proved  until  its  foundations  have  been  laid 
bare,  when  it  is  to  be  hoped  they  will  be  mapped. 

There  is  nothing  to  show  where  the  north  gate  was  situated. 
There  was  a  north  gate  at  the  time  of  the  commonwealth,  for  we 
have  particulars  of  the  manner  in  which  it  was  fortified.  We 
should  naturally  look  for  the  north  gate  at  the  foot  of  the  Friary- 
lane.  There  is  no  evidence  that  it  was  there,  but  if  it  were,  there 
was  room  on  the  south  bank  of  the  Frome,  though  there  is  not  room 
now  for  a  road  in  the  direction  of  the  Charminster-road. 

As  to  the  construction  of  gateways  generally,  we  have  precise 
particulars.  At  the  ends  of  the  gateways  were  double-leaved  gates. 
To  secure  them  against  fire  Vegetius  says  they  were  covered  with 
"  raw  hides  and  iron  plates,  but  the  ancient  invention  is  the  best 
for  the  purpose  j  it  is  a  work  (propugnaculum)  thrown  up  before 
the  gate  with  a  portcullis  (cataracta)  at  the  entrance  suspended  by 
iron  rings  and  ropes.  If  the  enemy  enter  the  work  the  portcullis 
is  let  down  and  they  lie  at  the  mercy  of  the  besieged.  The  wall 
above  the  gate  should  be  perforated  in  several  places  that  water  may 


be  poured  down  to  extinguish  the  fire  when  occasion  requires." 
This  accounts  for  the  openings  over  the  gates  of  Pompeii,  which 
appear  to  have  puzzled  some  antiquaries. 

We  have  now  the  fortification  complete  so  far  as  this ;  an  inner 
wall  12ft.  thick,  a  rampart  15  to  25ft.  wide,  with  an  outer  wall 
retaining  it,  the  whole  about  40ft.  in  thickness  (1),*  a  deep  ditch 
on  the  outside  of  that  again,  possibly  towers  in  the  walls  some 
eighty  yards  apart. 

This  seems  formidable  enough,  but  the  fortifications  of  the  town 
were  much  stronger  than  this  indicates.  Vitruvius  says  special  care 
ought  to  be  taken  that  "  there  may  not  be  an  easy  approach  to 
attack  the  wall,  but  that  the  wall  should  be  surrounded  by  steep 
places,  and  so  contrived  that  the  road  up  to  the  gates  may  not  be 
direct  but  inclined  to  the  left,  &c."  At  Dorchester  the  position 
was  strengthened  in  this  way  by  throwing  up  two  lines  of  ramparts 
outside  the  walls.  "When  I  was  a  boy  the  ridges  of  these  two  lines 
were  very  apparent,  and  one  at  least  is  clearly  seen  on  the  south 
side,  and  one,  if  not  both,  may  still  be  traced  on  the  west.  As  the 
ditches  were  cut  in  the  solid  chalk,  it  will  be  possible  by  cutting  a 
trench  across  them  to  find  out  exactly  what  were  their  original  forms, 
their  depth,  and  width. 

I  have  not  discussed  the  question  whether  Dorchester  was  a 
stationary  fortified  camp  (a  castra  stativa),  because  as  a  fortified 
garrison  town  it  was  that,  and  something  more  ;  if  it  be  contended 
that  Dorchester  was  a  castra  stativa  for  troops  only,  there  will  be 
the  difficulty  of  its  size.  I  cannot  find  an  instance  of  such  a  camp 
being  constructed  five  times  as  large  as  was  required.  Even  the 
enormous  camp  of  Gamzigrad,  in  Servia,  which  is  remarkable  as 
being  one  of  the  largest  known,  is  not  so  large.  Poundbury,  as 
regards  size,  is  much  more  like  what  we  should  expect  the 

*  (1)  This  seems  unnecessarily  strong,  but  it  must  be  remembered  that 
battering  rams,  and  other  engines  of  enormous  size  and  power  were  used 
jn  warfare  at  that  time.  Vitruvius  speaks  of  a  balista  which  threw  a 
stone  3601bs.  in  weight,  and  of  a  tortoise  constructed  by  Agetor  the 
Byzantine,  for  filling  ditches  and  undermining  walls,  which  was  60ft. 
long  and  18ft.  broad. 


construction  to  have  been  if  such  a  purely  military  camp  was 
required  in  the  neighbourhood  j  but  this,  from  its  construction, 
Poundbury  could  not  have  been. 

Dorchester,  however,  in  its  plan  has  much  in  common  with  the 
military  camp.  It  reveals  its  military  origin  and  the  hand  of  a 
military  architect.  The  South-street  answers  to  the  Pretorian-street, 
the  High-street  to  the  Via  Principalis.  There  is  no  reason  to 
doubt  that  the  Arx  itself  stood  on  the  Castle  Hill,  the  barracks  of 
the  soldiers  between  it  and  the  walls  ;  the  Koman  remains  found 
near  there  by  Mr.  Hogg  and  others  have  very  much  that  character. 


By  the  Rev.  C.  H,  MAYO,  M.A.,  R.D.,  Vicar  of  Long 
Burton  with  Holnest. 

HE  village  of  Yetminster,  as  we  have  seen  in  our 
ramble  to-day,  is  pleasantly  situated  in  the  opening 
of  the  hills  through  which  runs  the  little  brook 
which  joins  the  Yeo  at  Bradford  Abbas,  and  from 
its  position  has  gained  the  name  it  bears  of  Gate 
Minster,  which,  like  another  opening  at  Corfe's 
Gate,  similarly  named,  gives  access  through  the  natural  boundary 
of  the  hills  to  the  stretch  of  country  beyond.  It  is  furnished, 
above  the  average,  with  quaint  17th  century  houses,  one  of  which 
bears  an  inscription  which  may  serve  as  a  puzzle  to  the  members 
of  this  society. 

AN     +     DO 

10    4 

DO     + 

1607    + 

RE    H 

-    DE    + 

BE     +     DO 

AN    - 

f    SN 

HA     +     ED 

DE    • 

f    IN 

At  a  conspicuous  point  in  the  village  stands  the  church,  an 
interesting  subject  for  architectural  study,  and  a  landmark  which 
may  be  noted  from  the  hills  for  a  considerable  distance.  The 


parish  is  extensive,  and,  together  with  the  daughter  Chapelry  of 
Chetnole,  occupies  upwards  of  4,300  acres,  and  when  it  formerly 
comprised  the  adjoining  parishes  of  Eyme  Intrinseca,  Clifton 
Mayhank,  and  Leigh — the  last  only  separated  from  it  in  1849 — it 
must  have  been  one  of  the  most  important  in  the  neighbourhood. 
To  this  position  testimony  is  borne  by  a  custom  still  remembered 
by  the  old  people  of  Minterne  as  having  existed  in  their  fathers' 
days,  if  not  in  their  own,  that  the  bearers  of  corpses  for  burial  from 
Middlemarsh  to  Minterne,  on  reaching  the  summit  of  the  range  of 
hills  at  Dogbury,  would  stand  and  "  face  the  Mother  Church,"  as 
they  express  it,  that  is,  the  church  of  Yetminster,  about  four  miles 
distant  as  the  crow  flies,  thus  testifying  to  the  prominent  position 
occupied  by  this  minster  and  parish  in  mediaeval  Dorset. 
Yetminster  contains  four  manors,  and  supplied  the  endowments  of 
two  Prebends,  and  partly  that  of  a  third,  in  the  Cathedral  of 
Sarum.  At  the  date  of  the  compilation  of  Domesday  it  belonged 
to  the  Bishop  of  that  See — a  certain  William  holding  of  the  Bishop 
some  six  hydes  out  of  the  entire  15  at  which  the  estate  was  then 
rated — and  in  all  probability  it  may  have  formed  a  part  of  the 
ancient  endowments  of  the  See  of  Sherborne.  On  the  foundation 
of  the  Cathedral  Establishment  at  Old  Sarum  by  Osmund,  Saint  and 
Bishop,  it  was  one  of  the  original  estates  given  by  him  in  his 
charter  of  A.D.  1091  for  its  maintenance.  (Keg.  Osmund,  Vol.  IM 
p.  198.  Rolls' Series,  1883.)  Here  the  Dean  exercised  Peculiar 
Jurisdiction,  except  that  in  some  respects  his  authority  was  ousted 
by  the  Prebendary  of  Yetminster  and  Grimstone,  two  years  out  of 
every  three.  Such  being  the  ownership  of  the  land,  Yetminster 
has  naturally  failed  to  be  the  seat  of  any  great  manorial  families. 
Their  place  has  been  taken  by  Ecclesiastics  or  their  Lessees,  who 
occupied  the  position  of  landlords.  Lists  of  the  holders  of  the  three 
Prebends  are  extant,  dating  from  the  year  A.D.  1226,  when  William 
de  Len  held  the  Prebend  of  Yetminster  Prima  (otherwise  called 
Superior,  Overbury,  or  Upbury),  Tancred  that  of  Yetminster 
Secunda  (otherwise  Inferior  or  Southbury),  and  R.  de  Maupodre 
the  Prebend  of  Grimstone  and  Yetminster,  which  has  a  double 


name  from  being  maintained  by  estates  in  both  these  parishes. 
Some  illustrious  names  are  found  in  each  of  these  lists,  Yetminster 
Prima  having  been  held  by  William  of  Wykeham,  Bishop  of 
Winchester,  and  founder  of  the  two  S.  Mary  Winton  Colleges, 
1361  ;  by  Henry  Chicheley,  Archbishop  of  Canterbury,  1397  ;  by 
James  Stanley,  Bishop  of  Ely,  1492  ;  by  Thomas  Thirlby,  Bishop 
of  Westminster,  Norwich,  and  Ely,  1537  ;  by  Isaac  Barrow,  master 
of  Trinity  College,  Cambridge,  1671  ;  and  by  Bishop  Butler,  author 
of  the  "Analogy  of  Keligion,"  1721.  Yetminster  Secunda,  by 
Chicheley,  1400  ;  by  William  Dudley,  Bishop  of  Durham,  1471  ; 
by  Reginald  Pole,  Archbishop  of  Canterbury  and  Cardinal,  1519  ; 
and  by  Henry  Cole,  Provost  of  Eton,  1539  ;  and  Grimstone  and 
Yetminster  by  Thomas  Polton,  Bishop  of  Hereford,  1408  ;  by 
Hugh  Parry,  Bishop  of  S.  David's,  1467  ;  by  William  Barton, 
Suffragan  Bishop,  1515  ;  and  by  John  Elton,  1519 — 1547,  an 
ancestor  of  my  own,  and  the  founder  of  a  Fellowship  at  B.N.C., 

The  annual  value  of  these  Prebends  at  various  periods  may  be 
seen  in  the  following  table  : — 

1226.  1291.  1535. 

£    s.    d.  £    s.    d.  £    s.  d. 

Yetminster  and  Grimstone     ...     13    6    8     ...    20    0    0    ...     32    1  10| 

Yetminster  Prima*       568    ...      8  13    4     ...    22    0    0 

Yetminster  Secunda* 5    6    8    ...      800    ...     18    0    0 

Two  of  these — viz.,  Yetminster  Prima  and  Secunda — are  now 
in  lay  hands,  Mrs.  Frances  Jane  Ffooks  being  the  Lady  of  the 
Manors  thus  denominated,  while  that  of  Yetminster  and  Grimstone 
belongs  in  reversion  to  the  Ecclesiastical  Commissioners,  Mrs.  E. 
H.  Fitzherbert  being  at  present  the  lessee.  The  fourth  Manor, 
which  is  called  that  of  "  Yetminster,"  without  any  further  addition 
to  the  name,  was  squeezed  from  the  See  of  Sarum  in  the  reign  Of 
Elizabeth,  and  belongs  to  Mr.  Digby,  of  Sherborne  Castle. 

To  pass  from  the  general  history  of  the  parish  to  the  Church  of 
S.  Andrew,  which  we  are  visiting  to-day,  it  is  hardly  necessary  to 

*  Called  "Prebenda  Dni  T'isij,"  i.e.  Thydisii,  and  "Ricardi  de 
Coleshull,"  respectively,  the  holders  in  1284. 


call  your  attention  to  the  handsome  battlemented  tower,  porch,  and 
aisles  in  the  latter  period  of  the  Perpendicular  style,  with  the 
disproportionately  long  chancel,  constructed  in  a  poor  imitation  of 
Early  English,  which  are  now  before  you.  I  say  "  a  poor  imitation 
of  Early  English,"  for  it  is  scarcely  possible  to  suppose,  with 
Mr.  Christian,  that  the  Prebendaries  of  Yetminster  in  the  13th 
century,  having  before  their  eyes  the  superb  example  of  that  style 
in  their  Mother  Church  of  Sarum,  could  have  erected  the  chancel, 
which  now  stands  eastward  of  the  nave.  The  ill-fitting  heads  of 
the  windows,  the  poverty-stricken  chamfers  in  lieu  of  mouldings, 
the  want  of  uniformity  in  the  lights  of  the  east  window,  and  the 
general  roughness  of  the  work  would  have  been  an  abomination  in 
the  eyes  of  William  de  Len,  or  Tancred,  or  whoever  they  were, 
who  occupied  these  Prebends  at  the  date  when  the  Early  English 
style  was  in  vogue.  A  glance  at  the  base  of  the  E.  E.  font,  recently 
recovered,  with  its  delicate  mouldings,  will  show  us  what  these 
early  builders  would  have  done,  had  their  hands  been  given  to  the 

Briefly  to  indicate  the  principal  points  which  were  to  be  observed 
before  entering  the  church,  I  may  mention  the  numerous  external 
crosses  (viz.,  crosses  patee  within  a  circle)  to  be  seen  on  three  of  the 
tower  buttresses,  on  the  buttress  near  the  south  door,  on  the  jamb 
of  the  window  between  the  north  porch  and  the  tower,  together 
with  a  small  cross  patee  also  to  be  observed  at  the  apex  of  the 
tower  door  below  the  hood-mould — the  Holy  water  stoup  hollowed 
in  the  external  buttress,  near  the  south  door — and  the  five  small 
windows,  blocked  at  the  present  restoration, — viz.,  two  in  the  east 
gable  of  the  nave,  one  near  the  eastern  window  on  the  north  wall  of 
north  aisle  and  on  either  side  of  the  corresponding  window  in  the 
south  aisle  intended  to  give  light  to  the  rood  gallery. 

In  regard  to  the  chancel,  the  west  and  south  windows  nearest  the 
nave  have  similar  crosses  to  those  already  mentioned,  and  the  eastern 
buttresses  also  bear  them,  but  one  below  and  the  other  above  the 
plinth.  It  is  noticeable  that  the  crosses  on  these  buttresses  are  cut 
in  what  I  am  informed  is  Xettlecombe  stone,  the  other  dressings  of 


the  church  being  of  stone  from  Hamhill.  They  may  have  been 
removed  to  their  present  position  from  an  older  chancel.  There  are 
also  to  be  seen  the  traces  of  foundations  at  the  base  of  the  north 
and  south  walls,  which  seem  to  indicate  that  the  chancel  at  one 
time  stopped  short  about  ten  feet  west  of  the  present  termination, 
and  the  line  of  a  straight  joint  appears  running  down  beneath  the 
north-east  window.  The  head  of  a  small  doorway  in  the  north 
chancel  wall  is  indented  with  a  rectangular  splay,  forming  the  base 
of  a  nitch,  of  which  the  wall  above  bears  no  further  trace,  showing 
that  if  this  stone  is  in  its  original  position  the  Avail  above  has  been 
re -built. 

Entering  the  church,  which  has  recently  undergone  a  judicious 
restoration  under  the  direction  of  Mr.  G.  R.  Crickmay,  and  which 
it  is  not  now  necessary  for  me  to  describe,  we  observe  the 
Perpendicular  font,  formed  of  one  piece  with  a  section  of  the 
adjacent  column — the  old  Purbeck  base  of  the  Early  English  font 
already  mentioned,  a  circle  with  four  smaller  circles  for  pilasters, 
found  inverted  on  the  floor  at  the  north-west  corner  of  the  tower — 
the  grand  brass  of  John  Horsey,  who  died  8th  of  July,  1531,  and 
Elizabeth,  his  wife,  daughter  of  Eichard,  and  sister  and  heir  of 
Eobert  Turges,  of  Turges  Melcombe,  Dorset,  recently  re-fixed  by 
one  of  the  family,  Major  E.  K.  Horsey — the  matrix  of  another 
brass  which  the  writer  discovered  before  the  restoration  commenced 
— the  spaces  formerly  occupied  by  two  altars  at  the  east  end  of  the 
aisles  with  their  piscinae,  the  northern  piscina,  like  the  font,  being 
formed  out  of  the  same  block  as  the  semi-pillar  of  the  eastern 
member  of  the  arcade,  the  bracket  near  this  north  altar  for  the 
support  of  an  image,  two  small  carved  figures,  found  during  the 
restoration,  two  stone  brackets,  carved  with  foliage,  the  southern 
ancient,  the  northern  a  recent  reproduction  (1889),  which  carried 
the  rood  beam — some  specimens  of  15th  century  seating — and  lastly, 
the  fragment  of  a  wooden  screen,  which  once  divided  the  chancel 
from  the  nave. 

Looking  at  the  roof  we  observe  remaining  certain  traces  of 
ancient  colouring,  the  sacred  monogram  I.H.S.  crowned,  alternating 


with  suns  in  splendour,  the  colours  employed  being  white,  red,  and 
black,  and  bands  of  colouring  on  the  pillars  of  the  arcades.  One 
boss  on  the  nave  roof  is  important.  It  bears  a  white  horse's  head, 
bridled  —  the  Horsey  crest  —  indicating  that  the  Horsey  who 
possessed  Clifton  Maybank  at  the  date  of  the  erection  of  the 
nave,  &c.,  was  much  concerned  in  the  success  of  the  work.  It  will 
be  interesting  to  endeavour  to  establish  his  identity.  Assuming 
that  the  internal  decorations  are  coeval  with  the  erection  of  the 
building,  the  sun  in  splendour  will  show  us  that  the  nave  dates 
from  the  reign  of  Edward  IV.,  1461 — 83,  who  had  adopted  this 
device  as  his  badge,  which  stood  him  in  so  good  stead  at  the  Battle 
of  Barnet,  1471.  We  shall  readily  recall  the  lines  in  the  third 
part  of  Shakespeare's  Henry  VI.,  Scene  II.  : — 

Edw. :  Dazzle  mine  eyes,  or  do  I  see  three  suns  ? 
Rich. :  Three  glorious  suns,  each  one  a  perfect  sun  ; 

Not  separated  with  the  racking  clouds  ; 

But  sever'd  in  a  pale  clear  shining  sky. 

See  !  see  !  they  join,  embrace,  and  seem  to  kiss, 

As  if  they  vow'd  some  league  inviolable ; 

Now  they  are  but  one  lamp,  one  light,  one  sun. 

In  this  the  heaven  figures  some  event. 
Edw. :  Tis  wondrous  strange,  and  like  yet  never  heard  of. 

I  think  it  cites  us,  brother,  to  the  field, 

That  we,  the  sons  of  brave  Plantagenet, 

Each  one  already  blazing  by  our  meeds, 

Should  notwithstanding  join  our  lights  together 

And  over-shine  the  earth  as  this  the  world. 

Whate'er  it  bodes,  henceforward  Avill  I  bear 

Upon  my  target  three  fair-shining  suns. 

During  this  reign  three  Horsey s  held  in  succession  the  Clifton 
property — Henry,  who  died  1461-2  ;  Thomas,  his  brother,  who 
died  1468-9 ;  and  John,  the  son  of  the  latter,  who  married  the 
heiress  of  Turges,  and  enjoyed  the  estate  for  the  long  period  of 
62  years,  dying  in  1531.  Of  these  three  possible  builders  the 
first  may  be  excluded  as  having  died  when  the  reign  had  scarce 
commenced.  We  have  then  to  choose  between  the  father  and  son. 


Of  these  it  is  far  and  away  most  probable  that  the  latter  was  the 
person  interested  in  the  building,  as  he  entered  upon  the  estate  at 
an  early  age,  being  only  six  years  old  when  his  father  died,  so  that 
ready  money  may  have  accumulated  during  his  long  minority,  to 
which  would  be  added  the  ample  means  placed  at  his  disposal 
through  his  marriage  with  the  heiress.  If  this  conjecture  is 
correct  the  building  of  the  church  would  be  his  first  work  on 
attaining  his  majority,  and  the  brass  which  the  church  now  so 
fortunately  possesses  would  represent  the  Esquire  and  his  spouse 
who  saw,  principally,  it  may  be,  through  their  own  bounty,  the 
present  handsome  Perpendicular  building  rise  from  its  foundations. 
John  Horsey's  will  is  still  extant  (dated  1  May  23,  Henry  VIII. 
1531,  pr.  July  1532. — 16  Thower),  and  in  it  he  desires  to  be 
buried  at  Eatmister,  and  bequeaths  40s.  to  "  the  maintenance  and 
reparacion  of  the  Church  of  Eatmyster  underneath  the  condicion 
that  I  be  prayed  for  in  the  Bede  Roll  yerely." 

John  Horsey  was  "  felix  opportunitate  mortis."  He  did  not  live 
to  see  the  expulsion  of  the  monks  from  Sherborne,  11  March, 
1539,  with  which,  perhaps,  he  would  not  have  been  in  sympathy, 
as  he  had  a  daughter  a  nun  at  Barking,  nor  did  he  see  his  son 
enriched  with  the  spoils  of  Church  property,  nor  the  church  of 
Yetminster,  which  he  evidently  loved,  robbed  of  its  vestments  and 
valuable  ornaments  by  the  rapacious  commissioners  of  Edward  VI., 
1550,  one  of  whom  was  his  grandson. 

By  the  way,  when  these  commissioners,  who  were  Giles 
Strangwayes,  George  Delalynd,  John  Horssey,  and  Thomas 
Trenchard,  all  members  of  good  Dorset  families,  came  to 
Yetminster,  they  found  "  5  bells  in  the  tower,  1  suyt  of  vestments 
with  a  cope  of  blue  velvet,  1  suyt  of  vestments  of  black  wosted 
with  a  cope,  1  payre  of  vestments  of  whyt  saten,  one  paire  of 
vestments  of  red  wosted,  1  paire  of  blewe  chamlet,  1  peyre  of 
blewe  sylk,  1  paire  of  blewe  wosted,  1  cope  of  greyne  sylk,  1  cope 
of  whyt  fustyaine,  2  bann's  of — clothe,  2  surpleces,  6  altar  clothes, 
1  chalis  parcell  gylte,  4  towells.  To  the  Churche  use  apoynted  by 
the  said  corny ssion's  the  chalis  with  the  cope  of  whyt  fusteyne, 


with  all  the  table  clothes  and  surples.  The  Rest  comytted  to  the 
charge  of  them  under  wry  ten,"  i.e.,  till  arrangements  could  be 
made  for  carrying  them  away.  The  names  are  those  of  John 
Turner,  curate,  Thomas  Mundaye,  John  Myller,  Thomas  Carter, 
churchwardens,  and  Wyllm  Sherry.  Wyllm  Wylles,  Walter 
Phelpes,  John  Aylvord,  parishioners.  (Queen's  Remembrancer's 
Miscellanea.  Church  Goods,  Dorset,  2-17.) 

One  remark  only  need  be  made  upon  this  transaction — viz., 
that  the  cope  was  evidently  a  vestment  of  undisputed  legality, 
otherwise  no  specimen  of  it  would  have  been  left.  But,  if  lawful, 
the  abduction  of  the  others  becomes  simple  robbery.  And  such 
was  really  the  case,  for  in  the  instances  where  a  church  happened 
to  possess  two  chalices  the  commissioners  abstracted  one  of  them, 
and  unblushingly  left  the  worst  for  the  use  of  the  parishioners. 

At  this  time  we  have  seen  that  there  were  five  bells  in  the 
tower,  the  number  still  to  be  found  there,  though  all  but  one  have 
since  been  recast.  This  one  bell  bears  the  inscription  "  Or  a  mente 
pia  pro  nobis  virgo  Maria"  The  others  are  dated  respectively 
1595,  1608,  1610,  and  1655,  the  last  again  cast  in  1889. 

1.  B  flat.     8  cwt.     Diameter,  34  ins. 

"W.C.    R.R.     P.S.    C.W.     T.P. 
AN.  NO.  Do.  MI.  XL  1610." 

2.  A  flat.     10  CAvt.     Diameter,  35|  ins. 

4 'AN.  NO.  Do.  ML  XL  1595." 

3.  G.     12  cwt.     Diameter,  38^  ins. 


4.  F.     15  cwt.     Diameter,  43^  ins. 

"  Bee  mindful  of  thy  latter  end 
For  thou  must  die  youth  or  age 
As  hath  thy  f  reinde. 

T.K.    T.D.    N.B.    C.W.    ANNO  DOMINI  1655." 

5.  E  flat.     18  cwt.     Diameter,  48  ins. 

"  I  sovnd  to  bid  the  sick  repent 
In  hope  of  liefe  whene  breathe  is  spent." 


Below  this  last  inscription  is  a  handsome  stamp,  representing  the 
lion  of  S.  Mark,  within  a  circle.  It  is  followed  by  the  word 
Wolddis,  and  date  1608. 

The  chalice  mentioned  in  the  foregoing  inventory  has  been 
replaced  by  a  good  Elizabethan  chalice,  with  paten  cover,  bearing 
the  small  black  letter  0,  which  indicates  the  year  1571.  The 
maker's  mark  consists  of  the  letters  A  and  B  linked  together. 
Another  paten,  of  the  date  of  1752,  was  given  much  later  by  Ann 
daughter  of  John  Abingdon,  Esq.,  of  Over  Compton,  the  wife  of 
H.  C.  Floyer,  Esq.,  of  Stratton. 

Yetminster  also  once  possessed  a  pair  of  organs.  In  "  The 
presentment  of  the  Vicar,  Churchwarden,  and  Sidemen  of 
Yetminster  in  the  triennial  Visitation  of  the  Right  Worthy  and 
Reverend  Deane  of  Sarum,  the  15th  day  of  September,  1635,"  it 
is  stated  "Imprimis,  to  the  sixth  Article  concerning  the  Church 
Goods  and  the  Ornaments  thereof,  we  do  present  that  the  Organs 
of  our  Church  of  Yetminster  are  decayed  and  sold  from  the 
Church,  and  we  desiar  to  have  them  restored  again."  History 
repeats  itself;  and  if  the  Vicar  and  churchwardens  were  in  the 
year  of  grace  1890  to  put  their  wishes  into  writing,  they  could  not 
state  their  case  more  accurately  than  in  the  words  of  their 
predecessors  255  years  ago. 

The  existing  registers,  unfortunately,  do  not  date  earlier  than 
the  year  1677,  but  a  memorandum  by  John  White,  who  became 
vicar  two  years  later,  mentions  that  he  had  in  his  possession 
another  book  beginning  in  1558.  Who  will  seek  for  this  old  book, 
which  even  now  may  be  lying  hid  in  some  office  or  muniment 
room,  whither  it  has  gone  astray  from  its  proper  place  of  custody  ? 

Traces  of  distemper  painting,  comprising  the  ten  Command- 
ments, the  Creed,  and  a  skeleton  with  scythe  and  hour-glass, 
standing  on  a  globe,  with  various  texts  and  mottoes,  adorned  the 
walls  of  the  church,  but  unavoidably  perished  at  the  recent 

One  monument  in  the  church,  besides  the  brass,  deserves 
attention — viz.,  that  of  Bridget,  wife  of  John  Minterne,  of 


Batcombe,  and  second  daughter  of  Sir  John  Browne,  of  Frampton, 
Knt.,  who  died  19th  July,  1649,  now  removed  from  the  north-east 
corner  to  the  west  wall  of  the  north  aisle.  The  Minternes  were 
the  owners  of  Newland,  in  the  former  parish,  and  curious  stories 
are  even  now  in  circulation  among  the  peasantry,  relating  to  the 
infernal  operations  of  one  member  of  the  family,  known  as 
"  Conjuring  Minterne."  Probably  he  was  possessed  of  more 
scientific  or  literary  acquirements  than  the  ordinary  run  of  Dorset 
gentry  of  his  day,  and  this  fact,  if  fact  it  was,  may  have  invested 
him  with  a  halo  of  supernatural  renown.  He  is  said  to  have  leapt, 
on  horseback,  from  the  top  of  Batcombe  Hill,  over  the  church 
tower,  upsetting  a  pinnacle  in  his  course ;  and  other  stories, 
equally  remarkable,  are  still  told  about  him. 

The  following  pathetic  lines,  which  are  of  frequent  occurrence, 
are  to  be  found  in  the  tower  of  the  church  : — 

"  Our  life  is  nothing  but  a  winter's  day 
some  only  break  their  fast  and  soe  away 
others  stay  dinner  and  depart  full  fed 
the  deepest  age  but  supps  and  goes  to  bed 
he's  most  in  debt  that  lingers  out  the  day 
I  dy'd  betimes  and  have  the  lesse  to  pay  " 

Yetminster  Church  is  also  the  burial  place  of  Arthur  Cosens, 
Esq.,  Sheriff  of  Dorset  in  1807,  who  died  24th  June,  1810. 

Among  the  vicars  of  Yetminster,  the  sad  case  of  William 
Bartlett  should  not  be  passed  by.  He  was  instituted  on  17th 
March,  1607,  and  had  a  dispensation  to  hold  in  addition  the 
Rectory  of  Church  Knowle,  12th  November,  1627.  On  the 
beginning  of  the  civil  troubles  he  was  deprived  of  his  Rectory  by 
the  ordinance  against  Pluralities  and  of  his  Vicarage  by  the 
Committee  of  the  County,  and  was  plundered  and  imprisoned  at 
Westminster,  1646,  and  sequestered  from  his  temporal  estate.  A 
letter  written  by  him  on  the  18th  October  of  that  year,  after  he 
had  been  22  weeks  in  prison  for  conscience's  sake,  may  be  read  in 
Walker's  Su/erinys  of  the  Clergy,  pt.  II.,  p.  198. 


Yetminster  seems  to  have  rejoiced  in  the  possession  of  three 
churchwardens.  Three  names  occur  in  1550,  and  again  on  the 
bells  dated  1610  and  1655.  A  churchwarden  and  two  sidesmen 
signed  the  presentment  in  1635,  and  three  names  also  appeared  on 
the  Commandments,  formerly  painted  on  the  church  wall,  and  on 
the  cover  of  the  parish  register,  1677.  This  may  be  accounted  for 
on  the  supposition  that  one  was  elected  for  the  mother  church  and 
one  each  for  the  two  chapelries,  following  the  lines  laid  down  for 
the  election  of  the  Eeeve  at  the  Michaelmas  Manorial  Court,  when 
three  names  were  submitted  by  the  Homage  to  the  Steward, 
whereof  one  must  dwell  at  Leigh,  the  second  in  Chetnoll,  and  the 
third  in  Yetminster,  from  whom  the  Steward  chose  one  to  serve  in 
the  said  office. 

This  parish  has  produced,  so  far  as  I  am  aware,  no  distinguished 
native  or  resident,  unless  we  except  Benjamin  Jesty,  who,  having 
discovered  in  his  own  person  the  prophylactic  effects  of  cow-pox 
taken  direct  from  the  animal,  had  the  fortitude  to  vaccinate  his 
wife  and  children,  in  the  year  1774,  some  22  years  before  Jenner 
had  made  similar  observations  and  experiments.  The  latter, 
however,  received  the  tribute  of  fame  and  the  Parliamentary 
Grant.  Jesty  was  buried  at  Worth  Matravers,  in  the  Isle  of 
Purbeck,  and  his  tombstone  there  records  that  "  He  was  born  at 
Yetminster,  in  this  county,  and  was  an  upright,  honest  man, 
particularly  noted  for  having  been  the  first  person  known  that 
introduced  Cowpox  by  Inoculation,  and  who,  from  his  great  strength 
of  mind,  made  the  experiment  from  the  cow  on  his  wife  and  two 
sons  in  the  year  1774."  He  died  16th  April,  1816.  One  famous 
man,  though  not  a  resident  in  Yetminster,  is  connected  with  it  as 
the  charitable  founder  of  a  boys'  school.  I  mean  the  Hon.  Robert 
Boyle,  of  Stalbridge,  one  of  the  original  members  of  the  Royal 
Society,  who,  by  his  will  in  1691,  bequeathed  the  funds  from 
which  a  school  was  built  for  the  free  education  of  10  boys  of 
Yetminster,  6  of  Leigh,  and  4  of  Chetnole.  A  new  scheme, 
converting  it  into  an  ordinary  elementary  boys'  school,  was  made 
on  10th  April,  1873. 

a  lUmarkable  geformitu  in  a  Jflotocring 
of  dharlork. 


the  25th  of  May,  1889, 1  was  walking  along  a  path 
through  a  corn  field,  on  Radipole  Farm,  near 
Weymouth,  on  the  look-out  for  anything  interest- 
ing, but  chiefly  for  anything  entomological,  which 
would  probably  at  that  season  take  the  form  of  a 
rolled-up  leaf  or  spun-up  shoot  with  a  larva 
inside,  when  my  attention  was  arrested  by  a  flowering  stem  of 
charlock,  or  wild  mustard  (Brassica  arvensisj,  two  or  three  yards 
from  the  path,  which  had  a  very  peculiar  appearance.  The  plant 
was  abundant  in  the  field,  but  this  stalk  seemed  to  be  deformed  in 
some  way,  so  I  picked  and  examined  it.  This  flower  stalk  is  quite 
normal  until  within  three  or  four  inches  of  the  tip,  at  which  point  it 
gives  off  a  small  thin  branch  just  over  Jin.  in  length,  which  again 
joins  the  main  stem  about  2  Jin.  higher  up,  this  main  stem  being  bent 
over  downwards  so  as  to  meet  the  small  branch,  forming  a  closed  some- 
what circular  figure,  nearly  an  inch  in  diameter.  After  this  second 
junction  the  main  stem  continues  its  course  for  more  than  an  inch,  and 
terminates  in  the  usual  way  with  a  few  small  flower  buds — in  fact, 
if  the  small  joining  branch  were  removed  and  the  stem  stretched 
out  straight,  there  would  be  nothing  strikingly  remarkable  about  it. 

158        DEFORMITY    IN    A    FLOWERING    HEAD    OF    CHARLOCK. 

On  the  piece  of  the  stem  which  I  Lave  preserved,  and  which 
is  altogether  about  6Jin.  long,  there  are  six  pods  below  the 
point  where  the  connecting  branch  diverges  from  it,  two  of  these 
being  within  -Jin.  of  this  point.  On  the  curved  piece  of  the  main 
stem  there  are,  or  rather  have  been,  eight  seed  pods,  and  beyond  the 
second  junction  are  numerous  seed  pods  and  flowers,  one  seed  pod 
being  exactly  level  with  the  junction  of  the  stem  and  branch.  On 
the  connecting  branch,  and  almost  exactly  in  the  middle,  is  a  very 
small  but  perfect  bud,  just  like  those  at  the  tip  of  the  main  stem, 
and  on  this  branch,  quite  close  to  its  upper  junction,  is  a  second 
small  bud.  These  I  regard  as  of  great  importance  in  working  out 
the  history  of  this  monstrosity. 

The  only  other  peculiarity  in  the  stem  that  I  think  it  worth  while 
to  describe  is  a  long  groove  which  begins  about  |in.  below  the  first 
junction,  and  continues  its  course  up  the  main  stem  to  near  the  tip. 
The  stem  is  naturally  covered  with  very  small  longitudinal  grooves, 
so  small  that  it  would  more  correctly  be  called  striated ;  and  it  is 
out  of  one  of  these  tiny  grooves  that  the  larger  groove  of  which  I 
am  speaking,  arises.  In  some  parts  this  groove  looks  more  like  a 
split,  as  if  one  had  drawn  the  point  of  a  knife  down  the  stalk  and 
the  edges  of  the  wound  had  gaped  open.  The  groove  becomes 
gradually  larger  from  its  origin  to  the  first  junction  with  the 
connecting  branch  ;  it  then  suddenly  increases  in  size  and  remains 
large  between  the  two  junctions,  after  which  it  is  less  definite  and 

It  is  important  to  notice  that  the  ends  of  the  connecting  branch 
are  immediately  adjacent  to  the  groove,  and  both  spring  from  the 
same  side  of  it,  which  is  very  strong  evidence  that  the  branch  is  in 
some  way  connected  with  it  ;  but  the  groove  is  large  enough  to 
take  in  many  threads  of  the  size  of  the  little  connecting  branch, 
which  is  not  much  thicker  than  a  strong  sewing  thread. 

There  would  be  no  great  difficulty,  in  the  case  of  a  plant  or  tree 
sufficiently  large  to  manipulate,  in  grafting  a  branch  in  this  position, 
so  as  to  join  any  point  of  the  stem  to  a  second  point  higher  up ;  and 
such  cases  do  occasionally,  I  believe,  occur  in  nature,  where  a  branch 


of  a  tree  crosses  and  rubs  against  another  branch,  and  they  gradually 
grow  together ;  but  it  would  be  difficult  to  apply  this  explanation  in 
this  case,  as  it  would  be  hard  to  shew  how  the  top  of  the  shoot  had 
got  bent  round,  and  also  how  the  little  shoot  had  remained  firmly 
pressed  against  the  larger  shoot  sufficiently  long  to  effect  a  complete 

The  explanation  which  I  would  suggest  is  that  a  wound  was 
made  in  an  ordinary  flowering  shoot  whilst  young,  perhaps  when 
very  small  indeed,  when  the  whole  thing  was  only  a  bud.  If  at 
this  earty  date,  it  would  have  been  but  a  very  minute  puncture, 
which  would  probably  in  19  cases  out  of  20  have  healed  up  by  the 
sides  again  growing  together  :  or  it  may  have  been  a  small  slit  in 
the  stalk  made  at  a  later  date ;  it  must,  however,  have  been  made 
not  later  than  when  the  main  stalk  between  the  points  of  junction 
was  Jin.  long — the  present  length  of  the  connecting  branch. 

This  accident,  whatever  was  its  cause,  perhaps  a  thorn  or  a  blow, 
divided  the  stem  into  two  parts,  the  smaller  of  which  I  have 
spoken  of  as  the  connecting  branch.  It  would  be  likely  that  such  a 
narrow  thin  little  strip  of  bark  would  be  stunted  and  unable  to  keep 
pace  in  growth  with  the  other  part,  which  included  almost  all  the 
stem  ',  hence,  whilst  this  little  threadlike  portion  was  almost 
stationary  in  size,  the  remainder  of  the  stem  grew  on,  until  at  the 
time  that  I  found  it  it  measured  2 Jin.,  or  five  times  the  length  of  the 
other  portion  which  had  become  detached  from  it.  This  latter, 
being  sufficiently  strong  to  hold  it,  caused  it  to  curve  round 
into  the  shape  which  it  has  taken. 

The  groove  represents  the  place  from  which  the  connecting  branch 
was  removed,  but  it  has  grown  and  widened  out  with  the  growth 
of  the  stem.  The  buds  on  the  little  branch  are  very  much  stunted 
from  the  small  amount  of  nourishment  that  could  flow  to  them 
along  such  a  minute  stalk,  which  also,  no  doubt,  exhausted  much  of 
its  energy  in  healing  up  its  inner  side  where  it  was  severed.  This 
wound  to  it  would  represent  half  its  surface,  whereas  the  correspond- 
ing wound  on  the  main  stem  would  be  to  it  but  a  trifle.  It  is 
interesting  to  note  that  of  the  eight  buds  on  this  portion  of  the 


stem,  two  only  are  opposite,  the  other  six  being  single,  so  that  four 
buds  are  missing,  as  the  plant  produces  its  flowers  in  pairs,  and  there 
are  only  two  single  flowers  on  the  small  stalk  and  six  on  the 
large  stalk. 

One  difficulty  that  I  see  is  that  the  groove  extends  above  and 
below  the  divided  stalk.  I  should  say  that  this  was  probably  caused 
by  the  tendency  that  we  see  in  any  plant  of  a  split  in  a  branch  to 
continue  its  progress  at  each  end  along  the  grain  of  the  wood. 

Whilst  I  am  on  the  subject  of  vegetable  monstrosities,  I  may 
mention  a  carline  thistle  which  I  found  at  Portland  the  other  day. 
The  plant  is  only  9in.  high,  and  has  two  flowers ;  one  ordinary  one 
on  a  little  side  branch,  and  one  very  extraordinary  one,  which  looks 
as  if  it  were  composed  of  six  or  seven  flowers,  as  the  surface 
occupied  by  its  florets  measures  Tin.  in  length  and  only  about  fin. 
in  breadth,  so  that  the  length  is  eleven  times  the  breadth  !  It  is 
something  like  a  cockscomb.  The  most  striking  part,  perhaps,  to 
the  picker  of  it  is  the  frightful  array  of  prickles  below  the  flower ; 
it  seems  as  if  20  flowers  had  here  united  their  forces  instead  of 
six  or  seven. 

I  should  add  that  the  stalk  is  flattened  in  much  the  same 
proportion  as  the  flower,  but  the  root  is  quite  normal.  The 
explanation  of  this  I  shall  leave  to  the  botanists  of  the  Field  Club. 

Proc,  Uersei    JV.H.  &  A.F.  Club   Vol.  X1L .  IfWl. 

H .  M  Kichai-dsorv  del .  Mirvbem.  Bros .  Ch  r  oira 

1.  Tinea  subtilella  Z.Gelechia  ocellatella.var.  S.Laverna  lacteella. 

&.  work  of  larva  in  birch  leaf. 


1.  Tinea  subtilella,  Fuchs.     Discovered  as  a  species  new  to  Britain  by 

Mrs.  N.  M.  Richardson  at  Portland,  August,  1890.  Fourteen 
specimens  have  altogether  been  taken  in  that  month  and  August, 
1891,  by  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Richardson,  and  two  by  Rev.  C.  R.  Dig  by. 

2.  Gelechia  ocellatella,  Sta.      This  pink  variety  was  bred,  together  with 

others  of  the  ordinary  form,  from  larvae  collected  at  Portland  on 
Beta  maritima  by  Mr.  N.  M.  Richardson,  June  28th,  1890. 

3.  Laverna    lacteella,    Sta.      From    specimens    taken    by    Rev.    O.    P. 

Cambridge  at  Bloxworth,  and  by  Mr.  N.  M.  Richardson  at 
Whatcombe,  near  Blandford  ;  Mr.  E.  R.  Bankes  has  also  bred 
this  species  from  larvae  collected  by  him  at  Bloxworth— all  in  1890. 

4.  Tinagma  betulce,   Wood.     From  a  specimen  taken  at  Bloxworth  by 

Rev.  O.  P.  Cambridge  in  July,  1887.  The  mines  of  this  species 
have  also  been  observed  at  Whatcombe  by  Mr.  N.  M.  Richardson, 
and  the  perfect  insect  was  taken  in  some  abundance  at  Bloxworth 
in  June,  July,  and  August,  1891,  by  Messrs.  O.  P.  Cambridge, 
N.  M.  Richardson,  and  E.  R.  Bankes;  and  most  probably  it 
occurs  elsewhere  in  the  county  amongst  birch. 

The  life  history  of  this  species  was  worked  out  by  Dr.  Wood,  in 
Worcestershire,  from  the  slight  clue  afforded  by  the  holes  in 
the  birch  leaves,  and  the  moth,  which  was  thus  discovered, 
was  described  as  new  to  science  in  October,  1890  (E.M.M. 
xxvi.,  261).  The  egg  is  probably  laid  on  the  outside  or  in  the 
substance  of  a  young  shoot  of  birch.  The  larva,  when  hatched, 
mines  upwards  in  the  birch  twig,  and  in  the  late  summer, 
when  almost  full-fed,  turns  off  into  a  leaf  stalk,  through  which  it 
proceeds  into  the  substance  of  the  leaf.  Having  mined  into  it  a 
short  distance,  it  cuts  out  from  the  upper  and  under  cuticles 
corresponding  oval  pieces  (fig.  4a),  which  it  lines  with  silk,  closing 
them  together  except  at  one  end,  so  as  to  form  a  sort  of  bag-like 
case.  Carrying  this  on  its  back,  it  descends  from  the  birch  tree, 
and,  having  found  a  convenient  resting  place,  fastens  up  the  mouth 
of  its  case  and  turns  therein  to  a  pupa,  from  which  the  perfect 
insect  emerges  in  the  following  summer. 

Fig.  4a  represents  the  biich  leaf  after  the  larva  has  left  it.  It  now 
appears  that  the  work  of  the  larva  had  been  observed  in  1885  near 
Hamburg  by  Dr.  Sorhagen,  who  proposed  for  the  moth  (not  then 
known)  the  name  of  Heliozela  Hammoniella.  A  very  full  and 
interesting  description  of  the  larva  and  its  habits  is  given  by 
Dr.  Wood  in  Entom.  Monthly  Mag.  xxvi.,  261.  (See  also 
E.M.M.  xxvii.,  48,  299,  and  Stettin  Entom.  Zeitung,  1891,  p.  133.) 

©ccumnre  at  fJortknb  of  linea 




an  afternoon  early  in  August,  1890,  Mrs. 
Richardson  and  I  were  collecting  at  Portland,  and 
I  had  left  her  for  a  short  time  to  look  for  one  or 
two  species  which  occur  on  some  steep  slopes, 
when  she  caught  a  very  small  moth  and  boxed  it 
with  some  difficulty  and  soon  afterwards  a  second. 
She  was  immediately  struck  by  the  very  hairy  appearance  of  its 
head  and  shewed  me  the  moths  as  soon  as  I  rejoined  her,  but  as  it 
was  then  growing  dusk  we  were  unable  to  make  much  out  of  them, 
though  they  did  not  look  like  old  acquaintances.  We  caught  no 
more  on  that  day,  but  on  examining  the  insect  on  the  next 
morning  we  came  to  the  conclusion  that  it  was  probably  a  Tinea, 
and  if  so,  new  to  Britain,  as  it  did  not  belong  to  any  of  the  known 
British  species.  Mr.  Stainton  has  since  kindly  named  it  for  me 
from  German  specimens  in  his  collection.  As  might  have  been 
expected,  we  went  several  times  to  Portland  in  pursuit  of  this 
little  creature,  but  took  altogether  only  eight  specimens  between 
us.  The  weather  was  not  good  during  the  early  part  of 
August  on  the  days  on  which  we  went,  and  moths  did  not  fly  much. 


Tinea  subtildla  flies  in  favourable  weather  for  a  short  time  late  in 
the  afternoon  with  an  irregular  sort  of  flight,  and  when  it  settles 
on  a  stone  or  leaf  generally  runs  away  at  a  great  pace  and  is  a  very 
difficult  insect  to  get  safely  into  a  pill  box.  If  one  does  not  succeed 
at  the  first  attempt,  one  is  not  likely  to  do  so  afterwards,  as  it  will 
probably  have  disappeared  amongst  the  stones  or  in  a  bush,  and 
will  not  come  out  again  until  one  has  gone  away.  It  is  hard  to 
get  in  good  condition,  as  its  movements  are  so  quick  and  continuous 
— it  runs  round  and  round  in  the  box  when  caught,  which  takes  a 
good  many  of  the  scales  off  its  wings,  and  it  is  not  easy  to  set  it 
without  damaging  it.  It  is  a  pretty  little  moth  when  alive,  when 
perhaps  the  most  conspicuous  feature  in  it  is  its  eyes,  which 
stand  out  like  little  black  beads  from  the  sides  of  its  head,  and 
are  well  shewn  off  by  the  pale  ochreous  ground  colour  of  its  wings. 
The  top  of  its  head,  which  is  pale  reddish  ochreous,  is  also  striking 
from  its  extreme  hairiness. 

There  is  no  British  species  of  the  genus  Tinea  very  closely  allied 
to  subtildla^  the  one  it  most  resembles  being  biseUiella,  which  is, 
however,  much  larger — about  twice  the  size — and  has  not  the 
dark  scales  at  the  tip  of  the  wing  which  are  present  in  subtildla, 
besides  differences  in  the  structure  of  its  maxillary  palpi.  With 
the  exception  of  what  Stainton  (Nat.  Hist.  Tineina,  Vol.  xiii.,  p. 
34)  speaks  of  as  "the  semi-mythical  subammanella,  which  is  only 
represented  by  the  two  anterior  wings  in  my  collection,"  and  of 
which  the  size  is  given  as  3'",  Tinea  sultiletta,  with  an  expanse  of 
3J'",  is  the  smallest  British  species  of  the  genus,  though  from  its 
light  colour  it  is  by  no  means  the  most  inconspicuous. 

The  following  is  a  description  of  the  imago  (see  also  Ent. 
Monthly  Mag.,  Vol.  xxvii.,  p.  14). 

Exp.  al.,  3J — 3f".  Labial  and  maxillary  palpi  both  much 
developed.  Head  very  hairy,  pale  reddish-ochreous ;  eyes  black, 
very  conspicuous  when  the  insect  is  at  rest.  Fore-wings  and 
fringes  shining  pale  ochreous  with  a  slight  appearance  of  a  darker 
greyish  spot  at  the  tip  of  the  wing,  and  with  the  costa  at  the  base 
also  somewhat  darker.  Hind-wings  and  fringes  very  pale  greyish- 


ochreous.  Antennae,  legs,  and  thorax  pale  ochreous,  like  fore-wings ; 
body  more  the  colour  of  hind-wings. 

This  moth  was  first  taken  by  Herr  Fuchs  on  July  12th,  1878, 
at  Bornich  in  the  Rhine  district  (Rheingau),  on  the  walls  of  old 
vineyards.  He  observes  that  to  catch  it  with  the  net  was  not 
difficult,  but  to  see  it  in  the  net  was  not  so  easy,  and  in  the  attempt 
to  box  it  when  in  the  net  he  lost  many  specimens.  On  cooler 
evenings  it  was  less  active  and  sat  quietly  on  the  stone  walls  of  the 
vineyards,  and  was  then  more  easily  boxed. 

Probably,  Herr  Fuchs  used  a  white  net,  in  which  it  is  most 
difficult  to  see  a  small  light-coloured  moth,  whereas  I  generally  use 
a  green  net,  which  makes  the  boxing  an  easier  matter  ;  my  difficulty 
was  to  catch  it  in  the  net. 

This  is  the  smallest  of  six  species  which  Mr.  Stainton  tells  me 
that  Herr  Fuchs  found  on  the  vineyard  walls.  Four  of  these  have 
not  yet  been  detected  in  Britain,  and  the  remaining  species,  Tinea 
nigripuncteUa,  which  Fuchs  took  in  plenty,  is  rare  with  us.  I  once 
took  one  in  a  stable  at  Portland,  but  have  never  seen  any  more 
specimens,  so  that  it  would  appear  as  if  this  species  was  not  there 
associated  with  stones  or  walls.  It  is  most  often,  I  believe,  found 
in  outhouses,  but  I  do  not  think  that  the  larva  is  known.  It  would 
be  interesting  if  it  were  to  turn  up  amongst  the  stones  at  Portland, 
especially  if  accompanied  by  any  of  Herr  Fuchs'  four  other  species. 
This  genus  is  very  uncertain  in  its  appearance,  and  amongst  our 
British  species  are  several  very  rare  ones,  some  of  which  are,  so  far 
as  I  am  aware,  only  known  in  this  country  by  the  simultaneous 
capture  of  a  few  specimens.  It  is  therefore  by  no  means  unlikely 
that  others  are  still  to  be  found,  in  spite  of  the  immense  number  of 
collectors  that  are  now  spread  all  over  the  country,  and  I  hope  that 
the  ensuing  season  may  shew  that  the  resources  of  Portland  are  not 
yet  exhausted,  though  so-called  civilization  is  doing  its  best  to 
destroy  the  insects  by  making  a  new  railway,  and  the  collectors  of 
them,  by  the  establishment  of  a  new  rifle  range  at  which  rifles  are 
used  which,  I  am  told,  carry  two  miles,  the  shooting  with  which 
takes  place  straight  along  the  undercliff. 


on  the  toork  of  $3rmrbation 




(Swanage,  Dorset). 


HE  village  of  Studland  is  beautifully  situated  on  the 
east  coast  of  the  Isle  of  Purbeck,  Dorsetshire,  near 
the  entrance  to  Poole  Harbour,  and  the  site  of  the 
church  lies  three  miles  north  of  Swanage  and  six 
east  of  the  historical  Corfe  Castle.  Away 
southward  swell  the  Bollard  Downs,  terminating 
eastward  in  the  "  Old  Harry  Rocks,"  which  break  the  waves  from 
entering  Studland  Bay.  Elms,  cypresses,  and  yews  (the  latter  must 
be  over  a  thousand  years  old)  shelter  and  literally  preserve  the 
unique  building.  For  instance,  in  1881  a  strong  S.W.  gale  was 
not  felt  in  the  ancient  churchyard. 

In  the  year  1880  the  rector,  the  Rev.  C.  R.  Digby,  B.A.,  and  his 
churchwardens  (Mr.  A.  M.  Luckham  and  Mr.  J.  Gould),  after 
receiving  suggestions  from  the  Society  for  the  Preservation  of 
Ancient  Buildings,  determined  to  save  the  church  from  a  threatened 
and  utter  collapse.  There  were  immense  cracks  in  the  walls  and 
arches  of  the  tower,  rendering  it  far  from  secure. 



Heavy  shores  were,  therefore,  set  at  the  dangerous  angles  to 
receive  the  thrust  of  the  interior  arches  and  groinings,  and  a  cutting, 
7ft.  wide  and  from  4ft.  to  12ft.  deep,  was  excavated  in  sections  at 
an  average  distance  of  3ft.  from  the  walls  (thus  leaving  space 
for  their  subsequent  underpinning)  and  filled  in  with  concrete. 
This  extended  from  the  east  end  of  the  chancel  to  the  west  end  of 
the  nave.  An  account  of  interesting  relics  found  during  these 
operations  will  be  found  on  page  177. 

The  work  of  preservation  wras  vigorously  commenced  in  the 
summer  of  1881  by  Mr.  W.  M.  Hardy,  of  Swanage,  under  the 
direction  of  the  Diocesan  Surveyor,  G.  R.  Crickmay,  Esq.,  architect 
(Westminster  and  Weymouth).  The  tower  was  thoroughly  shored 
and  encased,  and  the  interior  arches  were  wedged  up  with  strong 
centres ;  then  the  underpinning  commenced.  This  was  found  both 
difficult  and  dangerous,  so  that  short  sections  of  wall,  from  two  to 
three  feet  at  a  time,  were  proceeded  with,  and  even  then,  while  the 
brickwork  was  being  carried  up,  the  core  of  the  wall  ran  down  like 
sand  in  the  hour-glass,  especially  when,  on  one  occasion,  the 
volunteer  artillery  at  Swanage,  in  close  thick  weather,  were  at 
heavy  gun  practice. 

The  new  work  was  set  in  wider  than  the  base  of  the  walls  and 
piers  within  and  without  (except  at  the  east  end  of  the  chancel)  and 
carried  from  A  B  B  B  on  plan.  Underpinning  was  unnecessary 
for  the  rest,  but  the  foundations  were  cleared  out,  Portland  cement 
concrete  rammed  in,  and  a  water  gutter  hollowed  on  the  surface. 

An  interesting  example  of  "  The  Twist "  *  was  revealed  during 
the  excavations.  The  old  foundation  appeared  eighteen  inches  out 
from  the  plinth  at  the  N.W.  corner,  diminishing  to  nothing  at  the 
chancel,  while  on  the  S.  side  the  plinth-line  was  the  same  distance 
the  other  side  of  the  foundation  line,  the  error  tapering  to  nothing 
at  the  middle  buttress  of  tower.  Further  investigation  showed  that 
inside  on  the  north  foundation  and  outside  of  the  south  a  fresh  line 

*  The  "Twist"  found  in  churches  and  cathedrals  is  that  divergence  in 
the  line  of  the  choir  from  that  of  the  nave  intended  to  convey  to  the 
spectator  the  inclination  of  our  Lord's  head  on  the  Cross. 


of  foundation  had  been  laid  down,  as  if  the  workmen  had  set  about 
their  task  with  line  and  square,  but  when  the  ecclesiastical 
authorities  arrived  to  lay  the  corner  stone  they  ordered  the  rather 
common  "  twist "  to  be  observed. 

Many  indications  were  discovered  that  all  the  faced  stone  inside 
and  out,  even  the  plinth  and  thin  stone  foundation  which  bears  it, 
were  additions  to  an  earlier  building  of  rubble-work.  (PI.  I.,  fig.  2). 
The  band  of  ashlar-work  each  side  of  the  chancel  was  a  thin  face  of 
stone  with  no  bond  into  the  wall.  This  started  our  enquiries,  and 
we  became  more  convinced  as  we  proceeded.  On  the  south  side  a 
large  window  or  doorway  had  been  cut  of  the  full  size  and  deeper 
than  the  ornamental  moulding,  and  there  an  arch  of  brick  was 
turned  which  went  through  the  wall. 

Blunders  of  the  early  builders  came  to  light  during  the 
excavations  sufficient  to  account  for  the  sinking  of  the  fabric.  The 
early  builders  found  that  one  part  of  the  ground  consisted  of  soft 
red  sand,  so  soft  that  no  pickaxe  was  needed  to  remove  it,  and 
another  section  of  hard  sand  and  ironstone.  To  obviate  building  on 
such  an  unequal  basis  they  threw  in  a  layer  of  strong  pipe-clay 
about  three  feet  thick  and  five  wide,  which  appears  to  have  been 
well  consolidated.  Perchance  they  dreaded  building  "  a  house  upon 
the  sand,"  though  there  was  no  fear  of  floods  in  this  situation,  and 
neglected  to  notice  that  their  clay  was  a  part  of  the  "house,"  and, 
as  it  happened,  the  clay  about  four  feet  from  the  floor  line  became 
soft  and  the  worms  (an  example  of  the  Darwinian  observations) 
made  the  clay  a  favourite  haunt,  and  burrowed  it  through  and 
through,  softening  and  weakening  the  whole  foundation,  threatening 
the  final  collapse  of  the  fabric. 

Upon  this  clay  the  foundations,  formed  of  very  rough  sandstone 
filled  in  with  sand  and  earth  without  mortar  of  any  kind,  were 
put  in  up  to  the  ground  line.  Here  were  more  relics  (which, 
see  p.  177). 

Ecclesiastical  customs  further  aided  to  endanger  the  church — e.g., 
the  endeavour  of  the  Monks  to  bury  their  dead  near  to  the  Holy 
Place  causing  them'  to  dig  the  vaults  and  graves  close  to  the 



foundations,  some  sepulchres  were  deeper  than  the  original 
substructure,  particularly  on  the  south  side  (fig.  3  on  plan)  ;  and  it 
appeared  evident  also  that  the  Saxon  builders  did  not  foresee  that 
their  Norman  successors  would  raise  a  weighty  superstructure  on 
the  weak  basis  of  their  workmanship. 

(Marked  on  Plan). 

A.  Base  of  pillar,  standing  upon  two  courses  of  thin  flat  stone, 
was  simply  tucked  under  at  a  later  date. 

B.  Foundations,  large  sandstone  rock  put  in  roughly,  and  to  a 
depth  of  about  four  feet. 

C.  A  course  of  flints  regularly  "  pitched  "  like  a  floor. 

D.  A  bed  of  white  clay  of  varied  thickness.     When  wet  it  was 
as  slippery  as  grease,  and  ran  into  a  creamy  substance,  although  dry 
it  became  very  hard  and  difficult  to  remove  with  the  pickaxe. 


used  gives  evidence  of  an  earlier  and  a  later  building  operation. 
That  of  the  earliest  portion  of  the  building — namely,  the  core 
between  the  walls,  the  rough-footing,  and  rubble-work — had  little 
lime  in  it,  and  the  loamy  sand  and  fine  grit  had  been  taken  from 
the  churchyard,  and  in  colour  was  umber.  The  mortar  of  the 
ashlar  work,  piers,  and  arches,  which  may  be  classed  as  Norman 
work,  was  whiter  and  of  better  substance,  chiefly  consisting  of 
lime  and  grit  in  equal  quantities  like  that  in  the  work  at  Corfe 
Castle  ;  while  both  work  and  mortar  of  the  S.W.  buttress,  which 
may  be  assigned  to  the  14th  Century,  was  the  best,  the  mortar 
being  as  hard  as  cement. 

To  preserve  the  chancel  a  brick  beam,  two  feet  by  eighteen  inches, 
was  built  in  all  round  the  walls  just  above  the  window  arches,  and 
in  the  centre  of  this  beam  a  hollow  was  left,  through  which  were 
run  tie-rods  an  inch-and-a-half  thick,  and  these  were  fastened  at 
each  angle  by  nuts  and  screws.  Upright  bars  were  placed  at  the 
angles.  A  couple  of  sets  of  bars  connected,  one  running  round 


the  imposts  of  the  arches  and  the  other  six  feet  higher,  were  worked 
into  the  tower. 

Although  no  hammering  was  allowed  the  insertion  of  these  bars 
was  a  ticklish  task,  but  happily  no  accident  happened.  About 
half-way  up  the  tower,  at  the  N.E.  angle,  the  ashlar  had  to  be 
removed  three  feet  in  height  by  twenty  inches  broad.  There  the 
core  commenced  Tunning  until  no  less  than  eight  feet  above  the 
hole  was  entirely  emptied  out. 

The  whole  of  the  plaster  on  the  interior  walls  was  picked  off. 
Then  the  difficulty  had  to  be  met  how  should  the  chancel  arches  be 
kept  up  1  For  the  cracks  had  been  filled  up  of  old  with  wooden 
wedges  and  plastered  over.  These  having  decayed,  and  the  walls 
being  a  mass  of  small  flints,  chalk,  and  loamy  sand  (for  there  was 
nothing  solid),  the  core  came  rattling  down  like  dust  directly  the 
plaster  was  disturbed  through  the  cracks  in  the  groining  where  the 
wedges  had  been  fixed.  The  difficulty  of  the  running  core  was 
overcome  by  removing  the  loose  stones  directly  the  running  ceased, 
washing  out  the  cracks,  filling  them  with  Portland  cement-grout, 
and  treating  the  outside  face  with  red  sandstone.  Underneath 
the  whitewash  fresco  paintings  of  figures  were  found  on  the  lower 
parts  of  the  groined  arches  and  on  the  walls  round.  Traces  of  these 
frescoes  are  now  visible.  The  diagonal  ribs  were  discovered 
ornamented  with  red  and  blue  lines. 


Insertion  of  Norman  into  earlier  work  (Saxon  surely)  meets  the 
investigator  on  every  hand.  To  effect  this  insertion  the  Norman 
masons  carefully  drew  out  the  rubble-work  and  fitted  the  new 
ashlar  in  the  old. 

Outside  the  eastern  wall  of  the  chancel  is  an  illustration  of  early 
rubble-work  intact  from  foundation  to  roof.  The  original  plinth 
and  quoins  remain.  A  Gothic  window  is  inserted  into  this  wall. 
Of  old  there  does  not  appear  to  have  been  any  window,  except  in 
the  gable  a  small  Norman  loophole  without  decoration,  and  which 
had  no  glass  but  was  closed  by  a  wooden  shutter.  On  the  gable- 


end  there  is  a  cross  of  modern  date  roughly  worked.  In  a  sketch 
by  the  Kev.  John  M.  Colson,  1858,  the  gable  is  represented 
as  "  hipped-in."  On  removing  the  old  roof  it  was  patent  by  the 
timber  that  though  there  were  no  outward  signs  the  sketch  was 
trustworthy.  Some  of  the  stones  of  the  ancient  eave's-course  were 
(removed  from  their  original  place),  and  were  worked  into  the  south 
wall  as  ashlar  on  some  occasion  when  the  roof  was  being  repaired. 
The  moulded  corbels  on  each  side  of  the  gable  remain  in  their  original 
position,  and  formed  part  of  this  course,  which  once  ran  the  entire 
length  of  the  eaves  on  either  side  of  the  chancel.  Three  or  four  of 
the  stones  can  easily  be  seen  below  the  eaves  on  the  south. 


reveals  how  the  Norman  insertions  were  made.  For  five  or  six 
feet  from  the  foundation  there  is  the  rough  early  rubble-work  (pi.  I., 
fig.  2,  E).  Then  can  be  seen  a  belt  of  ashlar  (pi.  I.,  fig.  2,  A.), 
into  which  a  pure  Norman  window  has  been  inserted.  The  coating 
of  ashlar  from  six  to  nine  inches  on  the  bed  is  inside  and  out,  but 
the  core  of  the  wall  (found  while  fixing  the  iron  binding  rods)  is 
of  rubble,  and  (pi.  I.,  fig.  2,  C.)  this  rubble  continues  above  the 
ashlar  until  the  roof  is  reached,  while  the  Norman  work  is  notched 
into  the  ancient  quoins  at  the  angle,  and  so  straight-faced  as  to 
leave  the  older  wall  crooked. 


is  carved  in  a  N.E.  angle  quoin  about  five  feet  above  the  plinth, 
another  on  the  capital  of  the  column  in  the  interior  on  the  same 
level,  and  there  are  more  crosses  at  different  angles  in  the  chancel. 

As  on  the  S.  side  a  moulded  eave's-course  surmounted  this  N. 
wall,  at  the  top  of  which,  near  the  tower,  is  a  small  doorway  leading 
to  the  tower  and  priest's  chamber  over  the  chancel,  evidently 
reached  by  a  ladder  from  the  exterior.  If  there  was,  at  one  time, 
no  rectory  it  is  supposed  a  travelling  priest  did  duty  and  used  the 
chamber  as  his  abode. 

The  serious  nature  of  the  settlement,  producing  from  four- 
and-a-half  to  six  inches  difference,  is  observed  over  the  arch  of 


the  small  window.  It  seems  miraculous  that  the  chancel  kept  erect 
so  long. 


was  made,  in  all  respects,  like  the  northern,  and  it  is  again  observable 
that  there  is  a  difference  between  the  original  rubble  and  the  added 
ashlar.  The  angle  quoins  are  Saxon.  A  moulded  Norman  window 
has  been  inserted,  afterwards  converted  into  a  doorway,  perhaps 
for  the  convenience  of  the  clergyman  as  there  is  no  vestry. 
In  the  seventeenth  century  this  window  was  restored.  Over  it  we 
find  modern  ashlar-work,  as  if  to  strengthen  this  wall,  which  seems 
the  weak  part  of  the  church,  and  here  were  built  in  in  the  old  times 


of  later  date  points  directly  in  the  interior  of  the  church  between 
the  choir  and  the  chancel,  where  there  is  a  raised  stone  platform 
about  six  inches  high  betwixt  the  choir  and  the  chancel. 
Perhaps  the  altar  stood  here  and  the  opening  was  made  for  the 
convenience  of  those  attending  the  Lady  Chapel.  The  squint  has 
a  rebate  in  the  head  for  a  wooden  shutter,  and  part  of  the  hooks 

A  curious  instance  of  reverence  interfering  with  security  came  to 
light  on  this  side.  About  1840  a  buttress  was  built  at  the  S.E. 
angle,  thirteen  feet  high  and  two  feet  six  inches  by  two  feet, 
battering  slightly  on  the  S.  front,  solid,  notched  into  the  ashlar,  and 
tied  in  the  angle  with  irons.  As  the  buttress  was  dragging  down 
the  wall  orders  were  given  by  Mr.  Crickmay  for  removal.  Lo  ! 
three  feet  under  the  plinth  a  leaden  coffin,  a  stone  three  feet  square 
across  it,  upon  which  the  buttress  had  been  erected  !  The  coffin 
had  given  in  three  inches.  This  buttress  has  not  been  replaced. 


also  shows  signs  of  Saxon  origin.  At  first  built  of  square  rough 
rubble-work  to  the  height  of  the  present  string-course  (in  earlier  times 
the  eave's-course),  half-way  up  its  modern  height,  and  roofed  in  at 
the  same  pitch  as  the  nave  and  chancel.  Then  there  were  no 


buttresses,  since  the  foundations  of  these  erected  since  bear  clear 
traces  of  being  added  to  ancient  masonry.  (Fig.  2  on  plan.) 

Two  small  windows  were  undoubtedly  in  the  centre  of  the  N. 
and  S.  walls.  There  are  the  remains  of  sandstone  window  jambs 
with  no  grooves  for  glass  but  rebates  for  shutters.  The  roofs  were 
probably  thatched  with  reed. 

The  buttresses  have  been  inserted  to  strengthen  the  walls  outside, 
while  inside  we  find  massive  columns  and  arches  added  to  the 
earlier  wall  to  enable  the  Normans  to  safely  raise  the  super- 

Above  the  string-course  the  ashlar  has  been  carried  up  and  worked 
in  with  the  buttress,  a  fact  which  should  make  the  argument  for  a 
Saxon  building  earlier  than  the  Norman  alterations  perfectly 

It  was  clearly  the  intention  of  the  latter  masons  to  carry  the 
tower  six  feet  higher  than  they  did.  At  the  top  are  parts  of  four 
windows,  one  in  either  wall,  at  each  jamb  bases  and  columns,  the 
latter  three  feet  six  inches,  without  capitals,  as  if  the  builders 
determined  to  finish  off  with  semi-circular  arches,  but  probably  the 
building  showed  a  tendency  to  settle,  the  mixed  work  at  the  bottom 
not  bearing  the  strain,  so  the  windows  were  built  up  level  with  a 
thickness  of  walling  (three  feet  six  inches),  and  the  two  flat 
gable-ends  E.  and  W.  one  foot  six  only,  to  give  a  slight  run  to  the 

It  is  to  be  noticed  that  the  two  skew-stones  at  the  bottom  of  the 
water-table  on  E.  side  are  worked  to  the  proper  pitch  of  the  roof, 
but  on  the  W.  side  they  are  worked  at  a  different  angle,  being,  it 
would  appear,  the  ancient  skews,  when  the  tower  roof  was  parallel 
to  that  of  the  nave,  as  if  the  builders  covered  in  pro  tern.  The  tower 
is  now  strong  enough  to  bear  completion. 

The  roof  was  found  to  be  of  rude  carpentry,  great  timber 
principals,  purlins,  and  rafters  with  rough  oaken  shingles  laid 
across  about  three  inches  asunder  covered  with  cast-lead  3-1 6th  inch 
thick  without  wooden  rolls,  and  the  lead  in  good  condition. 
The  earliest  date  scored  thereon  is  1381. 


In  the  northern  wall  a  perfect  Norman  window  has  been  inserted 
out  of  centre  in  order  that  the  mid-buttress  of  the  three  flat 
buttresses  to  the  side  of  the  tower  should  have  its  true  position. 
The  appearance  of  these  is  curious.  They  are  not  alike,  and  the 
W.  one  does  not  set  back  (like  the  eastern)  in  order  that  it  should 
come  out  level  with  the  eaves,  or  perhaps  the  earlier  wrork  was  not 
upright,  against  which  the  buttress  has  certainly  been  built. 

The  iron  eave's-gutter  was  supported  on  iron  brackets,  and  at  Mr. 
Hardy's  suggestion  it  was  decided  to  use  a  corbel  for  that  purpose. 
He  drew  a  stone  from  the  quoin,  and  discovered  that  the  inner  end 
of  the  stone  was  a  carved  head  similar  to  those  round  the  eaves  of 
the  nave,  and  this  head  now  forms  the  corbel  at  the  N.E.  corner  of 
the  tower.  (PL  I.,  fig.  1.) 

The  south  wall  of  the  tower  had  a  strong  buttress  placed  against 
it  at  its  S.W.  angle  (see  plan),  probably  in  the  sixteenth  century. 
Before  this  it  appears  as  if  there  were  three  flat  buttresses  like 
those  on  the  N.  To  the  E.  of  the  mid-one  there  was  a  small 
window,  for,  on  removing  the  plaster  inside,  the  Norman  arch  was 
disclosed. .  About  the  seventeenth  century  a  larger  window  was 
inserted  with  a  brick  arch,  which  is  now  cemented  over. 


is  of  Norman  ashlar-work  excepting  each  side  of  the  doorway  (into 
the  bell  loft  from  the  priest's  chamber),  which  is  rough  rubble- 
work.  This  doorway  is  square-headed  and  square  jambs.  The 
east  window  of  the  tower  has  two  moulded  jambs — a  round  centre 
column  of  sandstone — and  the  stone  head  was  added  in  the  place 
of  a  wooden  lintel  in  1881. 


from  nave  gable  to  roof,  is  of  Norman  ashlar-work.  The  window 
(above  the  nave)  not  quite  so  wide  as  the  others,  is  in  the  same 
style  with  foot  ornaments  to  the  columns  like  those  in  the  chancel. 
A  wooden  lintel  was  removed  in  1881  and  a  stone  head  put  in  its 


Opposite  to,  and  level  with  one  at  the  E.,  is  a  square-headed 
doorway,  at  the  bottom  of  which,  in  picking  off  the  plaster,  a  rough 
groove,  the  whole  width  of  the  N.  joint,  was  brought  to  light. 
This  is  at  the  entrance  to  the  bell  loft,  and,  as  each  of  the  four 
bells  (see  Bells,  p.  177)  will  go  through  the  opening  except  the 
largest,  and  its  rim  is  the  exact  width  given  by  the  extra  groove,  it 
was  evidently  knocked  out  to  admit  the  big  bell. 


The  exterior  of  the  nave  is  adorned  with  strange  Norman  corbels 
along  the  eave's-course  of  rude  workmanship  and  vulgar  design. 
Iconoclasts  have  smashed  the  most  interesting.  Cheek  by  jowl 
with  stones,  bearing  these  curious  decorations,  are  some  heads 
showing  advanced  skill,  chiefly  designs  of  animals.  The  harebell 
represented  within  the  building  also  figures  upon  some  of  the  corbels, 
and  one  of  an  octopus  on  the  N. 


up  to  the  eave's-course,  is  mainly  rubble-work.  The  porch  is 
modern.  (Fig.  4  on  plan.)  There  were  probably  two  narrow 
Saxon  windows  in  this  wall  similar  to  those  on  the  1ST.  (The  two 
quoins,  fig  5  on  plan,  are  ashlar.)  The  old  doorway  was  here  also. 
Two  large  semi-circular  windows  have  been  inserted,  one  each  side 
of  the  porch.  The  doorway  is  Norman.  The  plinth  is  in  good 
condition,  having  been  buried  in  the  soil.  It  has  been  surmised 
that  the  Normans  inserted  the  plinth  and  seven-inch  course  of 
ashlar  on  the  top  of  it  when  they  altered  the  church.  The  N.W. 
(pi.  L,  fig.  2)  small  window  proved  an  interesting  study. 

It  certainly  splayed  both  outside  and  in,  similar  to  those  of  the 
Saxon  church  of  S.  Lawrence,  Bradford-on-Avon,  but  the  Normans 
inserted  jambs  and  arches  in  the  outside  part  of  the  window,  which 
account  for  the  two  arches  found  here  one  inside  the  other.  The 
N.E.  window  was  evidently  like  this  one,  but  a  doorway  had  to 
be  cut  through,  to  reach  which  a  flight  of  steps  outside  led  to  the 
entrance  of  a  gallery,  which  was  constructed  about  the  middle  of 
last  century  along  the  N.  side  of  the  nave. 



it  is  believed,  was  a  plain  wall  with  no  window.  The  Saxon  work 
rises  as  high  as  the  eave's-course.  There  is  now  a  large  semi- 
circular window  of  a  late  date  with  plain  jambs.  Probably  there 
was  a  gable-end  with  water-table,  but  this  has  been  rebuilt.  A  fine 
old  Maltese  cross  stands  at  the  gable-end. 


The  floor  line  is  remarkable  in  running  towards  the  chancel — 
three  to  four  inches  in  ten  feet.  Under  the  floor  are  from  three  to 
four  feet  of  human  remains  and  sand. 

In  taking  off  the  plaster  to  fix  a  match-board  dado  on  the  north 
and  south  walls  a  line  running  all  round  the  nave  parallel  with  the 
floor  line  was  discovered,  2  J  inches  wide,  of  red  and  blue  distemper. 
This  colour  was  laid  on  very  thin  plaster  close  to  walls  and  finished 
off  at  the  jambs  of  doorways  with  ornamental  finials. 


are  four  columns  (see  plan),  one  at  each  angle,  with  a  groined  arch, 
the  diagonal  ribs  of  which  are  semi-circular  stilted.  The  groins 
are  of  Purbeck  "burr"  and  soft  enough  to  be  carved  with  a 
knife,  wondrously  light  for  such  architecture,  being  porous  ;  the 
"  burr  "  is  unfitted  for  facing.  The  stone  can  be  obtained  only  from 
rocks  which  appear  at  low  tide  thirty  yards  E.  of  the  stone  quay 
at  Swanage.  There  are  no  other  arches  in  the  neighbourhood 
turned  with  this  stone.  A  proper  radiation  has  been  maintained 
of  the  stones  in  the  arches. 

The  rough  rubble-work  of  the  three  walls  reaches  a  height  of 
about  four  feet. 

Above  the  E.  window,  one  of  a  later  date,  a  large  crack  filled 
in  with  red  sandstone  shows  the  settlement.  As  a  whole  the 
window  went  to  the  S.  and  drew  the  jamb  from  the  rubble  work. 
The  outside  N.  jamb  projects  two  or  three  inches  from  the  inner. 

The  later  builders  left  the  E.  wall  of  the  chancel  untouched. 
The  N.  side  was  hidden  by  plaster  until  the  preservation.  It  has 




a  Norman  window  with  a  splayed  arch  and  ashlar-work  running 
level  with  the  sill  up  to  the  groin.  The  ashlar  is  from  six  to  nine 
inches  on  the  bed,  so  that  the  facing  only  of  the  rubble-work  could 
have  been  removed  to  build  this.  Here,  again,  the  ancient  work 
appears  crooked.  The  window  shews  the  effect  of  the  collapse  of 
the  fabric.  The  crack  is  filled  in  with  red  sandstone.  The  jambs 
have  been  cut  about  very  much. 

Here  stands  an  altar-tomb  of  Purbeck  marble  ;  the  brasses  which 
were  on  the  shield  have  been  demolished. 

Three  of  the  Colson  family  filled  the  rectorial  office  for  more  than 
a  century.  The  stained  glass  window  in  memory  of  the  Rev.  T. 
Colson,  forty  years  rector,  is  dedicated  to  the  patron  S.  Nicholas. 
There  is  also  a  marble  tablet  in  memory  of  the  Kev.  J.  M.  Colson, 
rector  for  fifty-one  years. 

The  floor  (from  the  choir  to  the  chancel)  has  been  restored  to  its 
original  lines.  It  was  level  with  the  top  of  the  bases  of  the 
columns.  The  ancient  bases  and  the  skirting-courses  were 
discovered  during  the  excavation.  The  tombstones  have  been 
relaid,  as  near  as  possible,  in  their  former  positions. 


need  a  few  words  of  explanation.  The  N.E.  capital  bears  the 
consecration  cross  ;  that  of  the  S.W.  possesses  but  one  perfect,  the 
others  being  destroyed  when  the  faces  of  the  capital  and  of  the  rib, 
starting  from  the  N.E.  capital,  were  cut  off  to  make  room  for  the 
tablets.  The  S.E.  column  is  carved  differently  to  the  others.  The 
S.W.  and  N.W.  columns  and  pilasters  were  destroyed,  with  the 
exception  of  the  bases  and  about  six  inches  of  the  shafts.  Pilasters 
without  any  column  we're  added  here  and  at  the  KW.  to 
strengthen  the  old  capital  in  1881. 


the  bases  of  the  columns  on  the  platform  are  six  inches  higher 
than  those  of  the  chancel.  The  Norman  arch  suffered  severely 
(pi.  III.,  fig.  2),  by  the  settlement,  and  became  very  distorted. 


There  is  reason  to  believe  that  it  is  built  inside  a  Saxon  stilted, 
square-faced  arch,  the  capitals  of  which  are  about  eighteen 
inches  higher  than  the  latter,  which  are  cut  in  behind  the  earlier 
moulding.  All  the  arches  are  slightly  stilted.  The  earliest  capitals 
are  unique  in  decoration,  the  subjects  being  fern  and  harebell 
simply  treated,  why  not  acanthus  1  as  at  S.  Mark's,  Venice,  and  also 
in  Romanesque  work.  The  two  rough  corbels  under  them  (very 
plainly  inserted  since  the  Saxon  work)  seem  to  have  supported  a 
rood-beam ;  the  three  holes  to  fix  the  rood  to  the  ashlar-work  are 
seen  above  the  Norman  arch.  (PI.  III.,  fig.  2X.)  And  over  these 
are  the  remains  of  a  fresco,  representing  a  standing  figure,  with  one 
kneeling  on  either  side  of  him. 

Zig-zag  moulding  (surface  carving)  ornaments  the  outer  moulding 
of  the  arch.  The  window  dedicated  to  the  Virgin  Mary  is  in 
memory  of  Miss  L.  C.  Luckham,  and  is  dated  1884. 

The  walls  of  the  choir  are  of  rubble-work.  The  bell  loft  is  above. 
The  ceiling,  which  is  groined  as  in  the  chancel,  is  supported  by 
Purbeck  "  burr,"  and  the  skirting-course  runs  round,  as  in  the  same 
portion  of  the  chancel. 

The  nave  arch  again  shows  the  settlement.  Here  stands  a 
slightly  stilted  Norman  arch,  with  hatchet  and  basket  moulding 
on  the  capitals.  The  basket  work  is  to  be  noticed  as  it 

The  end  beam  of  a  side  gallery  was  once  inserted  in  the  N. 
capital  (pi.  III.,  fig.  1),  the  hole  of  which,  six  inches  square,  is 
stopped  with  Roman  cement,  and  carved  to  imitate  the  stone — an 
unsightly  botch.  Rudely-carved  foot  ornaments,  very  like  those  at 
Wimborne  Minster,  are  at  the  bases  of  the  columns. 

The  stained  glass  S.E.  window  perpetuates  the  memory  of  one 
of  the  Bankes  family. 


stands  under  the  gallery  at  the  W.  end  of  the  church  (pi.  II.,  fig.  1), 
very  ancient,  rudely  axed  out  of  Purbeck  "  burr,"  with  a  rim  four 
inches  thick,  and  it  was  either  lined  with  lead,  or  rimmed  for  a 
cover — perhaps  both.  The  stone  which  supports  the  bowl  is  a 


window  head,  similar  to  the  one  inserted  in  N.W.  window  (pi.  II., 
fig.  2),  evidently  taken  from  the  N.E.  nave  window. 


lend  scope  for  conjecture.  Three  were  cast  in  the  seventeenth 
century,  but  the  large  one  bears  the  astonishing  date  1065  ;  that  is 
about  the  supposed  date  of  the  rubble-work  of  the  earliest  builders 
of  the  church. 

S.  ^Ethelwold's  Benedictional  shows  five  bells  in  a  tower  of  the 


tenth  century.  Bede,  A.D.  674,  mentions  "  the  hearing  the  well 
known  sound  of  a  bell,"  perhaps  one  of  hooped  wood  in  an  open 
turret,  and  maybe  the  Studland  bell  was  at  first  in  such  a  turret, 
and  was  taken  down  when  the  tower  was  enlarged.  This  bell  bears 
an  inscription  in  English — "  Draw  nigh  to  God."  It  has  been 
suggested  that  the  date  should  be  1605  ;  but  it  is  not,  it  might 
have  happened  in  reversing  the  figure  in  casting. 

Again,  it  is  an  inferior  bell  to  the  rest,  showing  fire-cracks  and 
sounding  ill.  The  learned  in  campanology  should  doff  their  coats 
and  examine  the  problem.  They  have  never  done  this.  There 
were  certainly  cast  bells  in  England  thirty  years  before  1065. 


were  unearthed  during  the  excavation  of  the  trenches  for  under- 
pinning purposes.  Three  distinct  layers  of  burials  with  the  upper 
graves  of  the  modern  type,  the  second  "  cists,"  for  which  rough, 
unhewn,  Swanage  stones  had  been  used  to  surround  and  cover  the 
bodies,  and  beneath  these,  lying  in  a  line  approaching  N.E.  to  S. W., 
were  "  cists  "  formed  of  rough  local  flints  and  some  stones.  The 
remains  were  re-interred  at  a  greater  depth  in  the  hard  sand  beneath 
the  concrete. 

Under  the  S.E.  corner  of  the  tower  it  became  necessary  to  go 
down  twelve  feet.  In  excavating,  a  brick  grave  containing  a  coffin 
was  found  touching  the  S.  chancel  wall.  There  was  no  inscription 
and  it  was  reburied  under  the  yew  tree,  thirty-two  feet  N.  of  the 
N.  door  of  the  nave. 


Four  feet  .from  the  N.  chancel  window  another  rough  Swanage 
stone  "  cist  "  was  discovered,  but  not  disturbed.  And  between  the 
tower  buttress  and  the  S.  porch  a  "  cist "  of  hewn  stone,  correspond- 
ing to  the  Norman  work  of  the  church,  was  found  and  had  to  be 

In  the  old  foundations  were  bedded  massive  stone  steps,  rudely 
axed,  with  morticed  holes,  about  four  inches  square,  to  admit  the 
door-janibs — evidently  non-ecclesiastical — evidently  remains  from 
some  very  ancient  villa,  Saxon  holding,  or  strong  keep,  worked 
.out  of  local  sandstone  of  the  consistence  of  the  hoary  and  lonely 
Agglestone  Rock  on  the  heath.  Also  a  huge  keystone  of  an  arch, 
suitable  for  a  radius  of  five  feet,  was  turned  up  ;  likewise  a  hand- 
mill  formed  by  two  round  stones  about  eighteen  inches  in  diameter, 
one  of  them  having  a  hole  at  its  centre. 


I  think  that  the  facts  herein  contained  speak  for  themselves, 
and  deserve  from  antiquarians  their  best  consideration.  At  every 
point  there  are  problems  for  which  there  seems  to  be  but  one 
legitimate  and  logical  solution — viz.,  that  a  Saxon,  rough,  rubble- 
work  building,  was  improved  by  Norman  insertions.  If  so,  then 
the  church  at  Studland  is  one  of  the  most  ancient  remains  in  our 
country,  and  deserves  to  have  its  fame  spread  and  its  uniqueness 
recognised.  With  facts  before  us  of  original  foundations  (see  plan)j 
old  red  sandstone  steps,  and  stones  to  match,  and  window  jambs, 
and  mouldings,  &c.,  very  roughly  axed,  we  are  bound  to  say  that  on 
this  site  building  operations  were  carried  out  at  a  very  early  date. 
It  might  have  been  a  Roman  stronghold  or  look-out  hiding-pace  for 
the  use  of  the  good  people  of  Wareham,  Corfe  Castle,  and 
Wimborne.  We  also  find  that  in  the  middle  of  the  seventh  century 
S.  Aldhelm  built  a  church  near  his  own  estate  "not  far  from 
Wareham,  in  Dorset,  where  Corfe  Castle  stands  out  in  the  sea,"  the 
remains  of  which  are  still  visible,  as  has  been  pointed  out  by  Mr. 
T.  Bond  in  his  valuable  Treatise  on  Corfe  Castle,  in  the  south  wall 
of  the  western,  or  second  ward.  From  architectural  peculiarities 



traceable  in  Worth  and  Studland  Churches,  and  S.  Martin's 
Church  at  Wareliam,  these  buildings,  in  their  original  form,  may 
be  assigned  to  the  time  of  S.  Aldhelm,  if  not  to  his  personal 

Jtncient  f  ritish  Brns. 

By  Dr.  WAKE  SMART. 

ITH  a  wealth  of  Ancient  British  pottery  in  the 
cabinets  of  private  collectors  in  Dorset,  and  in  the 
public  Museum,  and  in  Libraries  with  illustrated 
works  relating  to  the  subject,  I  am  not  aware  of 
any  attempt  having  been  made  to  reduce  the  facts 
thus  obtained  to  a  systematic  order  or  classifica- 
tion, by  which  their  value  may  be  better  understood  and  appre- 
ciated. It  may  be  thought  a  presumption  on  my  part  to  attempt 
or  even  suggest  any  action  of  the  kind  alluded  to,  and,  if  induced 
to  do  so,  my  motive  will  be  simply  to  place  the  facts  we  have  at 
hand  in  a  clearer  light,  with  the  hope  of  improving  our  knowledge 
and  increasing  their  value  as  historical  data. 

In  his  "  Description  of  the  Deverel  Barrow,  opened  in  A.D.  1825 
by  William  Augustus  Miles,  Esq.,"  there  is  an  introductory  letter 
from  his  friend  and  patron,  the  late  Sir  E.  C.  Hoare,  Bart.,  of 
Stourhead,  wherein  the  worthy  Baronet  writes  as  follows  : — "  I 
have  been  for  many  years  past  engaged  in  opening  the  numerous 
barrows  about  Stonehenge,  Abury,  and  Everley,  in  Wilts ;  and 
you  have  been  more  fortunate  in  this  one  Tumulus  than  I  have 
been  in  hundreds  ;  nor  have  I,  in  my  Museum,  more  than  one  [urn] 
of  the  upright  form,  like  those  numbered  2,  3,  7,  12,  15,  22.  I  can 
safely  pronounce  your  urns  to  be  of  the  earliest  British  manufacture, 

Proc.Darset  N.H.  &  A.F.  Club.  Vol.M.  1831. 

Wfnterborne  W!riteckurcli.(Stupp  CoOX) 

((yUndrtccd>)  Winter-home  daiston.  Given  Icy  M™  Michel 

(CorwidaL)  WvnterbcmeAhlxw 

;..»,.,.  :  '--  - 

(Coruridal)  JVetzr  Wcu-eJujun, .  Cunrdngton  CoW\ 

(Ctvwidal)  Rok&  Dowtv.  War-n&  CoW^ 

H.J.Moule  del. 

(Globular)  Wuvterborne>  Wfvbbeckarch/. 

Warn*    CoLL1^ 
I  FT-  2  FT. 


Mmfceon.  Bros .  lith. 


which  their  coarse  texture  will  sufficiently  evince;  they  also  differ 
materially  in  form  from  those  I  have  found  ;  but  still  the  favourite 
zig-zag  ornament  of  the  Britons  is  observable  in  your  urns  as  well 
as  mine."— (Dated,  1826.) 

.Now  let  me  observe  that  in  this  quotation  there  exists  the  germ 
of  a  classification  that  has  never  reached  the  stage  of  maturity. 
And  it  is  my  wish  now  to  invite  particular  attention  to  these 
striking  remarks,  and  to  deduce  from  them  some  important  con- 
vsiderations.  In  his  interesting  book  Mr.  Miles  gives  us  six  Plates, 
which  contain  nineteen  figures  of  urns  from  this  barrow,  of  which 
those  whose  numbers  are  referred  to  by  Sir  Richard  Hoare  are  all 
of  an  unusual  type,  being  more  or  less  cylindrical,  such  a  type  as  he 
had  never  but  once,  as  it  seems,  met  with  in  Wiltshire.  This  is  a 
remarkable  fact  in  the  experience  of  such  a  close  observer,  and 
must  point  without  doubt  to  a  distinct  difference  between  the 
sepulchral  urns  of  Wilts  and  Dorset.  These  Dorset  urns,  of 
cylindrical  shape,  would  seem  to  denote  an  earlier  style  of 
manufacture  than  those  he  had  found  in  Wiltshire.  I  shall  return 
to  these  Plates  again  presently,  but  at  this  moment  call  attention  to 
the  fact  that  the  urns  numbered  2,  3,  15,  22  are  not  only  cylin- 
drical, especially  so  the  two  last  of  them,  but  are  also,  according 
to  Sir  R.  Hoare,  of  coarse  texture,  and  ornamented  in  a  very 
rude  manner  with  irregular  marks  or  indentations,  which  may  have 
been  made  by  the  workman's  finger-nail,  or,  as  No.  2,  a  band  of 
circular  impressions,  which  may  have  been  made  by  the  ball  of  his 
thumb.  In  Mr.  Warne's  Plates  to  his  work  on  "  The  Celtic  Tumuli 
of  Dorset,"  on  Plate  3,  Pokeswell,  there  are  figured  two  urns  of  this 
type  ;  and  in  Plate  5,  Rimbury,  there  are  several  of  this  form  with 
similar  rude  and  simple  ornamentation.  Now  the  question  naturally 
arises,  whence  is  it  that  these  primitive  forms  are  found  in  Dorset, 
and  not  'in  the  adjoining  county  1  The  question  may  admit  of  a 
two-fold  answer :  1st,  that  the  one  county  was  peopled  with  an 
earlier  race  of  people ;  2nd,  that  the  other,  if  peopled  with  an 
equally  ancient  race,  had  undergone  changes  which  its  neighbour 
had  not  experienced.  I  am  disposed  to  accept  the  latter  explanation. 


Our  earliest  civilisation  has  come  to  us  from  the  East.  If 
so,  in  the  natural  course  of  events  the  "Wiltshire  Plains  would 
receive  the  earlier  beams  of  that  civilisation  which,  gleaming  from 
the  Dover  Cliffs  and  the  shores  of  Kent,  made  its  way  along  the 
course  of  the  Thames,  and  through  the  Wilds  of  Andred  to  emerge 
with  clearer  effulgence  on  the  Plains  of  Wiltshire.  Without 
pursuing  the  metaphor,  we  may  imagine  that  the  Belgse,  a 
commercial,  if  not  a  warlike  people,  would  prove  themselves 
to  be  the  pioneers  of  the  Bronze  Age,  and  thus  these  incursions 
would  gradually  supersede  old  customs  and  habits,  and  intro- 
duce new  methods  of  art,  in  clay  as  well  as  metal.  Thus  I 
can  conceive  that  the  Bronze  Age  established  its  footing  in  Wilts 
before  it  settled  itself  in  Dorset ;  consequently  old  habits,  old 
customs,  and  modes  of  thought  continued  longer  amongst  the 
Celtic  race  of  Dorset.  To  assign  a  date  to  the  period  when  these 
changes  began  is  beyond  our  power,  but  we  shall  not  be  far  wrong 
if  we  carry  them  back  several  centuries  before  the  Roman  Invasion. 
Stonehenge  is  unquestionably  a  monument  of  the  Bronze  Age ; 
Abury  of  the  Stone  Age.  It  is  a  fact  that  Bronze  Weapons,  the 
elaborately  ornamented  Drinking  Cups  of  fine  texture,  and  the 
Incense  Cups,  as  they  are  called,  are  all  more  frequently  found  in 
the  Tumuli  of  Wilts  than  of  Dorset,  pointing  to  the  higher 
generalisation  that  the  Bronze  Age  was  established  in  our  neighbour 
county  before  it  revolutionised  Dorset. 

Now,  to  return  to  the  Deverel  Barrow.  Of  the  nineteen  or  twenty 
urns  which  are  given  by  Mr.  Miles,  ten  of  these  are  of  the  globular 
form ;  all  of  them  embellished  with  bands  of  linear  indent,  and 
some  with  the  Vandyke  or  chevron  pattern  also,  round  the  upper 
part  or  neck  of  the  urn.  They  have  many  of  them  perforated  ears 
or  loops  to  admit  a  thong  or  twisted  vegetable  fibres  for  suspension. 
This  globular  shaped  vessel  is  by  no  means  uncommon.  Thus  in 
Plate  2,  Celtic  Turn.,  there  are  two  of  this  kind  shown  from 
barrows  on  the  Ridgeway  and  Came,  each  ornamented  with  the 
usual  circular  and  zig-zag  lines.  In  PI.  3,  Pokes  well,  two  of  this 
description  ;  in  PI.  6,  two  more  from  Whitchurch.  At  Plush  in 


1871  a  large  number  of  sepulchral  urns  were  discovered  in  a  bed 
of  large  flints ;  there  were,  it  is  said,  so  many  as  30  or  40  which 
contained  bones  and  ashes,  all  of  which  were  destroyed  with 
the  exception  of  two  or  three,  two  of  which  were  of  globular 
form  with  band  of  indented  lines  round  the  upper  part. 
[See  a  communication  from  the  late  Canon  Bingham,  F.S.A.,  in 
Proceed.  Soc.  Antiq.  2nd  S.,  Vol.  5,  p.  112.] 

In  "  The  Barrow  Diggers,"  Plate  8,  are  figures  of  two  urns  of 
this  form  which  were  obtained  from  barrows  on  Charlton 
and  Littleton  Downs.*  A  third  urn  from  the  same  spot  by 
Mr.  Durden  is  of  the  sub-cylindrical  shape,  18in.  in  height  and 
10 Jin.  in  diameter  of  niouth,  rudely  impressed  with  the  finger  and 
thumb.  Urns  of  the  globular  form  have  been  so  often  found  in 
the  Dorset  barrows,  and  so  rarely  elsewhere,  that  we  are  induced  to 
claim  them  as  peculiar  to  this  county.  This  suggestion  was  first 
made  to  me  by  Mr.  Moule,  who  was  quoting  the  "  Archaeological 
Journal."  It  may  not  be  easy  to  explain  the  origin  of  peculiarities 
of  style  in  an  early  period,  but  there  can  be  no  reasonable  doubt  of 
the  fact.  We  must  bear  in  mind  that  at  this  period  fictile  vessels 
were  hand-made  without  the  potter's  wheel,  and  that  consequently 
much  depended  on  the  taste  and  skill  of  individual  workmen.  The 
size  of  these  globular  urns  varies  a  good  deal.  The  specimens  in  our 
Museum  measure  thus  :  1.  From  Whitchurch  S.  Farm  (Celt.  Turn., 
pi.  iv.)  ;  height,  II  in.  ;  diameter  of  mouth,  7|in. ;  girth,  2ft.  11  in. 
2.  Pokeswell  (Celt.  Turn.,  pi.  8) ;  height,  8f  in. ;  diameter  of  mouth, 
Tin.  (?);  girth,  2ft.  Sin.  (?).  3.  Chesilborne;  height,  8Jin.;  diameter 
of  mouth,  7 Jin.  ;  girth,  2ft.  l|in.  In  the  last  place  I  will  draw 
attention  to  a  third  description  of  cinerary  urns,  of  which  we 
possess  some  striking  examples,  and  which  are  more  generally 

*  This  somewhat  singular  work  is  attributed  to  the  pen  of  the  late  Rev. 
Charles  Woolls,  curate  of  Sturminster  Marshall.  It  is  dedicated  to  the 
Rev.  Thomas  Rackett,  M.A.,  F.R.S.,  F.S.A.,  rector  of  Spetisbury.  It 
gives  an  account  of  the  excavation  of  a  large  barrow  at  Shapwick  with 
much  expense,  time,  and  labour,  and  very  little  profit.  There  are  some 
valuable  notes  in  the  book,  and  a  few  good  plates  of  antiquities,  &c. 
Printed  by  Mr.  Shipp,  Blandford,  1839,  p.  122. 


known  than  those  of  the  two  other  kinds  already  mentioned,  and 
are  more  widely  distributed  throughout  this  country.  These  vary 
much  in  size,  in  modification  of  form,  and  in  modes  of  ornamenta- 
tion, yet  are  reducible,  as  I  think,  to  one  and  the  same  principle  of 
classification,  as  I  will  endeavour  to  shew  before  I  conclude  this 

In'  a  very  charming  little  volume  written  and  published  by  the 
late  Edward  T.  Stevens,  F.S.A.,  of  Salisbury,  entitled,  "  Jottings 
on  some  Objects  of  Interest  in  the  Stonehenge  Excursion  of  the 
Wiltshire  Archaeological  and  Natural  History  Society,"  on  August 
24,  1876,  two  years  only  before  the  author's  lamented  decease,  a 
deplorable  loss  to  archasological  science,  he,  on  p.  179,  speaks  of 
"  barrel-shaped  "  urns,  which,  it  is  said,  "  although  rather  common 
in  the  barrows  of  Dorset,  are  rare  in  those  of  Wiltshire  ;  only  one 
from  a  barrow  within  a  third  of  a  mile  from  Stonehenge  is  figured 
by  Sir  E.  C.  Hoare.  It  is  the  largest  obtained  by  him  entire,  and 
measures  over  22in.  in  height"  [and  15in.  in  diameter  of  mouth].* 
These  dimensions,  however,  have  been  exceeded  by  those  of  an  urn 
found  at  Bishopstone  in  1867,  now  in  the  Blackmore  Museum  : 
"  The  largest  hitherto  found  in  Wiltshire,  '  barrel-shaped,'  and 
measures  over  24  inches  in  height."  (P.  177.)  Unquestionably, 
it  is  a  noble  specimen  of  cinerary  urn,  but  why  Dr.  Thurman  should 
have  classified  it  as  "  barrel-shaped  "  is  not  so  obvious.  Strictly 
speaking  it  is  not  at  all  of  that  form  ;  conoidal  would,  I  think, 
have  been  a  more  appropriate  designation.  Urns  partaking  of  this 
character  are  certainly  very  well  known  in  Dorset,  whilst  a  true 
"  barrel-shaped  "  one  would  be  rarer  than  any  other  form  known 
here.  |  By  the  kindness  of  my  friend,  Mr.  Moule,  our  excellent 

*  There  is  a  figure  of  this  urn  of  conoidal  form  in  a  Pamphlet  by  Sir  R. 
C.  Hoare  giving  an  index  to  his  discoveries  in  the  Barrows  of  Wiltshire, 
with  plates  of  the  different  kinds  of  Tumuli.  This  Pamphlet  is  become 
very  scarce.  Shaftesbury  :  Rutter,  1829. 

t  There  are  two  examples  of  this  bi-conoidal  type  in  the  Dorset  Museum ; 
they  are  small  urns,  but  well  marked  specimens  of  this  rare  form  ;  one 
in  Mr.  Cunnington's  collection  from  Little  Puddle,  the  other  in  the 
Warne  collection. 


curator,  I  am  enabled  to  give  the  dimensions  of  a  few  of  this 
conoidal  class  of  urns  in  the  Dorset  Museum  : — 1.  From  Winter- 
borne  Clenston,  urn,  height,  21in.  ;  diameter  of  rim,  15in.  2. 
Whitchurch  (Shipp  collection),  ditto,  height,  20|in. ;  diameter  of 
rim,  17Jin.  3-4.  Lord's  Down,  Dewlish,  ditto,  height,  16|in.  and 
16in.  ;  diameter  of  rim,  13|in.  and  13in.  5.  Rimsbury  (Warne 
collection),  ditto,  height,  16in.  ;  diameter  of  rim,  9|in.  6.  Winter- 
borne  Abbas  (by  the  late  Mr.  Manfield),  ditto,  height,  16in.  ; 
diameter  of  rim,  llfin.  One  of  the  finest  urns  of  this  class  ever 
found  in  Dorset  was  disinterred  by  Mr.  Shipp  from  a  barrow  on 
Eoke  Down,  and  is  now  in  Mr.  Durden's  Museum.  It  measures 
18in.  in  height,  13 Jin.  diameter  of  mouth,  15in.  diameter  of  bulge, 
and  Tin.  diameter  of  foot.  Its  contents  were  thirteen  gallons  of 
earth,  ashes,  and  human  bones.  (Celt.  Turn.,  Warne.)  This 
affords  a  criterion  of  the  capacity  of  these  large  urns.  On  Whit- 
church  Downs  in  1864  Mr.  Shipp  discovered  an  urn  22in.  in  height, 
and  in  circumference  53in.  It  was  of  plain  cylinder  shape, 
decreasing  in  size  to  the  bottom  (conoidal),  and  contained  calcined 
bones  and  rudely  chipped  arrow  heads.  It  has  a  greater  capacity 
than  the  Roke  Down  urn,  and  is  the  largest  yet  found  in  Dorset. 
(Celt.  Turn.  No.  41,  Warne.)  On  Launceston  Heath  Messrs.  Warne 
and  Shipp  excavated  two  barrows,  from  one  of  which  they  obtained 
a  fine  urn  19in.  in  height,  14in.  diameter  of  mouth,  with  16in. 
diameter  of  bulge,  ornamented  round  the  top  with  a  series  of 
Vandykes  resembling  pointed  Gothic  arches,  and  vertical  lines  to 
the  foot.  The  other  urn  was  less  ornate,  but  very  like  the  other  in 
form  and  size.  (Celt.  Turn.,  Vignette.)  From  Bloxworth  Down  an 
urn  17in.  in  height  and  15in.  in  diameter,  filled  with  calcined 
bones  and  ashes,  was  found  (ib.)  On  Boveridge  Heath  an  urn  of 
coarse  material  9  Jin.  in  height  and  12in.  diameter  of  mouth,  simply 
and  rudely  ornamented,  inverted  over  a  deposit  of  calcined  bones 
and  protected  above  by  a  large  sandstone  *  (ib.)  From  Merley  Heath 
the  Rev.  John  Austin  procured  a  fine  urn — height,  17in. ;  diameter 

*  This  urn  has  been  lost,  but  from  a  sketch  of  it  which  I  have  it  might 
have  been  included  in  the  globular  class. 


of  mouth,  12in.  (Plate  7,  fig.  7,  Celt.  Turn.)  In  "The  Barrow 
Diggers"  (plate  9,  fig.  4)  is  a  fine  urn  from  a  cairn  of  flints  at 
Puddlehinton — 9in.  in  height,  7in.  diameter  of  mouth,  24in. 
circumference  at  the  top,  and  16in.  at  the  foot.  This  urn  is  one  of 
a  numerous  family  which  present  a  great  variety  in  form  and 
ornamentation,  extending  from  the  base  of  the  cone  or  shoulder  of 
the  urn  to  the  rim  or  mouth.  All  such  are  of  the  conoidal  class. 

I  have  adduced  examples  enough  to  illustrate  the  classification  I 
have  adopted  in  this  paper,  which  resolves  itself  into  the  three 
following  heads,  viz.  : — 

1.  Urns  of  the  cylindrical  or  sub-cylindrical  form. 

2.  Urns  of  the  globular  form. 

3.  Urns  of  the  conoidal  form. 

And  in  conclusion — 

"  Si  quid  novisti  rectius  illis 
Candidus  imperti ;  si  non,  his  utere  mecum. " 

T.  W.  W.  S. 
May,  1891. 


By   Mr.   A,   M.   WALLIS. 

UAKRYING  stone  in  Portland  dates  back  from  a 
very  early  period.  The  banqueting  house  at 
Whitehall  was  constructed  of  material  brought 
from  Portland  in  1610.  After  the  great  fire  of 
London  it  took  the  form  of  a  trade.  St.  Paul's 
Cathedral  and  other  public  buildings  were  built  of 
Portland  stone.  All  of  the  quarries  are  worked  from  the  top,  and 
it  was  necessary  to  remove  from  ten  to  fifty  feet  of  the  superin- 
cumbent Purbeck  beds  before  the  Portland  beds  could  be  reached. 
The  site  chosen  was  near  the  edge  of  the  cliff  where  the  Purbeck 
beds  could  be  conveniently  disposed  of  and  not  far  from  the  place 
of  shipment  of  which  there  are  many  evidences ;  remains  of  piers 
may  be  traced  around  the  island.  Few  would  believe  that  a  pier 
was  ever  erected  in  the  West  Bay,  but  there  is  one,  however,  at  a 
place  called  Little  Bow,  near  the  Tar  Rocks.  The  Purbeck  beds 
are  locally  known  as  Mublle  and  Cap — 1,  Kubbly  bed,  composed 
of  clay  and  shivered  stone  ;  2,  clay  seam  ;  3,  hard  slate  ;  4, 
bacon  tier,  composed  of  stone  and  clay  ;  5,  seam  of  clay,  dark 
brown,  streaked  with  green  ;  6,  a  layer  of  soft  stone  called  aish, 
which,  when  solid,  is  very  white  and  used  for  whitening  hearthstones 
and  doorsteps;  7,  soft  bur  stone,  coarse-grained,  and  used  in  the 


island  for  building.  The  bur  rests  upon  the  dirt  bed,  which  at  one 
time  supported  a  forest ;  silicified  conifers  and  cycadea,  locally 
known  as  bird's  nests,  occur  in  some  profusion,  the  trunks  of  the 
conifers  penetrating  through  the  soft  bur  above.  The  roots  occur 
occasionally  in  the  underlying  cap,  which,  with  the  scull  cap 
terminates  the  Purbeck  series.  The  dirt  bed  is  only  about  a  foot 
thick,  so  enormous  has  been  the  pressure  to  which  it  was  subject. 
Stumps  of  trees  are  found  standing  five  or  six  feet  above,  which 
measure  from  four  to  five  feet  in  diameter.  They  usually  bend 
towards  the  south-east.  In  addition  to  these  fossils  the  dirt  bed 
contains  rounded  blue  stone,  which,  when  broken,  gives  off  a 
disagreeable  smell.  The  cap,  which  is  from  six  to  eight  feet  in 
thickness,  intervenes  between  this  and  a  second  dirt  bed  in  which 
cycadea  (bird's-nests)  occur.  It  is  a  very  hard  stone,  and  forms  a 
bed  which  has  to  be  blasted  before  removal.  The  last  bed  of  the 
Purbeck  series  is  the  scull  cap,  from  two  to  three  feet  thick,  and 
which  rests  on  the  Portland  bed.  Various  means  are  employed  for 
blasting  this  hard  obstinate  cap,  the  one  mostly  in  vogue  at 
present  being  dynamite  fired  by  electricity.  Several  holes  can  be 
exploded  simultaneously.  These  are  made  with  a  drill  of  steel  from 
four  to  five  feet  in  length  and  about  an  inch  and  a-half  in  diameter 
with  a  flattened  cutting  edge  which,  being  wider  than  the  bar, 
makes  the  hole  large  enough  for  the  bar  to  clear  it.  When  the  drill 
has  been  driven  down  to  its  full  length  a  bar  of  iron  from  eight  to  ten 
feet  in  length  with  similar  cutting  edges  is  substituted.  This  bar, 
termed  by  workmen  a  jumper,  is  held  by  two  or  three  men,  and  is 
continuously  lifted  up  and  let  do\vn  with  force  until  the  hole  is 
of  sufficient  depth.  The  holes  are  usually  placed  in  a  line  six  or 
seven  feet  apart  and  from  eight  to  twelve  feet  from  the  outside. 
When  charged  with  dynamite  and  the  fuse  ready  two  very  fine 
wires  insulated  with  gutta  percha  are  fixed  to  a  rod  of  wood  which 
keeps  them  in  position.  The  detonator,  which  is  placed  in  a  small 
cartridge  of  dynamite,  is  attached  to  the  fuse  and  secured  in  such  a 
way  as  not  to  allow  the  admission  of  water,  which  is  poured  into 
the  holes  after  the  introduction  of  the  detonator.  Two  stout 


insulated  wire  cables  attached  to  hand  reels  are  fastened  to  the  two 
outside  holes  ;  these  are  of  sufficient  length  for  the  operator  to  keep 
at  a  convenient  and  safe  distance,  and  he,  after  connecting  the  cable 
with  the  electric  apparatus,  fires  the  dynamite.  Another  method  is 
by  wedging.  To  effect  this  iron  pigs,  or  pieces  of  iron  16  inches 
long,  four  broad,  and  two  and  a-half  thick  are  used.  Two  of  these, 
placed  one  on  the  other,  are  inserted  along  the  face  of  the  bed  in 
several  places  ;  sometimes  there  are  as  many  as  eight  or  ten  of 
them ;  four  large  wedges  are  hammered  in  between  the  pig  irons. 
A  man  armed  with  a  sledge  hammer  from  161b.  to  201b.  in  weight  is 
required  for  each  set  of  wedges.  When  all  are  ready  every  man 
strikes  with  accurate  precision  to  the  time  given  by  the  leading 
hand.  This  is  termed  reaming  the  upper  cap.  Each  quarry  is 
worked  by  four  or  five  men  and  a  boy,  termed  a  company.  In  case 
more  hands  are  wanted,  others  are  borrowed  from  a  neighbouring 
quarry,  who  are  expected  to  bring  their  own  tools  with  them.  These 
are  repaid  by  lending  quarry  men  on  the  same  terms.  A  block  of 
stone  weighing  two  or  three  hundred  tons  can  be  moved  by  this 
method.  It  is  then  blasted,  and  the  pieces  are  removed  by  a  crane  on 
a  trolly  and  thrown  away.  The  scull  cap,  which  is  equally  valueless, 
is  treated  in  the  same  manner,  but  with  less  difficulty  and  trouble. 
This  is  the  lowest  bed  of  the  Purbecks,  and  is  succeeded  by  the 
Portland  beds.  The  first  of  the  series,  called  the  roach,  has  several 
joints  passing  through  it  named  according  to  the  direction  they  take 
— souther,  east  and  wester,  north-easter  and  south-easter,  or 
rainger.  Fissures,  termed  by  the  islanders  gullies,  from  one  to  three 
feet  in  width  in  a  south-west  and  north-west  direction,  and  from 
30  to  60  yards  apart,  form  the  headings  of  the  quarries.  The 
quarryman's  object  is  to  find  a  suitable  joint,  which  is  sometimes 
difficult,  as  they  are  often  closed  up.  A  thin  layer  of  soil  usually 
covers  the  roach,  and  is  very  hard,  but  with  the  aid  of  a  pointed 
tool  it  will  fly  out  along  the  joint.  Holes,  or  trenches,  eighteen 
inches  Icng,  from  eight  inches  to  a  foot  deep,  and  six  inches  wide, 
are  worked  through  the  joint,  the  number  depending  upon  the  size 
of  the  rock  which  is  to  be  moved.  Iron  pigs  are  then  hammered 


down  tight  •  between  these  wedges  are  introduced,  made  of  the  best 
Swedish  iron  and  weighing  from  seven  to  nine  pounds  each.  After 
a  few  blows  from  sledge  hammers  the  rock  cracks  along  the  joint ; 
occasionally  the  rock  will  not  start  and  the  trenches  will  break  up  ; 
this  is  called  spurring,  and  fresh  trenches  have  to  be  made. 
Minute  shells  occur  under  a  thin  bed  lying  on  the  top  of  the  roach. 
As  soon  as  the  piece  is  separated  from  the  bed  the  wedges  are 
driven  down,  and  with  the  aid  of  flat  pieces  of  iron  it  is  moved  six 
or  eight  inches  apart ;  this  is  called  reaming.  Some  of  these  pieces, 
weighing  from  150  to  300  tons,  can  be  moved  by  seven  or  eight 
men  only.  During  the  process  of  moving  these  large  pieces,  some 
of  the  joints  will  occasionally  separate,  and  if  not  it  is  disjointed  by 
force,  it  is  then  turned  on  its  side  by  the  help  of  a  crane.  Eefore 
the  introduction  of  this  useful  and  labour-saving  machine  it  was 
usual  to  borrow  men  from  the  neighbouring  quarries.  Huge  pieces 
used  to  be  turned  with  iron  bars  and  cog-wheel  jacks  by  ten  or  twelve 
men,  some  of  whom  would  heave  on  the  jacks  while  others 
took  a  short  nip  with  the  bars.  When  everything  was  ready  one 
man  would  say  "  Stran  all  so-o  ay-so-ay,"  when  the  rest  would  haul 
with  all  their  strength  as  each  syllable  was  uttered.  The  process 
is  called  "  hauling  the  rock  down."  When  in  this  position  the 
next  thing  to  be  done  is  to  detach  the  roach  from  the  underlying 
whit  bed,  to  effect  which  a  Y-shaped  pit  or  trench  is  made  at  the 
junction,  into  which  thin  pieces  of  iron  from  ten  to  twelve  inches 
long  and  capable  of  standing  great  pressure  are  introduced.  These 
are  then  tightened  up  with  wedges ;  a  few  strokes  of  a  sledge  hammer 
will  effectually  separate  it  from  its  associated  bed.  Eoach  varies 
greatly  in  different  parts  of  the  island  both  in  structure  and  thickness  ; 
it  usually  consists  of  numerous  casts  of  shell.  At  the  Bill  the 
roach  is  made  up  of  small  oyster  shells.  It  makes  good  material 
for  rough  walling,  is  very  porous,  and  not  affected  by  frost.  It  is 
well  adapted,  too,  for  sea  walls  and  foundations  of  buildings.  When 
in  large  blocks  and  laid  in  its  natural  position  it  will  resist  any 
amount  of  pressure.  The  whit  bed  to  which  the  roach  is  attached 
when  discovered  is  set  apart  for  use,  and  if  free  from  joints  large 


blocks  of  from  ten  ton?  and  upward  can  be  brought  under  the 
quarrymen's  hammer  and  squared.  In  squaring  the  largest  side  is 
usually  taken  first  in  a  vertical  position.  The  tool  used  is  called  a 
kivel ,  it  is  a  kind  of  hammer  weighing  from  six  to  eight  pounds  ; 
the  head  is  oblong,  three  inches  in  length  and  one  inch  and  a-half 
wide,  slightly  hollowed  so  as  to  give  it  two  cutting  edges  ;  the 
other  end  is  pointed  and  termed  a  broach  ;  the  handle  is  a  little 
more  than  two  feet  long ;  a  larger  kivel  from  161b.  to  201b.  in  weight 
is  used  to  break  off  the  large  pieces  of  rough  stone,  which  is  called 
"  knocking  off  the  rough."  The  quarrymen  are  so  accustomed  to 
the  work  that  they  can  guide  the  tool  with  the  utmost  precision,  and, 
by  keeping  time  with  each  other,  make  every  stroke  effective.  As 
soon  as  the  rough  portion  is  removed  by  the  kivel  the  block  is 
chopped  over  with  an  axe,  which  gives  the  stone  a  rough  finish  ;  it  is 
then  turned  over  and  squared.  A  competent  man  measures 
the  stone  when  it  is  finished  and  marks  the  number  of  cubic  feet 
it  contains.  The  trade  mark  of  the  firm  and  the  quarry  mark  are 
cut  upon  the  face  of  the  block  by  the  quarrymen.  Sixteen  cubic 
feet  is  allowed  for  a  ton  of  Portland  stone  or  roach.  A  block  may 
be  known  whether  it  is  sound  by  striking  it  with  a  piece  of  iron  or 
some  hard  substance.  If  sound  it  will  give  a  good  ring,  but  if 
rotten  or  venty  it  will  give  a  discordant  sound,  and  by  placing  the 
hand  on  the  stone  when  striking  it  the  vent  may  be  detected  by  a 
slight  undulating  motion.  In  some  parts  of  the  island  the  whit  bed 
is  intersected  by  hard  silicious  seams  or  bars,  as  they  are  locally 
termed.  The  stone  is  generally  lifted  or  split  along  these  bars. 
At  others  there  are  two  or  three  seams  of  shells  which  run  parallel 
to  the  bed ;  they  generally  consist  of  Perna  mytiloides  and  Peden 
lamellosus.  The  stones  from  these  quarries  are  generally  of  large 
size  but  inferior  quality.  The  stone  from  the  north  part  of  the 
island  is  the  best ;  it  holds  its  length  from  five  to  eight  feet,  it  is  free 
from  shells,  and  composed  of  oolitic  grains  ;  its  colour  is  brownish 
or  buff  colour,  and  easily  worked.  It  stands  all  weather,  and  can 
be  easily  distinguished  from  the  white  whit  bed.  The  usual  fossils 
met  with  in  the  whit  bed  are  teeth,  vertebrae,  and  bones  of  fish. 


A  layer  of  flint  from  six  inches  to  a  foot  thick  separates  it  from 
the  lower  whit  hed,  which  varies  in  thickness  from  two  to  five  feet ; 
helow  it  again  is  another  flint  seam  succeeded  by  a  bed  of  whitish 
stone  intermixed  with  large  black  flints.  This  bed,  too,  rests  upon 
a  seam  of  flint  fifteen  inches  thick.  In  some  parts  of  the  island 
these  beds  are  absent,  and  the  whit  bed  rests  on  the  curf,  with  a 
thin  seam  of  flint  or  shelly  bar  intervening.  The  curf  is  usually 
sand,  and  capable  of  being  squared  up  into  blocks.  It  is  very 
white,  compact,  and  not  oolitic,  but  is  useless  when  underlying  the 
whit  bed  and  flint.  From  the  curf  downwards  the  large  Ammonites 
and  Pleurotomaria  occur,  but  they  predominate  in  the  curf.  The 
base  bed  differs  widely  in  different  parts  of  the  island.  When 
protected  by  the  Purbeck  and  Portland  beds  the  stone  is  white  with 
a  fine  oolitic  grain.  On  the  west  side  of  the  island,  however,  it  is 
soft  and  in  a  rotten  condition,  and  quite  useless  for  quarrying.  In 
the  quarries  when  the  base  bed  underlies  the  whit  bed,  which  is 
not  adapted  for  the  market  and  is  unprotected  by  the  Purbeck  bed, 
it  is  of  good  quality,  eight  feet  thick,  and  harder  than  the  pro- 
tected base  bed.  Although  this  stone  is  good  for  building  purposes, 
it  cannot  be  relied  on  like  the  brown  whit  bed,  and  owing  to  its 
more  compact  material  is  liable  to  be  affected  by  frost.  The  joints 
are  more  open  than  those  of  the  whit  bed,  and  it  is  cut  up  to  size 
with  greater  facility.  It  is  the  lowest  bed  that  is  of  any  economic 
value,  and  is  often  called  the  Base  bed.  There  are  some  twenty  or 
thirty  beds  on  the  west  side  of  the  island  intervening  between  it 
and  the  Portland  clay  and  sands,  fifty-five  feet  thick  in  the 
aggregate.  Some  of  these  are  quarried  by  the  prisoners  for  building 
and  for  the  fortifications  of  the  Verne  Citadel.  Two  of  them, 
termed  flat  beds,  were  used  for  the  Admiralty  works  at  the  Break- 
water. They  are  about  three  feet  thick,  of  a  white  to  a  bluish- 
gray  colour,  with  hard  close  grain  containing  a  high  percentage  of 
silicate.  It  is  a  good  building  stone  when  defended  from  the 
weather.  This  and  all  other  close-grained  stone  is  unfit  for  use 
when  the  sea  bottom  is  muddy,  being  liable  to  the  attacks  of  boring 



There  is  a  curious  old  custom  which  is  still  practised  by  the 
quarrymen  called  "  The  Jump."  Oil  the  return  of  a  newly-married 
man  belonging  to  the  quarry  to  his  work  arrangements  are  made 
for  the  pay  off.  It  was  compulsory  at  one  time  for  the  men  to  pay 
five  shillings  or  to  jump  ;  now  it  is  a  matter  of  choice  whether  he 
will  do  either,  but  as  a  rule  he  will  not  get  much  peace  until  he 
has  complied  with  the  general  custom.  When  a  pay  off  is  to  take 
place  notice  is  given  to  the  men  of  the  neighbouring  quarries. 
Sometimes  five  or  six  sets  of  quarrymen  will  assemble  and  dine 
together.  As  soon  as  dinner  is  over  preparations  are  made  for  the 
jump.  A.  piece  of  thin  wood  is  held  at  one  end  by  the  man  who 
was  last  married,  and  at  the  other  end  by  the  man  who  is  likely  to 
be  married  next.  The  piece  of  wood  is  held  at  a  convenient  height 
to  jump  it  with  ease,  the  married  man  standing  on  one  side  and 
the  unmarried  man  on  the  other.  A  man  stands  by  the  side  of 
each  man  who  holds  the  board  armed  with  a  stick,  whose  duty  it 
is  to  strike  him  while  he  is  jumping.  Before  he  begins  another 
man  stands  forward,  and  with  his  hat  off  he  reads  the  law,  as  it  is 
termed,  the  custom,  which  is  as  follows  : — "  Young  men  and 
bachelors,  I  bid  you  all  adieu,  married  men  and  Kohers  I  come  unto 
you."  The  jump  is  to  be  made  while  the  last  sentence  is  uttered. 
This  is  generally  repeated.  He  then  reads  the  law  relating  to  those 
who  do  not  observe  the  rules,  such  as  omitting  to  take  their  hats 
off,  talking,  or  otherwise  out  of  order.  The  afternoon  is  then  spent 
in  a  genial  manner.  I  consider  the  above  originated  from  some 
ancient  marriage  custom,  probably  Celtic  or  Saxon.  There  are 
many  Celtic  words  in  common  use  in  Portland.  Kimlin  is  familiar 
to  every  Portlander.  It  designates  one  who  is  not  a  native  of  the 
Island,  and  although  he  may  have  resided  many  years  there  he  is 
still  a  Kernlin.  Drew  a  way  through  a  kind  of  stile,  and  many 
other  words  are  in  use  among  the  people  here.  There  is  another 
custom  now  obsolete  termed  Binding-day,  which  persons  now  living 
can  remember.  It  was  observed  on  the  Wednesday  of  the  seventh 
week  after  Christmas  "Day,  when  men  and  women  took  anything 



they  could  lay  their  hand  on  from  their  neighbours,  including 
wearing  apparel,  which  could  be  redeemed  by  paying  a  small 
tribute.  On  that  day  there  was  no  law  to  interfere.  The  custom 
is  said  to  have  originated  from  an  attack  upon  the  islanders  by  some 
foreigners,  who  killed  all  the  men  they  could  find  on  the  island  and 
saved  the  women  alive.  Many  men  hid  themselves,  and  when 
the  foreigners  thought  they  had  gained  the  confidence  of  the  women 
and  were  safe  they  and  the  men  who  were  hidden  rose  and  killed 
the  foreigners. 

on  thz  fUtntn*  of  fldnfall 

(Dbmbation*  on  the  Jlobming  of  Pant*  anb 

of  $  irb*  anb  Insect* 


By   M.    G.    STUART,    Hon.    Sec. 

HE  report  for  the  year  1890  is  drawn  from  returns 
made  from  schedules,  which  were  prepared  l>y  a 
Committee  in  the  winter  of  1889  to  suit  the 
features  of  the  Fauna  and  Flora  of  Dorset.  The 
importance  of  a  uniform  system  of  making  these 
observations  becomes  more  apparent  since  the 
experiment  of  drawing  out  a  return  for  the  County  has  now  been 
carried  on  for  three  years  in  succession.  Mr.  Edward  Mawley, 
the  Phenological  Recorder  to  the  Royal  Meteorological  Society,  in 
a  paper  read  before  the  Hertfordshire  Natural  History  Society  in 
1891,  draws  attention  to  this  matter.  He  says  the  observer  should 
watch  "  the  same  individual  trees  and  shrubs,  and  as  regards 



herbaceous  plants  those  growing  in  precisely  the  same  spots  each 
year."  Further,  the  trees  and  plants  should  be  average  mature 
plants,  situated  in  neither  very  exposed  or  sheltered  positions.  The 
first  flowers  on  each  plant  should  be  carefully  watched  for.  He 
defines  a  plant  to  be  in  flower  when  the  stamens  on  the  first 
blossom  of  it  first  become  visible.  The  object  of  each  observer 
should  be  accuracy  in  the  recorded  observations,  whilst  attention 
should  be  concentrated  on  a  few  unmistakeable  species. 

DURING  1890. 







Cuckoo    .  . 

Apl.  28 

Apl.  13 

Apl.  16 

Apl.  16 

Apl.  23 

Apl.  19 

Swallow  .. 
Sand  Martin 

Apl.  28 

Apl     4 
June  2 

Apl.  14 
Apl.  15 

Apl.  16 

Apl.    4 

Apl.  13 
Apl.  16 


May  16 

Apl.  30 

May    4 

May    8 

May    8 



May  12 

May  21 

Mav  22 

a  May    3 

Landrail  .  . 


May    5 

May  15 


May  12 

May    1 


May    2 

Apl.  22 

May    2 
Apl.  14 

Apl.  16 
Apl.  15 

Apl.    8 

Apl.  13 
May  10 



Oct.  13 

Oct.  21 


Nov.  7 


Mr.  Richardson  mentions  that  he  has  not  observed  the  Wryneck 
at  all  this  year.  The  Corncrake,  which  is  a  fairly  common  bird 
in  the  neighbourhood  of  Weymouth,  has  not  been  noticed,  nor  has 
the  Redstart. 

From  Swanage,  Mr.  Andrews  writes,  the  first  Wheatear  was 
seen  on  the  13th  of  March,  and  the  first  Swallows  on  the  12th  of 
April.  These  latter  remained  with  us,  also  Martins,  until  the  day 
preceding  the  great  frost — viz.,  Nov.  25th ;  on  that  day,  as  on 
several"  previous  days,  numbers  of  each  class  could  be  and  were 


Was  noticed  at 



Corfe  Castle. 


Frog  spawn... 
Ringed  Snake 

June  2 

Feb.   12 
Mar.  12 

April  4 

Mar.  25 
April    9 

a    Song  May  7th. 









Wood  Anemone 

Apl.    22 

Mar.    19 

Mar.   15 

Mar.    31 

Lesser  Celandine 

Feb.    20 

Feb.      8 

Jan.    27 


Feb.     9 

Jan.    27 

Marsh  Marigold 


Mar.    15 

Mar.    26 


Mar.   26 


Dog  Violet 

Feb.    27 

Mar.    30 

Mar.    16 

Greater  Stitchwort 

May    10 

Mar.   12 

Apl.    10 

Apl.      4 

Apl.    14 

Mar.    30 

Herb  Robert    .  . 
Horse  Chestnut 

May      2 
May      4 

Apl.    29 
May      4 

May      1 

Apl     29 

Apl.    22 
May      5 

May      6 

May      5 

Bush  Vetch 

May    16 

Mav    10 

May    13 

May      1 


Apl.      5 

Mar.    20 

Mar.    31 

Mar.    30 

Apl.      3 

Mar.    28 


May      3 

May      9 

May    10 

May      8 

May    20 

Apl.    25 


Sep.    26 


Oct.      4 

Mar.    30 


June  14 

June  18 

June     4 

May      7 

Elder      .  . 

May    29 

June     6 

May    31 

May    24 

Wild  Teazel 

July   30 

July    21 


July    31 


Devil's  Bit 

Aug.     9 

Aug.  30 


Field  Thistle 

June  14 
May    30 

June  18 
July    18 



July    16 
July    21 



Mar.    14 


Mar.    17 

Mar.   30 

Yarrow  .. 

Julv    10 

June  19 

June     4 


Ox-eye    .. 

May    26 

May    19 



May    12 

Mar.    28 

M  ouse-ear    Hawkweed 


May    16 


May    22 



July    21 

June  30 


Greater  Bindweed 

June  29 

July    26 

May    22 

Ground  Ivy 
Wych  Elm 

Mar.   15 
Mar.    15 

Mar.    17 
Mar.   11 

Apl.    19 

Mar.   23 

Mar.    29 
Feb.    20 

Mar.    16 
Mar.   22 

Hazel      .  . 

Jan.    27 

Feb.    21 

Cowslip  .  . 
Spotted  Orchis 

Apl7  20 


Apl.      3 

Apl.      5 

May    29 

Apl.      1 
May    28 

Mar.    28 
May    28 


Apl.    23 

MarT  27 

Apl.      3 

Apl.      5 

Mar.    31 

Mar.   28 
















•§  J4 






May    12 

May      9 

May    18 

Apl.      2 

Bloody  Nosed  Beetle 

May    20 

Mar.    26 

Apl.      6 



June  24 

June     4 

Aug.     4 


Large  Garden  White  Butterfly 
Small  Garden  White  Butterfly 
Orange  Tip  Butterfly 
Meadow  Brown  Butterfly 

May      3 
May      3 
Apl.    16 
May    12 
July     1 

Apl.      8 

Apl7    5 
May    11 
July     4 

May    22 
Mar.    28 
Apl.      6 
Apl.      1 
Apl.      8 

Apl.      3 
Apl.      4 
Mar.    22 
May     1 

Apl.    20 

Apl.    10 
May    24 

The  Kev.  0.  P.  Cambridge  writes  : — "  The  general  character  of 
the  year  has  been  its  cold,  cheerless  sunlessness,  especially  during 
June,  July,  and  August.  It  has  been  the  worst  entomological  year 
I  have  known  for  many  years  past ;  scarcely  even  a  wasp  (though 



wasps  were  in  great  abundance  at  Cadbury,  Somerset,  during 
luncheon  time  at  the  Field  Club  meeting  on  August  29th).  The 
year  has  also  been  remarkable  for  the  almost  complete  absence  of 





i*       I 

•  i-H  ,-H  rO  <M  tO  10  10  CM  t-H  09  i-H        T-I 


oa  o  rM  CNI  o  oaco  co  AH  o  co  Ai 



3   s 


General  Pitt  Rivers  sends  the  amounts  of  rainfall  registered  at  the 
Larmer  Tree  during  1890  as  33 '41  inches,  showing  an  excess  of  1-16 
over  that  of  Rushmore,  distant  about  one  mile  to  the  north-east. 

RETURNS    OF    RAINFALL,    ETC.,    IN   DORSET.  199 

At  Swanage  25'23  inches  were  registered,  of  which  0*65  fell  in 
the  form  of  snow  on  the  night  of  December  18th,  but  as  the 
temperature  was  above  freezing  point  (i.e.,  33°  F.)  this  melted  as 
it  fell.  Mr.  Stillwell,  at  Langton  Matravers,  states  that  in 
February  the  total  rainfall  was  only  0'83,  of  which  0*56  fell  on 
the  14th. 

The  day  on  which  the  greatest  amount  of  rain  fell — 

At  Langton  Matravers  was  on  Sept.  21st,  then  0.82  in.  was  registered. 
,,  Wyke  „       Aug.  9th,      „      078 

„  Whatcombe  „       Sept.  26th,    „      1-33  „ 

„   Gillingham  „       Aug.  9th,      „      0'85  „ 

,,  Kushmore  „       Aug.  18th,     ,,      1*18  „ 

The  rainlessness  of  the  month  of  February  will  be  evident  from 
a  perusal  of  the  adjoining  table.  The  small  number  of  days  on 
which  rain  fell  during  this  month  is  also  noticeable — e.g.,  appre- 
ciable rain  was  registered  only  on 

7  clays  at  Wyke 

6  ,,        Bloxworth 
5       ,,        Whatcombe 

7  ,,        Rushmore 

7       „        Shaftesbury 
9       ,,        Gillingham 



Dorset  Natural  History  and 
Archaeological  Society